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ballet resume afore you ride ’em. The cover letter is as important as the resume itself, and is perhaps the most consequential letter a dancer writes (for many dancers it's the only letter they ever write.) Often your first contact with the director, a well-written cover letter makes the how to write book references, most of that all-important first impression. It can significantly improve your chances for an audition by generating excitement and interest. If poorly written, it can be devastating to an otherwise well-formulated self-marketing campaign. Few dancers invest enough time and care in preparing the abstracts on special education teachers, cover letter. Many even omit it entirely. This is a serious mistake. A resume arriving on the directors’ desk without a cover letter that explains why it is being sent leaves the director wondering what the exact intent of the write in thesis, dancer is; it is not always obvious.

Does she want to audition for the school? Does she want to audition for the company? Is she coming tommorow? Does she want me to call her? Should I throw this resume away? These are some questions that might pop-up if you don't include a cover letter. So never underestimate the power of the cover letter. Since your future job may be riding on it, take the time and care necessary to personal length, write this crucial element of your resume package.

Make the most of this chance to stir interest in you as a possible new member of the company. Basically, a cover letter does three things: Serves as a transmittal letter for your resume. Introduces you and your outstanding dance achievements to the director. Generates interest in in thesis, you and writing teen compels the director to take an action that will put you closer to an audition. How To Write? Understand, your cover letter not only introduces you, your resume, and your experience to the director, but also acts as a sales letter which convinces the director you have something valuable to help me do, offer the company.

The appearance of the cover letter should be as flawless as the resume, because it also makes a statement about how to book references you to your prospective employer. If it is sloppy, rushed, and unfocused, it will imply that your dancing is sloppy and unfocused. It may also suggest that you are lazy and have little self-respect. Personal Length Picture? It’s as if you showed up at an audition wearing torn tights and a smelly, ragged leotard. Have some self-respect! A well-written cover letter will also suggest that you are professional, diligent, and how to write book in thesis confident. A business letter contains the following elements in the order of their appearance on the letter: 1. Return address- The return address is single-spaced and, depending on the length of the letter, about quadrangle shape five to ten lines from the top of the page. It is flush with the right margin. 2. How To Write Book In Thesis? Date- The date of the personal statement length picture, letter is positioned on the next line below the return address. The month is capitalized and never abbreviated. 3. Address- This includes the name of the person to whom the letter is how to write, sent, his or her title, the name of the company, and paper teen the organization’s full mailing address.

4. Salutation- This is write book, a greeting to the person whom you are writing. For example: Don’t use the director’s first name unless you have been introduced in person and are on a first-name basis. Even then, weigh the closeness of your relationship before following this practice. Use a colon if you have never met the person and use a comma if you have. Try to avoid such salutations as: There is no reason to use such impersonal greetings. It is important to help quadrangle shape, show interest in the company, and with a minimum effort you can find the name of the director. 5. Body- The body of the letter starts two spaces beneath the salutation, and contains your message to the director. The text is how to in thesis, single-spaced, with a double space between paragraphs. (More on this important part of the cover letter later.) 6. Homework Help Quadrangle? Closing- Sincerely, Sincerely yours, and Most sincerely are appropriate closings for use with persons who are unknown to write book references, you.

Best wishes, Yours, and teen rebellion Best regards are somewhat informal and normally reserved for persons with whom you have a fairly close relationship. How To? The closing is always followed by a comma and the first letter is always capitalized. 7. The signature line- The signature line is always flush with the closing and at four to six lines below it. Writing The Work And Life Of Alfred Wegener? It is your full name, with middle initial if applicable. Sign your full name unless you are on familiar terms with the addressee. In this case, just signing your first name or nickname often softens the how to write book in thesis, formal nature of a business letter. The Elements of an Effective Cover Letter. The introduction must not only shape establish your interest in employment, but grab the reader’s attention and compel him or her to read further. Here is how to write book in thesis, where your research pays off.

Anything you can do to writing and violence, make the letter more personalized and less like a form letter will make the how to write book, letter more interesting for the director to help shape, read. In the introduction, it’s also wise to indicate your intentions (reason for writing); this will help the director by making it easy to how to write book in thesis, understand how you might help him or her. Do not be afraid to clearly indicate the position you want to audition for, especially if you omitted the objective section on your resume. Not only is it less cryptic, it indicates firm goals, confidence, and an awareness of your level. Use personal contacts to statement picture, open the letter, with paragraphs, such as: During a recent discussion with Truman Jones, I became aware of your desire to how to write book in thesis, engage a tall, male principal dancer to partner my former colleague Susan Slipper. I am interested in talking with you about dissertation education for all teachers that position.

Use specific information about the company to create introductory paragraphs, like: I read the article on your company in the December issue of Dance Magazine about your interest in developing young talent and bringing European works to Ballet Washington. As an references enthusiastic young dancer who also loves the quadrangle shape, works of Cranks and how to in thesis Chilean, I found this article unusually interesting and it prompts me to ask for an audition with your company. Don’t underestimate the writing the work wegener, value of a well-written compliment, such as: I have been watching Tanz Munchen transform into a world-class company under your direction, and references I admire its position as the leading dance company in Germany. For All? I would like to be a part of this exciting company and feel that I can further strengthen your ensemble. Enclosed, therefore, please find my photos and resume. It should be clear by now how an imaginative use of research in how to in thesis, the opening paragraph of the cover letter will create interest, give a good first impression, and serve you rather nicely in your quest for employment. The next two paragraphs do two things.

One paragraph describes professional experience which might be of value to the target director, and motivates him or her to invite you for an audition. The second paragraph is dedicated to help, giving a brief summary of dance education and how to book references in thesis experience, and might include the number of years you have danced or the teachers with whom you have studied. These two paragraphs provide your main opportunity to market yourself and address the reasons you would be useful to the director. Don’t be afraid to highlight or repeat information that is already included on your resume. Stress your qualifications and enthusiasm in a personal manner. So you’ve said you want to personal, audition.

You’ve mentioned your qualifications. Now what? The next paragraph is very important, because it compels the reader to take some kind of action that will help you get an audition. Here are some examples of action statements: Please have your assistant call me if you are interested in seeing my performance video. I would appreciate the opportunity to audition for your company during my planned trip to Atlanta, and will call you next week to determine your interest and, if appropriate, to arrange for the meeting. Should you have an opening in your company, I would welcome the opportunity to work with you in class, so you may determine if I am appropriate for your choreography.

I can be reached at (415) 945-9584, and look forward to hearing from you. Even if it’s simply to tell the secretary to expect your call, this significant paragraph forces the director to take an action, . More importantly, it indicates further communication which might save your resume from the dreaded #34;permanent file#34; where it will have little chance of being seen by the director again. Most directors and choreographers are extremely busy, and write references in thesis it is a matter of courtesy to express your appreciation for the time they are taking to dissertation abstracts education, review your audition material. See the sample cover letters for some closing paragraph examples. Try to avoid the words #34;thank you in advance for. #34; Thank the director for how to book reading the cover letter or for considering you for an audition, or simply thank him or her. 1. Thank you for your consideration. 2. I appreciate your time and consideration. 4. Thank you for your consideration, and personal statement picture I look forward to how to book, hearing from help me do, you.

A good cover letter incorporates all of the book references, above elements. Homework Quadrangle? The letter is always typed and has an attractive overall appearance. It uses proper grammar and punctuation, and how to write book in thesis has perfect spelling. The text is homework help, concise and does not ramble on. There is no bragging or use of gross exaggerations, nor is the tone too humble or falsely modest. Instead, a job- winning cover letter sounds confident and how to write book in thesis professional without seeming to be aggressive and pushy. Make sure you proofread the my research and life wegener, letter as you do your resume. Check once for content, once for grammar, and once for typing mistakes and misspelled words.

Have someone else read it. Read it backwards often helps find mistakes that were missed.

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How to write book references in thesis

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During spring everyday something new is write book born from a beautiful flower to a buzzing bee. The plants and trees begin to homework help shape, wither in in thesis, autumn as the writing my research teen and violence, days grow longer and cooler. Though, autumn and spring are similar seasons , they have many drastic differences such as climate, holidays, and write book references, changes in. Autumn , Autumn leaf color , Color 831 Words | 3 Pages. DESCRIBE YOUR FAVORITE SEASON There are four beautiful seasons in dissertation abstracts on special teachers, a year in references, Vietnam that are spring, summer, . autumn and winter. Each of the seasons has many typical exciting characters which contribute variety of attractive scenes, interesting activities and colourful clothes to people. However, I like autumn most for 4 reasons.

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I also enjoy going and watching Georgia football games on Saturday. The fall weather. A Great Way to writing my research the work of alfred, Care , American football , Autumn 514 Words | 1 Pages. strategies to create characters. * Write a list, titled with the character's name, and write all the how to write, attributes you can think of, from their position . in the orchestra to their favorite color. You should know as much as possible about can someone do my essay community location boundaries small area of california your characters, from what their central motivations are to what their favorite foods are. You won’t include all this information in your story, but the more you know, the more your characters will come to life, both for you and for the reader. * Make sure. Debut albums , Essay , Fiction 1808 Words | 7 Pages. My Favorite Chinese Festival The Mid- autumn is my favorite Chinese festival. How To References. It always . falls on the 15th day of August, but this year is on 29th September. “This wonderful tale is help my essay free a depiction of write a Chinese family coming together and preparing to celebrate the moon with a nighttime picnic that embraces their Chinese customs with glowing lanterns and writing my research paper and violence, includes traditional dishes, such as the moon cakes, pomelos, and tea.”(LIN 94) A few days before the festival, everyone in the family will help to.

Chang'e , Chinese calendar , Han Chinese 1052 Words | 3 Pages. April 26, 2013 My Favorite Place Have you ever thought about how to how the education, place you live seem to write, have lack of places to go? Is . it really inconvenient to get to help me do, places? And sometimes when you go somewhere, you have to worry about the how to book, weather. Where would you go? Whether it's your own home, small town, or a vacation site, everybody has a favorite place. Writing My Research Paper And Life. Some people like loud places to have fun, while others like quite and serenity places to relax. Write References In Thesis. If I had to choose my favorite place, it would be. Climate , Ferris wheel , Meteorology 920 Words | 3 Pages. ? My First Train Journey Travelling is personal statement length my hobby and last year I had a chance to references, experience my first train journey . from personal length picture Dhaka to Rangpur with my parents. References In Thesis. We arrived at the Kamlapur Railway Station at 7.00 a.m. to catch the 7.30 express train to Rangpur.

Crowds had started gathering at dissertation abstracts the ticketing counter to buy tickets and how to write book references, there were long queues. Fortunately, we had bought our tickets two days earlier, so we went straight to the platform. There, we waited for the train and saw many people rushing. 2003 Cricket World Cup , Garden , Sachin Dev Burman 1874 Words | 5 Pages. My Favorite Website is Rollingstone As s fan of music, movies, TV and homework help quadrangle, just about all things pop culture it . was hard for me to choose which was my favorite website. References In Thesis. In this day and age, any and all information is just a click away. I chose a website that gives me access to all of these things and more,

As I subscriber to the magazine since 1997, I remember getting excited when they day came every 2 weeks or so (depending on the US postal service) when a new Rolling. Elvis Presley , Hunter S. Thompson , Jann Wenner 1322 Words | 3 Pages. hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh My Favorite Person something good to say about everyone. Micah is a blessing to me and writing my research teen, will . always be on the most favorite people. With all his wittiness and write book in thesis, good looks, he is truly. Premium My Favorite Teacher all ways or I may also have misunderstood them. Homework Help. However, the teacher that I chose as deserving of the My Favorite Teacher earned this title due to the care he showed. Premium Favorite Place the how to write, kids swim. Alton Brown , Climate , Climate change 525 Words | 3 Pages. March 8, 2012 Autumn : A Beautiful Season Summer months are filled with the warmth of the can someone do my essay location boundaries small of california, sun, families going on write references vacations, . swimming in cool lakes, and writing paper and violence, having barbeques with friends.

Winter entices the inner child in write book references in thesis, us with the thought of ruthless snowball fights, sledding uncontrollably down steep hills, hitting the ski slopes, and building snowmen and snow angels. The season that is most appealing to length picture, me though, is fall. The beautiful transition between hot and cold, autumn brings vibrant colors. Autumn , Camping , Daylight saving time 837 Words | 3 Pages. My favorite teacher was scary and book in thesis, mean -- but only in the eyes of homework shape those who had never been in her classroom. Those of how to write book references us who were . her students encouraged the rumors and dissertation education for all teachers, bolstered our reputations for bravery, secure in the knowledge that she would protect and defend us with every ounce of her being, because we were her students. What kind of teacher inspires such trust? The best kind!

The other day a local newspaper columnist, the survivor of an abusive childhood, wrote about book references a teacher who had. Zero tolerance 706 Words | 3 Pages. about my three favorite breeds of dogs. THESIS: Any dog can make a great pet but my favorites are . chihuahuas, boston terriers and boxers. INTRODUCTION I. Attention Material: I have been an animal lover since I was a small child, but dogs are my favorite of can someone essay community and geographical in a area all animals.

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-Here are some guidelines for writing a descriptive essay: Take time to brainstorm If your instructor asks you to describe your favorite . food, make sure that you jot down some ideas before you begin describing it. For instance, if you choose pizza, you might start by writing down a few words: sauce, cheese, crust, pepperoni, sausage, spices, hot, melted, etc. Once you have written down some words, you can begin by write book references compiling descriptive lists for help my essay smoke, each one. Use clear and concise language. How To References In Thesis. . Chicken , Cooking , Fried chicken 848 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: CHARMED: MY FAVORITE TV SHOW Charmed: My Favorite TV Show Tolby Markham Kaplan . University LS 526-01: Academic and Professional Writing for Graduate Students CHARMED: MY FAVORITE TV SHOW Charmed: My Favorite TV Show Charmed, I’m sure! Are you? Charmed is the story of The Charmed Ones – the most powerful good witches the statement length, world has ever known, whose job is to protect the innocent and not blow their cover. When their grandmother, Grams, suffers a heart attack, Prue. Alyssa Milano , Charmed , Holly Marie Combs 1143 Words | 4 Pages.

ENGLISH COMP.2. ASSIGN 2 | A Description | | A description about my favorite desserts. | | Mrs. Mirelle Jayawardene | . 3/10/2013 | | My Favorite Desserts Everybody has their favorite games, cars and meals. Also everyone has their desserts and I have mine. All my favorite desserts have one thing in common they all are made with one ingredient that is “Chocolate”. Mmm!! Chocolate Desserts! I honestly believe that chocolate is the closest we can get to heaven as mortals, seriously. Butter , Chocolate , Custard 780 Words | 3 Pages. ?Zachary Tonyes WRT 040 Ms. How To Write References In Thesis. Rosen 11-4-14 Favorite season All the seasons of the me do my essay, year have special qualities, but . winter is without a doubt my favorite season . One of the reasons i enjoy winter is because of the beautiful snow and all the activities you can do with it.

Another reason why I love winter is because my family loves making the best of the write book in thesis, holidays, bringing such happiness between everyone in my family. Winter break is a great time for help me do, me to in thesis, get away from writing my research paper and life reality for some time and to. Clam chowder , Family , New England 611 Words | 3 Pages. Today I am here to share one of my favorite place in world. This place is one of miraculous blessing given by book in thesis mother earth to personal length picture, all . living things. I am so fond of this place that I see it in my dreams. Kereala, it was celebrated as a 'Paradise Found' - one of the how to write book references, ten in the world. A perfect description for a land renowned as God's Own Country. And Life. There is different charm in its backwaters, beaches, Ayurveda health holidays, hill stations, wildlife, festivals, monuments and vibrant art forms, it’s amazing.

Asia , Earth , English-language films 1308 Words | 4 Pages. McDonald’s, My Favorite Restaurant McDonald’s is a fast food restaurant chain and “has over 32,000 locations in how to book references, more than 100 . countries around the globe” (McDonald’s website). It is the work and life of alfred wegener one of most popular fast food restaurants in how to write book, the world, and preferred by a lot of people. The restaurants are very modern and cozy and my research paper the work and life of alfred wegener, always have a place for children to play in. It is also known for their Happy Meals, which contains a hamburger, french fries and the always desired toy.

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A tense of write mind in life force people to think about the place that they can truly relax. In many people’s lives, a travel is the best option for relaxation. Specially, middle class people who live in the bay area and be under high pressure of work, perhaps they need to have a. Dollar , Halong Bay , Pound sterling 1137 Words | 3 Pages. ?Anthony Leon EngWr300 Shapiro March 1, 2015 My favorite childhood place I was separated from my family at a . young age. When I was 7 my family and I moved to Vallejo because of my father’s job.

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Each pine tree has . very unique poses: some grow straight, fall more to the left or tilt more to the right. One tree has at least seven major braches; moreover, each branch is covered by book in thesis the thickness green color of the leaves. The leaves are very pointy and sharp as needles. The smell of pine gives you the touch of relaxation from nature. Homework Help Shape. Pine trees grow as a group, as if they were a united. Family , Father , Love 1269 Words | 3 Pages. Ever since I was a little boy, pizza has always had a special place in my heart.

From pizza day in the school cafeteria to pizza parties at . sleep away camp, there was nothing more exciting than when that cardboard box was opened to reveal a round pie with eight delicious slices waiting to be devoured. How To Book References In Thesis. Early on writing I learned that everybody eats their pizza differently. Write References In Thesis. There are those who fold their slices in half, those who eat their slices with two hands, and those who (dare I say) like to help my essay smoke free, cut their. Calzone , Campania , Italian cuisine 2393 Words | 6 Pages. withering plants and a new lease of life .to all living creatures. That is why even the gods worship the rising sun. SNOWFALL I awaken, my . feet cold under the sheets. How To Book References. The room is teen rebellion and violence strangely quiet as I slip out of bed and look out the book references in thesis, window.

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A New Day Has Come I have never been a person who looks at art and enjoys it. My favorite artwork is how to book references Gottfried Helnweint . Boulevard of Broken Dreams. But when ask to write about my favorite art piece, that didn’t come to mind. I watch a show called So You Think You Can Dance and on help smoke free June 18, 2008 I saw a Viennese Waltz performed that has stayed in my mind. For me art is how to book in thesis something that gets you thinking and feeling in on special, a way that you might not have before. Everything from the music to the lighting. Celine Dion , Dance , Emotion 998 Words | 3 Pages. It all began in the summer of 1988 when my parents packed up our car. We began our countless hour journeys from Youngstown, Ohio to FaHoLo Deaf . Family Camp in Grass Lake, Michigan. The excitement and thrill that would rush through my veins when going to FAHOLO sent visions to my head about who I would see first, where I would be staying, what I would be doing, and to what fun places I would go. You are never too old to go to FAHOLO, there is how to book references in thesis always something to do no matter what age you are.

Although. 2007 singles , Astronomical seeing , English-language films 1475 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Favorite Film If you're like me a person who like action, then the movie Bad Boys 2 would be one of my highly . recommended films to writing my research and life, see. Actors Will Smith and Martin Lawrence play as two Narcotic Detectives in how to write references, the big city of Los Angeles. These detectives make they biggest bust when they get involved with this case involving this dangerous crime mob boss. One of the reasons I love this movie so much is because it shows how no matter what our daytime job is length we still are sensitive. American film actors , Bad Boys , Bad Boys II 586 Words | 3 Pages. painting Autumn Rhythm 1950 by Jackson Pollock.

When I first saw the painting, I knew from the start that this was the masterpiece perfect for . this project. How To Book References In Thesis. My initial response to this painting was confusion. I did not understand it; I did not know what I was looking at. Do My And Geographical Boundaries In A Area. I thought to myself, is there something I’m supposed to book, look for? It seemed impossible to find something due to the numerous slobs of paint everywhere. Writing My Research Paper Teen Rebellion. I did not understand how this could even be a masterpiece. After my confusion. Abstract expressionism , Action painting , Autumn 1471 Words | 4 Pages. As a teen, I was not much into movies, which always got my parents concerned.

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Critical Analysis of writing my research paper rebellion and violence Ode to Autumn. was inspired to write “Ode to Autumn ” after walking through the water meadows of Winchester, England, in an early autumn evening . of how to write references 1819. The poem has three stanzas of eleven lines describing the taste, sights and sounds of autumn . Much of the third stanza, however, is paper rebellion and violence dedicated to how to book, diction, symbolism, and do my essay and geographical in a small of california, literary devices with decisively negative connotations, as it describes the end of the day and the end of autumn . How To Write References. The author makes an intense description of help me do autumn at least at first sight. The. Denotation , John Keats , Ode on a Grecian Urn 1189 Words | 4 Pages.

Corina Termini. My favorite movie: “The Notebook” Movies give you inspiration to how to references, do or change many things in Life. This is a . huge benefit on watching movies because they often give you something to learn from, you can see probably how a bad decision can change you life forever, how people influence can sometimes be bad for you, how everyone is capable of good thing in life, how by working hard you can achieve you goals, etc. So, trough movies you can get motivated and writing my research rebellion and violence, look forward in your life. English-language films , Horror film , Love 973 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Janene A. How To Book. Davison – sample outline . Pick Three Presentation Outline Topic Choice: My favorite sport: baseball . Introduction Topic sentence previewing main ideas: Main Idea #1 My favorite sport is baseball. Though I’ve never played the sport I still have an appreciation for it because it brings my family together, there’s always a game to watch, and it’s a great form of entertainment. Support detail: It’s a family affair • • • Main Idea #2 Support detail: It’s played March-October. Chicago Cubs , Houston Astros , Major League Baseball 265 Words | 1 Pages. PART A: OUTLINE: I. DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY: Outline: Introduction: Holiday celebrations are often a very fun and festive time with my family. . One such holiday is Tet holiday of year. Many families have fun days filled with love, gift sharing, eating, fun times and laughs.

In my family the entire family gathers at my grandparent’s home. Body paragraph: Decoration: - Outside: + Lights + Flowers + Parallel sentences . Family , Grandparent , Ho Chi Minh 830 Words | 4 Pages. My Familiar Escape In the story “The Way to Rainy Mountain,” by help me do smoke free N. How To Write In Thesis. Scott Momaday, Momaday relates to his special place which is Rainy . Mountain. It holds the harshest weather on help quadrangle earth, but is still spectacularly beautiful to him. Write Book In Thesis. There is personal length picture a place I love as well, and find myself looking forward to every year.

I count the write in thesis, days until I hop on the plane to reach my destination. I have nearly memorized every detail of my exquisite paradise and feel my “home away from abstracts for all teachers home” is equally as excited to receive. Arecaceae , Hawaii , Humidity 1179 Words | 3 Pages. ODE TO AUTUMN John Keats This poem, an ode, is the last of Keats’ odes. In it, the how to book, poet exhibits a rich mood of can someone essay community location and geographical boundaries in a area serenity by how to book references describing . autumn as a season of mellow fruitfulness – a season of ripeness and homework help quadrangle, fulfillment. This ode is known for book in thesis, its remarkable sensuous beauty that is personal statement picture crafted by how to references in thesis employment of several visual, tactile and auditory imageries together with the can someone location and geographical in a of california, personification of autumn as a woman engaged in how to write book in thesis, various autumnal activities. Writing My Research Teen Rebellion. In the first stanza, the poet has described the. Apple , Autumn , Fruit 1516 Words | 6 Pages. Autumn is my favorite season because of the references, colorful display of fall foliage and the . Dissertation On Special For All. autumn festivities all around.

Autumn , also known as fall, is a season of change. This is the time of year when outdoor temperatures begin to drop, days become shorter, nights become longer, but, somehow, we seem to how to book in thesis, find more time to writing, spend with our family and friends. Wonderful childhood memories come flooding back to me of scenic trips through the how to book, mountains, carving pumpkins, and many fall festivities I was blessed. Autumn , Autumn leaf color , Leaf 598 Words | 2 Pages. In my stay here, in the University of the education teachers, Philippines, Los Banos, I can say that I have encountered things that I had never met before. I met . new friends, new classmates, new teachers, new environment, and so much more that I have to adjust to. One of the things that I just knew from my stay here, in the university, is the study of Human Ecology. How To. In this campus, I was given the subject HUME10. I had lots of impression about this subject before the homework help quadrangle shape, start of classes.

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I looked outside at can someone essay in a the vibrant sun causing beams of. Blue , Green , Humidity 1245 Words | 3 Pages. Southeast for references, Miss Cherokee Survivor. We also have the Easyriders tour truck and free, two concerts featuring national acts. The event is held rain or shine, and . there is a minimal fee for the three-day event. With that, I will tell you about my most recent time away with my husband. Book References. I will tell you about the scenic route that we take to dissertation abstracts on special, get to Cherokee, North Carolina. We go through Ellijay then Blue Ridge.

We go through the how to book references in thesis, Gorge where we usually stop and watch the people in canoes and rafts go. Blue Ridge Parkway , Cherokee , Comma splice 1488 Words | 4 Pages. ? My favorite season is fast approaching. Around this time of year I always look forward to gazing out . my window or walking along the sidewalks just to admire the illuminating glow and beauty of Nature’s first signs of its cyclic life. Though I always know what to expect from each season , I never cease to be amazed by homework help the wonders of how to references Nature. Autumn is a special season . Paper And Life Of Alfred Wegener. To me, it narrates a beautiful story.

It begins with a soft, subtle change in the atmosphere; a breeze sweeping coolly through the. 2003 albums , 2004 albums , As Time Goes By 487 Words | 2 Pages. by decorating eggs, visits from the Easter Bunny and write references, egg hunts. Great Britain has additional, popular Easter customs, such as egg rolling: rolling . hard-boiled eggs down hills in a competition. Autumn Holidays * The differences between American and British holidays is especially evident during the autumn , although both countries celebrate Halloween in the same way, by dressing up in costumes, bobbing for apples, and paper rebellion and violence, going trick-or-treating. Thanksgiving isn't celebrated in Great Britain. Americans. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 943 Words | 3 Pages. The Seasons of the Year. My Favourite Season.

The Seasons of the Year. My Favourite Season . It's a universal truth that every season is . beautiful in its own way. Isn't it wonderful to tramp down the country lanes on book references in thesis a frosty winter day. Everything is white with snow and it crunches under your feet. The rime sparkles on the branches and the icicles like precious diamonds hang from the roofs of the houses. It's a merry time for both children and grownups. They can go skating and skiing, sledging and having a fight with snowballs or making. Autumn , Rain , Season 576 Words | 2 Pages. March 20th 2013, I woke up and directly drove to the Leith Honda dealership to can someone do my essay community location and geographical boundaries small area, fix my car. Write Book In Thesis. While it was being fixed, I noticed an Infiniti . dealership.

I walked there to browse some cars, just to kill time. As soon as set foot onto the dealership I found the most breath – taking and luxurious sports car. I took a peek inside the window and was astounded. Sometimes they say you can fall in love at dissertation abstracts education first sight, here I found my first love the Infiniti G37 IPL. According to Twitchell objects that you own forms. Automobile , Brake , Driving 965 Words | 3 Pages. success and I'll admit, it really put me off reading the rest of the books. When something gets that big and that scary with that many dedicated fans, it's . both a good thing and a bad thing.

I couldn't imagine loving it that much and it made me question my ability as a reader, not even a reviewer! What was I missing? So, when I spied these gorgeous new covers, I threw caution to the wind and references, succumbed. I sat down with Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone and read it from cover to cover and. Harry Potter , Harry Potter and essay and geographical of california, the Goblet of Fire , Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone 800 Words | 3 Pages. ? My most cherished nursing theory is Florence Nightingale's hypothesis of adjustment. Progression of wellbeing could . be attributed to her theory of nursing practice. It is surprising how her speculation applies to particularly each and every part of today's nursing. She cared for people and wanted to improve their quality of write references in thesis life.

The focus of help me do smoke free nursing in this model is to alter the patient's environment in order to affect change in his or her health. The environmental factors. Florence , Florence Nightingale , Notes on Nursing 817 Words | 4 Pages.

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Literary Theory and write book Schools of Criticism. A very basic way of writing my research and violence, thinking about literary theory is that these ideas act as different lenses critics use to view and talk about art, literature, and even culture. These different lenses allow critics to consider works of art based on write, certain assumptions within that school of me do my essay smoke, theory. The different lenses also allow critics to focus on particular aspects of a work they consider important. For example, if a critic is working with certain Marxist theories, s/he might focus on how to references in thesis, how the characters in help shape a story interact based on their economic situation. If a critic is working with post-colonial theories, s/he might consider the same story but look at how characters from colonial powers (Britain, France, and even America) treat characters from, say, Africa or the Caribbean. Hopefully, after reading through and working with the how to write book in thesis resources in this area of the OWL, literary theory will become a little easier to understand and use. Please note that the schools of literary criticism and their explanations included here are by no means the only ways of distinguishing these separate areas of theory.

Indeed, many critics use tools from two or more schools in homework help quadrangle their work. Some would define differently or greatly expand the (very) general statements given here. Our explanations are meant only as starting places for your own investigation into literary theory. We encourage you to use the list of scholars and works provided for write book references each school to further your understanding of these theories. We also recommend the following secondary sources for study of literary theory:

The Critical Tradition: Classical Texts and Contemporary Trends , 1998, edited by David H. Richter Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide , 1999, by homework Lois Tyson Beginning Theory , 2002, by Peter Barry. Although philosophers, critics, educators and book references in thesis authors have been writing about writing since ancient times, contemporary schools of literary theory have cohered from help my essay these discussions and now influence how scholars look at how to write book, and write about literature. The following sections overview these movements in critical theory. Though the timeline below roughly follows a chronological order, we have placed some schools closer together because they are so closely aligned. Moral Criticism, Dramatic Construction ( 360 BC-present) Formalism, New Criticism, Neo-Aristotelian Criticism (1930s-present) Psychoanalytic Criticism, Jungian Criticism(1930s-present) Marxist Criticism (1930s-present) Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present) Structuralism/Semiotics (1920s-present) Post-Structuralism/Deconstruction (1966-present) New Historicism/Cultural Studies (1980s-present) Post-Colonial Criticism (1990s-present) Feminist Criticism (1960s-present) Gender/Queer Studies (1970s-present) Critical Race Theory (1970s-present)

This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and writing my research the work of alfred wegener how they are used in the academy. Moral Criticism and Dramatic Construction ( In Book X of how to in thesis, his Republic , Plato may have given us the abstracts education for all first volley of detailed and lengthy literary criticism. The dialog between Socrates and two of his associates shows the participants of this discussion concluding that art must play a limited and book very strict role in the perfect Greek Republic. Richter provides a nice summary of this point: . poets may stay as servants of the state if they teach piety and virtue, but the dissertation pleasures of art are condemned as inherently corrupting to citizens. (19). One reason Plato included these ideas in his Socratic dialog because he believed that art was a mediocre reproduction of nature: . what artists do. is hold the mirror up to how to write book references in thesis, nature: They copy the appearances of men, animals, and objects in the physical world. and the intelligence that went into its creation need involve nothing more than conjecture (Richter 19). So in short, if art does not teach morality and me do my essay ethics, then it is damaging to its audience, and for Plato this damaged his Republic. Given this controversial approach to art, it's easy to see why Plato's position has an impact on book references, literature and literary criticism even today (though scholars who critique work based on whether or not the story teaches a moral are few - virtue may have an impact on children's literature, however). In Poetics , Aristotle breaks with his teacher (Plato) in the consideration of art. Aristotle considers poetry (and rhetoric), a productive science, whereas he thought logic and physics to dissertation on special, be theoretical sciences, and ethics and write in thesis politics practical sciences (Richter 38). Abstracts On Special Teachers. Because Aristotle saw poetry and drama as means to how to book references, an end (for example, an audience's enjoyment) he established some basic guidelines for authors to follow to achieve certain objectives. To help authors achieve their objectives, Aristotle developed elements of organization and methods for writing effective poetry and can someone do my community location and geographical boundaries in a small drama known as the principles of how to write in thesis, dramatic construction (Richter 39).

Aristotle believed that elements like . language, rhythm, and harmony. as well as . plot, character, thought, diction, song, and spectacle. influence the audience's katharsis (pity and fear) or satisfaction with the work (Richter 39). And so here we see one of the homework shape earliest attempts to explain what makes an book references, effective or ineffective work of literature. Like Plato, Aristotle's views on art heavily influence Western thought. On Special. The debate between Platonists and how to write book references Aristotelians continued . in the Neoplatonists of the second century AD, the Cambridge Platonists of the latter seventeenth century, and the idealists of the romantic movement (Richter 17). Even today, the debate continues, and writing paper teen this debate is no more evident than in some of the discussions between adherents to the schools of criticism contained in this resource. This resource will help you begin the how to write book process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy.

Form Follows Function: Russian Formalism, New Criticism, Neo-Aristotelianism. Formalists disagreed about quadrangle, what specific elements make a literary work good or bad; but generally, Formalism maintains that a literary work contains certain intrinsic features, and the theory . defined and addressed the specifically literary qualities in the text (Richter 699). How To Write Book. Therefore, it's easy to personal picture, see Formalism's relation to Aristotle's theories of dramatic construction. Formalism attempts to treat each work as its own distinct piece, free from its environment, era, and even author. This point of view developed in reaction to . forms of 'extrinsic' criticism that viewed the text as either the book references in thesis product of social and historical forces or a document making an ethical statement (699). Formalists assume that the keys to homework help shape, understanding a text exist within the text itself, (. the how to in thesis battle cry of the personal picture New Critical effort. and thus focus a great deal on, you guessed it, form (Tyson 118). For the most part, Formalism is no longer used in the academy. However, New Critical theories are still used in secondary and book college level instruction in literature and even writing (Tyson 115). How does the work use imagery to develop its own symbols? (i.e. making a certain road stand for help death by how to write references constant association) What is the my research paper and life of alfred wegener quality of the how to write references in thesis work's organic unity . the working together of all the parts to make an do my essay location small area, inseparable whole. (Tyson 121)? In other words, does how the work is put together reflect what it is?

How are the various parts of the work interconnected? How do paradox, irony, ambiguity, and tension work in the text? How do these parts and their collective whole contribute to or not contribute to the aesthetic quality of the work? How does the author resolve apparent contradictions within the work? What does the form of the work say about its content? Is there a central or focal passage that can be said to sum up the entirety of the work? How do the rhythms and/or rhyme schemes of a poem contribute to how to write in thesis, the meaning or effect of the piece? Here is a list of writing paper the work of alfred wegener, scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Victor Shklovsky Roman Jakobson Victor Erlich - Russian Formalism: History - Doctrine , 1955 Yuri Tynyanov. John Crowe Ransom - The New Criticism , 1938 I.A. Richards William Empson T.S.

Eliot Allen Tate Cleanth Brooks. Neo-Aristotelianism (Chicago School of Criticism) R.S. Crane - Critics and Criticism: Ancient and Modern , 1952 Elder Olson Norman Maclean W.R. Keast Wayne C. Booth - The Rhetoric of Fiction , 1961. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and how to book references in thesis schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Psychoanalytic Criticism (1930s-present) Psychoanalytic criticism builds on Freudian theories of smoke, psychology. While we don't have the room here to discuss all of how to write book references, Freud's work, a general overview is necessary to explain psychoanalytic literary criticism. The Unconscious, the Desires, and dissertation abstracts education for all teachers the Defenses.

Freud began his psychoanalytic work in how to write book references the 1880s while attempting to treat behavioral disorders in personal length picture his Viennese patients. He dubbed the disorders 'hysteria' and began treating them by listening to his patients talk through their problems. Based on this work, Freud asserted that people's behavior is affected by their unconscious: . the how to notion that human beings are motivated, even driven, by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of which they are unaware. (Tyson 14-15). Freud believed that our unconscious was influenced by childhood events. Freud organized these events into developmental stages involving relationships with parents and drives of desire and pleasure where children focus . on my research of alfred wegener, different parts of the write book references in thesis body. starting with the mouth. shifting to the oral, anal, and phallic phases. (Richter 1015). These stages reflect base levels of homework quadrangle shape, desire, but they also involve fear of loss (loss of genitals, loss of affection from parents, loss of life) and repression: . the expunging from consciousness of these unhappy psychological events (Tyson 15). Tyson reminds us, however, that . repression doesn't eliminate our painful experiences and emotions. we unconsciously behave in how to write references in thesis ways that will allow us to 'play out'. our conflicted feelings about the painful experiences and emotions we repress (15). To keep all of this conflict buried in our unconscious, Freud argued that we develop defenses: selective perception, selective memory, denial, displacement, projection, regression, fear of length picture, intimacy, and how to write book references fear of death, among others. Freud maintained that our desires and our unconscious conflicts give rise to three areas of the mind that wrestle for can someone do my essay community location boundaries in a small of california dominance as we grow from infancy, to childhood, to adulthood:

id - . the location of the drives or libido ego - . one of the write book references major defenses against the power of the drives. and home of the defenses listed above superego - the area of the unconscious that houses Judgment (of self and others) and my research paper and life wegener . which begins to form during childhood as a result of the how to write book in thesis Oedipus complex (Richter 1015-1016) Freud believed that the Oedipus complex was . one of the most powerfully determinative elements in the growth of the personal child (Richter 1016). Write Book References. Essentially, the abstracts Oedipus complex involves children's need for their parents and the conflict that arises as children mature and realize they are not the absolute focus of their mother's attention: the Oedipus complex begins in a late phase of infantile sexuality, between the child's third and write references sixth year, and it takes a different form in males than it does in females (Richter 1016). Freud argued that both boys and girls wish to possess their mothers, but as they grow older . they begin to do my location and geographical in a area of california, sense that their claim to exclusive attention is thwarted by the mother's attention to the father. Book. (1016). Children, Freud maintained, connect this conflict of attention to the intimate relations between mother and father, relations from which the children are excluded.

Freud believed that the result is a murderous rage against essay community small area of california the father. and write book references in thesis a desire to possess the help my essay smoke free mother (1016). Freud pointed out, however, that . the Oedipus complex differs in boys and girls. the functioning of the related castration complex (1016). In short, Freud thought that . during the how to write book in thesis Oedipal rivalry [between boys and homework help quadrangle their fathers], boys fantasized that punishment for their rage will take the form of. castration (1016). Write Book. When boys effectively work through this anxiety, Freud argued, . the boy learns to identify with the father in the hope of someday possessing a woman like his mother. In girls, the dissertation abstracts teachers castration complex does not take the how to book references form of anxiety. the result is a frustrated rage in which the girl shifts her sexual desire from the mother to the father (1016). Freud believed that eventually, the girl's spurned advanced toward the paper teen rebellion and violence father give way to a desire to possess a man like her father later in life. How To In Thesis. Freud believed that the impact of the unconscious, id, ego, superego, the defenses, and the Oedipus complexes was inescapable and that these elements of the mind influence all our behavior (and even our dreams) as adults - of can someone location boundaries in a, course this behavior involves what we write.

So what does all of this psychological business have to write book in thesis, do with literature and the study of my essay smoke free, literature? Put simply, some critics believe that we can . How To Write In Thesis. read psychoanalytically. to see which concepts are operating in help my essay smoke free the text in such a way as to enrich our understanding of the how to work and, if we plan to write a paper about it, to yield a meaningful, coherent psychoanalytic interpretation (Tyson 29). Tyson provides some insightful and applicable questions to help guide our understanding of psychoanalytic criticism. How do the operations of repression structure or inform the work? Are there any oedipal dynamics - or any other family dynamics - are work here? How can characters' behavior, narrative events, and/or images be explained in terms of quadrangle, psychoanalytic concepts of write book references in thesis, any kind (for example. fear or fascination with death, sexuality - which includes love and do my essay location in a small area romance as well as sexual behavior - as a primary indicator of write, psychological identity or the operations of ego-id-superego)? What does the work suggest about the psychological being of its author? What might a given interpretation of homework shape, a literary work suggest about the psychological motives of the reader? Are there prominent words in the piece that could have different or hidden meanings?

Could there be a subconscious reason for the author using these problem words? Here is how to book references a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of writing my research and violence, this theory: Harold Bloom - A Theory of Poetry , 1973; Poetry and Repression: Revisionism from Blake to Stevens , 1976 Peter Brooks Jacque Lacan - The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis , 1988; The Agency of the write references in thesis Letter in the Unconscious or Reason Since Freud (from Écrits: A Selection , 1957) Jane Gallop - Reading Lacan , 1985 Julia Kristeva - Revolution in Poetic Language , 1984 Marshall Alcorn - Changing the Subject in English Class: Discourse and the Constructions of Desire , 2002. Jungian criticism attempts to explore the connection between literature and help my essay smoke free what Carl Jung (a student of Freud) called the “collective unconscious” of the human race: . racial memory, through which the spirit of the whole human species manifests itself (Richter 504). Jungian criticism, closely related to how to write book in thesis, Freudian theory because of do my essay community and geographical boundaries area of california, its connection to psychoanalysis, assumes that all stories and symbols are based on mythic models from mankind’s past. Based on these commonalities, Jung developed archetypal myths, the Syzygy : . a quaternion composing a whole, the unified self of which people are in write book references search (Richter 505). These archetypes are the Shadow, the Anima, the homework Animus, and the Spirit: . beneath. [the Shadow] is the Anima, the feminine side of the male Self, and the Animus, the how to write book references corresponding masculine side of the female Self (Richter 505). In literary analysis, a Jungian critic would look for archetypes (also see the discussion of do my community location area of california, Northrop Frye in the Structuralism section) in creative works: Jungian criticism is generally involved with a search for the embodiment of these symbols within particular works of art. (Richter 505).

When dealing with this sort of write, criticism, it is picture often useful to keep a handbook of mythology and a dictionary of symbols on hand. What connections can we make between elements of the text and the archetypes? (Mask, Shadow, Anima, Animus) How do the characters in the text mirror the how to book references in thesis archetypal figures? (Great Mother or nurturing Mother, Whore, destroying Crone, Lover, Destroying Angel) How does the writing paper the work and life wegener text mirror the archetypal narrative patterns? (Quest, Night-Sea-Journey) How symbolic is the imagery in the work? How does the protagonist reflect the hero of myth? Does the “hero” embark on a journey in either a physical or spiritual sense? Is there a journey to an underworld or land of the dead? What trials or ordeals does the protagonist face? What is the reward for overcoming them?

Here is in thesis a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to can someone small, further your understanding of this theory: Maud Bodkin - Archetypal Patterns in how to write in thesis Poetry , 1934 Carl Jung - The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious . Vol. My Research Paper The Work And Life Of Alfred Wegener. 9, Part 1 of Collected Works . 2nd ed. Trans. R.F.C. Hull, 1968 Bettina Knapp - Music, Archetype and the Writer: A Jungian View , 1988 Ricahrd Sugg - Jungian Literary Criticism , 1993. This resource will help you begin the book process of understanding literary theory and education schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Based on how to, the theories of length, Karl Marx (and so influenced by philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel), this school concerns itself with class differences, economic and otherwise, as well as the implications and complications of the how to write book in thesis capitalist system: Marxism attempts to homework help quadrangle shape, reveal the ways in which our socioeconomic system is the ultimate source of our experience (Tyson 277). Theorists working in the Marxist tradition, therefore, are interested in answering the overarching question, whom does it [the work, the how to book references in thesis effort, the policy, the road, etc.] benefit?

The elite? The middle class? And Marxists critics are also interested in how the help shape lower or working classes are oppressed - in how to book in thesis everyday life and in literature. The Marxist school follows a process of quadrangle shape, thinking called the material dialectic. This belief system maintains that . what drives historical change are the book references material realities of the economic base of society, rather than the ideological superstructure of politics, law, philosophy, religion, and art that is paper of alfred built upon that economic base (Richter 1088). Marx asserts that . stable societies develop sites of resistance: contradictions build into the social system that ultimately lead to how to write book references, social revolution and my research teen rebellion and violence the development of a new society upon the old (1088). This cycle of contradiction, tension, and revolution must continue: there will always be conflict between the upper, middle, and lower (working) classes and book this conflict will be reflected in literature and other forms of expression - art, music, movies, etc.

The continuing conflict between the classes will lead to upheaval and statement revolution by oppressed peoples and form the groundwork for a new order of society and how to write economics where capitalism is abolished. According to Marx, the revolution will be led by the working class (others think peasants will lead the uprising) under the guidance of intellectuals. Once the elite and middle class are overthrown, the intellectuals will compose an equal society where everyone owns everything (socialism - not to statement picture, be confused with Soviet or Maoist Communism). Though a staggering number of how to write book, different nuances exist within this school of literary theory, Marxist critics generally work in areas covered by the following questions. Whom does it benefit if the work or effort is accepted/successful/believed, etc.? What is the social class of the author?

Which class does the work claim to represent? What values does it reinforce? What values does it subvert? What conflict can be seen between the values the work champions and those it portrays? What social classes do the characters represent? How do characters from different classes interact or conflict? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Karl Marx - (with Friedrich Engels) The Communist Manifesto , 1848; Das Kapital , 1867; Consciousness Derived from Material Conditions from The German Ideology, 1932; On Greek Art in my research paper Its Time from A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy , 1859 Leon Trotsky - Literature and Revolution, 1923 Georg Lukács - The Ideology of Modernism, 1956 Walter Benjamin - The Work of Art in the Age of how to write references, Mechanical Reproduction, 1936 Theodor W. Adorno Louis Althusser - Reading Capital , 1965 Terry Eagleton - Marxism and Literary Criticism, Criticism and Ideology , 1976 Frederic Jameson - Marxism and Form, The Political Unconscious , 1971 Jürgen Habermas - The Philosophical Discourse of help quadrangle shape, Modernity , 1990. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present)

At its most basic level, reader response criticism considers readers' reactions to literature as vital to interpreting the meaning of the text. However, reader-response criticism can take a number of different approaches. A critic deploying reader-response theory can use a psychoanalytic lens, a feminists lens, or even a structuralist lens. What these different lenses have in common when using a reader response approach is they maintain . How To References. that what a text is cannot be separated from what it does (Tyson 154). Tyson explains that . reader-response theorists share two beliefs: 1) that the homework shape role of the reader cannot be omitted from our understanding of literature and how to book references in thesis 2) that readers do not passively consume the meaning presented to them by an objective literary text; rather they actively make the meaning they find in me do my essay free literature (154). In this way, reader-response theory shares common ground with some of the deconstructionists discussed in the Post-structural area when they talk about the death of the how to write references author, or her displacement as the (author)itarian figure in the text. How does the interaction of text and reader create meaning? What does a phrase-by-phrase analysis of a short literary text, or a key portion of a longer text, tell us about the reading experience prestructured by the work and life wegener (built into) that text? Do the sounds/shapes of the words as they appear on the page or how they are spoken by how to write references in thesis the reader enhance or change the meaning of the word/work? How might we interpret a literary text to show that the reader's response is, or is analogous to, the topic of the homework help quadrangle story?

What does the body of criticism published about a literary text suggest about the write critics who interpreted that text and/or about the reading experience produced by writing the work and life wegener that text? (Tyson 191) Here is a list of write book in thesis, scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Peter Rabinowitz - Before Reading , 1987 Stanley Fish - Is There a Text in This Class?-The Authority of Interpretive Communities , 1980 Elizabeth Freund - The Return of the Reader: Reader-Response Criticism , 1987 David Bleich Norman Holland - The Dynamics of my essay smoke, Literary Response , 1968 Louise Rosenblatt Wolfgang Iser - The Implied Reader: Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett , 1974 Hans Rober Jauss. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how to write book in thesis how they are used in help me do smoke the academy. Structuralism and how to book references Semiotics (1920s-present) Note: Structuralism, semiotics, and post-structuralism are some of the most complex literary theories to understand. Please be patient. The structuralist school emerges from statement length theories of how to references, language and on special for all teachers linguistics, and it looks for underlying elements in culture and how to book references in thesis literature that can be connected so that critics can develop general conclusions about the individual works and the systems from which they emerge.

In fact, structuralism maintains that . practically everything we do that is specifically human is writing and life wegener expressed in how to write book in thesis language (Richter 809). Structuralists believe that these language symbols extend far beyond written or oral communication. For example, codes that represent all sorts of abstracts, things permeate everything we do: the performance of how to book references in thesis, music requires complex notation. our economic life rests upon the exchange of labor and goods for homework quadrangle symbols, such as cash, checks, stock, and certificates. social life depends on the meaningful gestures and how to write book references signals of dissertation abstracts education, 'body language' and revolves around the exchange of small, symbolic favors: drinks, parties, dinners (Richter 809). Structuralists assert that, since language exists in patterns, certain underlying elements are common to all human experiences. Structuralists believe we can observe these experiences through patterns: . if you examine the physical structures of all buildings built in urban America in 1850 to discover the underlying principles that govern their composition, for write book example, principles of mechanical construction or of artistic form. you are using a structuralist lens (Tyson 197). Moreover, you are also engaged in structuralist activity if you examine the structure of a single building to help shape, discover how its composition demonstrates underlying principles of a structural system. In the first example. you're generating a structural system of classification; in the second, you're demonstrating that an individual item belongs to a particular structural class (Tyson 197).

Structuralism is used in literary theory, for book references in thesis example, . if you examine the structure of a large number of short stories to discover the underlying principles that govern their composition. principles of help me do smoke, narrative progression. or of characterization. you are also engaged in structuralist activity if you describe the structure of a single literary work to discover how its composition demonstrates the write book references in thesis underlying principles of a given structural system (Tyson 197-198). Northrop Frye, however, takes a different approach to structuralism by exploring ways in homework help quadrangle which genres of Western literature fall into his four mythoi (also see Jungian criticism in the Freudian Literary Criticism resource): theory of modes, or historical criticism (tragic, comic, and thematic); theory of symbols, or ethical criticism (literal/descriptive, formal, mythical, and anagogic); theory of myths, or archetypal criticism (comedy, romance, tragedy, irony/satire); theory of genres, or rhetorical criticism (epos, prose, drama, lyric) (Tyson 240). Two important theorists form the framework (hah) of structuralism: Charles Sanders Peirce and how to references in thesis Ferdinand de Saussure. Peirce gave structuralism three important ideas for analyzing the sign systems that permeate and define our experiences: iconic signs, in which the signifier resembles the thing signified (such as the stick figures on washroom doors that signify 'Men' or 'Women'; indexes, in which the signifier is a reliable indicator of the presence of the signified (like fire and smoke); true symbols, in can someone essay location small of california which the signifier's relation to the thing signified is completely arbitrary and conventional [just as the sound /kat/ or the written word cat are conventional signs for the familiar feline] (Richter 810).

These elements become very important when we move into deconstruction in how to book references the Postmodernism resource. Peirce also influenced the semiotic school of structuralist theory that uses sign systems. The discipline of semiotics plays an important role in structuralist literary theory and cultural studies. My Research Paper The Work Of Alfred. Semioticians . How To Write Book References In Thesis. appl[y] structuralist insights to the study of. sign systems. a non-linguistic object or behavior. that can be analyzed as if it were a language (Tyson 205). Specifically, . semiotics examines the ways non-linguistic objects and behaviors 'tell' us something.

For example, the dissertation education for all picture of the reclining blond beauty in the skin-tight, black velvet dress on the billboard. 'tells' us that those who drink this whiskey (presumably male) will be attractive to. beautiful women like the one displayed here (Tyson 205). Lastly, Richter states, semiotics takes off from Peirce - for whom language is one of write references in thesis, numerous sign systems - and structuralism takes off from Saussure, for my research paper and life of alfred wegener whom language was the sign system par excellence (810). Using a specific structuralist framework (like Frye's mythoi). how should the text be classified in terms of its genre? In other words, what patterns exist within the text that make it a part of write, other works like it? Using a specific structuralist framework. analyze the my research the work of alfred wegener text's narrative operations. can you speculate about the relationship between the. [text]. and the culture from which the text emerged? In other words, what patterns exist within the text that make it a product of a larger culture? What patterns exist within the text that connect it to the larger human experience? In other words, can we connect patterns and how to book references in thesis elements within the text to statement length, other texts from how to write references other cultures to map similarities that tell us more about the common human experience?

This is a liberal humanist move that assumes that since we are all human, we all share basic human commonalities What rules or codes of interpretation must be internalized in order to 'make sense' of the text? What are the semiotics of a given category of cultural phenomena, or 'text,' such as high-school football games, television and/or magazine ads for a particular brand of perfume. or even media coverage of an paper teen rebellion and violence, historical event? (Tyson 225) Here is how to in thesis a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to can someone and geographical boundaries in a area, further your understanding of this theory: Charles Sanders Peirce Ferdinand de Saussure - Course in General Linguistics , 1923 Claude Lévi-Strauss - The Elementary Structure of Kinship , 1949; The Structural Study of Myth, 1955 Northrop Frye - Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays , 1957 Noam Chomsky - Syntactic Structures , 1957; Aspects of the write in thesis Theory of Syntax , 1965 Roland Barthes - Critical Essays , 1964; Mythologies , 1957; S/Z , 1970; Image, Music, Text , 1977 Umberto Eco - The Role of the Reader , 1979. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Post-Structuralism, Deconstruction, Postmodernism (1966-present) Note: Structuralism, semiotics, and and geographical boundaries small area post-structuralism are some of the most complex literary theories to understand. Write References In Thesis. Please be patient. This approach concerns itself with the ways and places where systems, frameworks, definitions, and certainties break down. Post-structuralism maintains that frameworks and systems, for example the structuralist systems explained in the Structuralist area, are merely fictitious constructs and personal statement that they cannot be trusted to develop meaning or to give order.

In fact, the very act of write in thesis, seeking order or a singular Truth (with a capital T) is absurd because there exists no unified truth. Post-structuralism holds that there are many truths, that frameworks must bleed, and that structures must become unstable or decentered. Moreover, post-structuralism is also concerned with the power structures or hegemonies and power and how these elements contribute to homework help quadrangle, and/or maintain structures to enforce hierarchy. In Thesis. Therefore, post-structural theory carries implications far beyond literary criticism. By questioning the process of developing meaning, post-structural theory strikes at do my essay location small, the very heart of in thesis, philosophy and reality and throws knowledge making into what Jacques Derrida called freeplay: The concept of centered structure. is contradictorily coherent. the concept of centered structure is in fact the concept of abstracts on special teachers, a freeplay which is references in thesis constituted upon a fundamental immobility and a reassuring certitude, which is itself beyond the reach of the freeplay (qtd. in Richter, 878-879). Derrida first posited these ideas in essay community and geographical in a area 1966 at Johns Hopkins University, when he delivered “Structure, Sign, and write book references Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences”: Perhaps something has occurred in the history of the concept of structure that could be called an 'event,' if this loaded word did not entail a meaning which it is precisely the personal statement picture function of structural-or structuralist-thought to how to write, reduce or to suspect. But let me use the term “event” anyway, employing it with caution and statement length as if in how to write book quotation marks. In this sense, this event will have the exterior form of a rupture and a redoubling” (qtd. in Richter, 878). Dissertation Abstracts Teachers. In his presentation, Derrida challenged structuralism's most basic ideas.

Post-structural theory can be tied to how to write book references in thesis, a move against abstracts education teachers Modernist/Enlightenment ideas (philosophers: Immanuel Kant, Réne Descartes, John Locke, etc.) and how to book references Western religious beliefs (neo-Platonism, Catholicism, etc.). An early pioneer of this resistance was philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. In his essay, “On Truth and Lies in an Extra-moral Sense” (1873), Nietzsche rejects even the very basis of our knowledge making, language, as a reliable system of communication: “The various languages, juxtaposed, show that words are never concerned with truth, never with adequate expression. ” (248). Below is an example, adapted from the Tyson text, of some language freeplay and help me do my essay a simple form of deconstruction: Time (noun) flies (verb) like an book in thesis, arrow (adverb clause) = Time passes quickly.

Time (verb) flies (object) like an homework help, arrow (adverb clause) = Get out your stopwatch and write book in thesis time the speed of flies as you would time an arrow's flight. Time flies (noun) like (verb) an arrow (object) = Time flies are fond of arrows (or at least of one particular arrow). So, post-structuralists assert that if we cannot trust language systems to convey truth, the help my essay very bases of truth are unreliable and how to references the universe - or at least the universe we have constructed - becomes unraveled or de-centered. Nietzsche uses language slip as a base to move into writing my research teen rebellion and violence the slip and shift of truth as a whole: “What is truth? truths are an illusion about which it has been forgotten that they are illusions. ” (On Truth and Lies 250). This returns us to book, the discussion in the Structuralist area regarding signs, signifiers, and signified. Do My Essay Community In A Of California. Essentially, post-structuralism holds that we cannot trust the sign = signifier + signified formula, that there is write book references in thesis a breakdown of certainty between sign/signifier, which leaves language systems hopelessly inadequate for writing my research paper teen rebellion and violence relaying meaning so that we are (returning to Derrida) in how to write references in thesis eternal freeplay or instability. Important to note, however, is paper rebellion that deconstruction is not just about tearing down - this is a common misconception. Derrida, in Signature Event Context, addressed this limited view of book references in thesis, post-structural theory: Deconstruction cannot limit or proceed immediately to help me do, a neutralization: it mustpractice an overturning of the classical opposition and a general displacement of the system. It is only on this condition that deconstruction will provide itself the means with which to intervene in the field of oppositions that it criticizes, which is also a field of nondiscursive forces (328). Derrida reminds us that through deconstruction we can identify the in-betweens and the marginalized to begin interstitial knowledge building. With the resistance to traditional forms of knowledge making (science, religion, language), inquiry, communication, and building meaning take on different forms to the post-structuralist.

We can look at this difference as a split between Modernism and Postmodernism. The table below, excerpted from theorist Ihab Hassan's The Dismemberment of Orpheus (1998), offers us a way to how to write, make sense of some differences between modernism, dominated by Enlightenment ideas, and postmodernism, a space of statement length picture, freeplay and discourse. Keep in mind that even the author, Hassan, . is write book quick to point out how the dichotomies are themselves insecure, equivocal (Harvey 42). Though post-structuralism is uncomfortable with binaries, Hassan provides us with some interesting contrasts to consider: If we are questioning/resisting the statement length picture methods we use to build knowledge (science, religion, language), then traditional literary notions are also thrown into freeplay. These include the narrative and the author:

The narrative is a fiction that locks readers into interpreting text in references a single, chronological manner that does not reflect our experiences. Postmodern texts may not adhere to traditional notions of narrative. For example, in his seminal work, Naked Lunch , William S. Burroughs explodes the traditional narrative structure and critiques almost everything Modern: modern government, modern medicine, modern law-enforcement. Other examples of authors playing with narrative include John Fowles; in the final sections of The French Lieutenant's Woman , Fowles steps outside his narrative to writing paper the work and life wegener, speak with the reader directly. Moreover, grand narratives are resisted. For example, the belief that through science the how to book references human race will improve is questioned. In addition, metaphysics is help shape questioned. Write Book. Instead, postmodern knowledge building is local, situated, slippery, and homework quadrangle shape self-critical (i.e. it questions itself and its role). Write Book References. Because post-structural work is self-critical, post-structural critics even look for ways texts contradict themselves (see typical questions below).

The author is displaced as absolute author(ity), and the reader plays a role in writing paper and life of alfred interpreting the how to write in thesis text and developing meaning (as best as possible) from the text. In “The Death of the Author,” Roland Barthes argues that the help free idea of singular authorship is a recent phenomenon. How To. Barthes explains that the death of the author shatters Modernist notions of authority and my research paper and violence knowledge building (145). Lastly, he states that once the write book references in thesis author is dead and the Modernist idea of singular narrative (and thus authority) is overturned, texts become plural, and the interpretation of texts becomes a collaborative process between author and audience: “. a text is homework made of multiple writings, drawn from many cultures and entering into mutual relations of dialogue. Book. but there is one place where this multiplicity is focused and on special for all teachers that place is the reader” (148). References. Barthes ends his essay by empowering the reader: “Classical criticism has never paid any attention to the reader. the writer is the only person in literatureit is me do my essay smoke necessary to overthrow the myth: the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the how to death of the Author” (148). How is language thrown into freeplay or questioned in help me do my essay the work? For example, note how Anthony Burgess plays with language (Russian vs English) in A Clockwork Orange, or how Burroughs plays with names and how to in thesis language in Naked Lunch.

How does the work undermine or contradict generally accepted truths? How does the quadrangle author (or a character) omit, change, or reconstruct memory and book references identity? How does a work fulfill or move outside the established conventions of its genre? How does the can someone do my community work deal with the separation (or lack thereof) between writer, work, and reader? What ideology does the book references text seem to promote? What is left out of the my research and life of alfred text that if included might undermine the goal of the work?

If we changed the point of view of the text - say from one character to another, or multiple characters - how would the story change? Whose story is not told in how to book references in thesis the text? Who is left out and why might the author have omitted this character's tale? Here is my research paper and violence a list of how to book references, scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of writing my research paper rebellion, this theory: Immanuel Kant - An Answer to the Question: What is how to write book in thesis Enlightenment?, 1784 (as a baseline to understand what Nietzsche was resisting) Friedrich Nietzsche - “On Truth and Lies in an Extra-moral Sense, 1873; The Gay Science , 1882; Thus Spoke Zarathustra, A Book for All and None , 1885 Jacques Derrida - Structure Sign and Play in the Discourse of Human Sciences, 1966; Of Grammatology , 1967; Signature Event Context, 1972 Roland Barthes - The Death of the Author, 1967 Deleuze and Guattari - Rhizome, 1976 Jean-François Lyotard - The Postmodern Condition , 1979 Michele Foucault - The Foucault Reader , 1984 Stephen Toulmin - Cosmopolis , 1990 Martin Heidegger - Basic Writings, 1993 Paul Cilliers - Complexity and Postmodernity , 1998 Ihab Hassan - The Dismemberment of essay community and geographical boundaries in a area, Orpheus , 1998; From Postmodernism to Postmodernity: The Local/Global Context , 2001. William S. Burroughs - Naked Lunch , 1959 Angela Carter - Burning Your Boats , stories from 1962-1993 (first published as a collection in 1995) Kathy Acker - Blood and Guts in High School , 1978 Paul Auster - City of Glass (volume one of the New York City Trilogy), 1985 (as a graphic novel published by Neon Lit, a division of Avon Books, 1994) Lynne Tillman - Haunted Houses , 1987 David Wojnarowicz - The Waterfront Journals , 1996. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy.

New Historicism, Cultural Studies (1980s-present) This school, influenced by how to write book structuralist and post-structuralist theories, seeks to teen rebellion, reconnect a work with the time period in which it was produced and identify it with the cultural and political movements of the time (Michel Foucault's concept of épistème). New Historicism assumes that every work is write references a product of the historic moment that created it. Specifically, New Historicism is . Help Shape. a practice that has developed out of contemporary theory, particularly the structuralist realization that all human systems are symbolic and subject to the rules of language, and the deconstructive realization that there is no way of positioning oneself as an observer outside the closed circle of textuality (Richter 1205). A helpful way of considering New Historical theory, Tyson explains, is to how to write book references in thesis, think about the abstracts on special education teachers retelling of how to book in thesis, history itself: . questions asked by traditional historians and by my research paper the work of alfred new historicists are quite different. traditional historians ask, 'What happened?' and 'What does the event tell us about history?' In contrast, new historicists ask, 'How has the event been interpreted?' and 'What do the how to references interpretations tell us about the dissertation abstracts on special education for all teachers interpreters?' (278). So New Historicism resists the notion that . history is a series of events that have a linear, causal relationship: event A caused event B; event B caused event C; and so on how to write book in thesis, (Tyson 278). New historicists do not believe that we can look at history objectively, but rather that we interpret events as products of our time and culture and that . we don't have clear access to any but the most basic facts of history. our understanding of what such facts mean. is. strictly a matter of interpretation, not fact (279). Moreover, New Historicism holds that we are hopelessly subjective interpreters of what we observe. What language/characters/events present in the work reflect the current events of the shape author’s day? Are there words in the text that have changed their meaning from the time of the writing?

How are such events interpreted and presented? How are events' interpretation and presentation a product of the how to write references in thesis culture of the author? Does the work's presentation support or condemn the event? Can it be seen to do both? How does this portrayal criticize the leading political figures or movements of the day?

How does the literary text function as part of a continuum with other historical/cultural texts from the same period. How can we use a literary work to map the interplay of both traditional and subversive discourses circulating in dissertation abstracts education for all the culture in which that work emerged and/or the cultures in which the work has been interpreted? How does the work consider traditionally marginalized populations? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Michel Foucault - The Order of Things: An Archeology of the Human Sciences , 1970; Language, Counter-memory, Practice , 1977 Clifford Geertz - The Interpretation of Cultures , 1973; Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, 1992 Hayden White - Metahistory , 1974; The Politics of Historical Interpretation: Discipline and De-Sublimation, 1982 Stephen Greenblatt - Renaissance Self-Fashioning: From More to how to write in thesis, Shakespeare , 1980 Pierre Bourdieu - Outline of a Theory of education for all teachers, Practice , 1977; Homo Academicus , 1984; The Field of Cultural Production , 1993. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and write how they are used in the academy. Post-Colonial Criticism (1990s-present)

History is Written by the Victors. Post-colonial criticism is similar to cultural studies, but it assumes a unique perspective on literature and politics that warrants a separate discussion. Specifically, post-colonial critics are concerned with literature produced by colonial powers and works produced by those who were/are colonized. Post-colonial theory looks at issues of power, economics, politics, religion, and culture and how these elements work in relation to colonial hegemony (western colonizers controlling the colonized). Therefore, a post-colonial critic might be interested in works such as Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe where colonial . ideology [is] manifest in Crusoe's colonialist attitude toward the land upon which he's shipwrecked and me do smoke free toward the black man he 'colonizes' and names Friday (Tyson 377). In addition, post-colonial theory might point out that . despite Heart of Darkness's (Joseph Conrad) obvious anti-colonist agenda, the how to write references novel points to the colonized population as the statement length picture standard of savagery to how to book in thesis, which Europeans are contrasted (Tyson 375). Post-colonial criticism also takes the form of literature composed by authors that critique Euro-centric hegemony. Seminal post-colonial writers such as Nigerian author Chinua Achebe and Kenyan author Ngugi wa Thiong'o have written a number of stories recounting the suffering of colonized people. For example, in Things Fall Apart , Achebe details the strife and devastation that occurred when British colonists began moving inland from the Nigerian coast. Rather than glorifying the community and geographical small of california exploratory nature of write book references, European colonists as they expanded their sphere of statement length, influence, Achebe narrates the destructive events that led to how to write book references in thesis, the death and enslavement of thousands of Nigerians when the British imposed their Imperial government. In turn, Achebe points out the writing the work and life negative effects (and shifting ideas of identity and culture) caused by the imposition of western religion and economics on Nigerians during colonial rule.

Post-colonial criticism also questions the role of the western literary canon and in thesis western history as dominant forms of knowledge making. The terms first-world, second world, third world and fourth world nations are critiqued by post-colonial critics because they reinforce the dominant positions of western cultures populating first world status. This critique includes the literary canon and histories written from the perspective of first-world cultures. So, for length picture example, a post-colonial critic might question the how to write book works included in the canon because the canon does not contain works by authors outside western culture. Moreover, the do my community location boundaries in a small of california authors included in the canon often reinforce colonial hegemonic ideology, such as Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness . Write References. Western critics might consider Heart of Darkness an effective critique of colonial behavior. But post-colonial theorists and authors might disagree with this perspective: . as Chinua Achebe observes, the novel's condemnation of European is based on can someone do my essay community location and geographical boundaries in a small of california, a definition of Africans as savages: beneath their veneer of civilization, the Europeans are, the novel tells us, as barbaric as the Africans. How To Write Book. And indeed, Achebe notes, the novel portrays Africans as a pre-historic mass of frenzied, howling, incomprehensible barbarians. (Tyson 374-375). How does the literary text, explicitly or allegorically, represent various aspects of colonial oppression?

What does the writing rebellion and violence text reveal about the problematics of post-colonial identity, including the relationship between personal and cultural identity and such issues as double consciousness and hybridity? What person(s) or groups does the work identify as other or stranger? How are such persons/groups described and treated? What does the text reveal about the politics and/or psychology of anti-colonialist resistance? What does the text reveal about the operations of cultural difference - the ways in which race, religion, class, gender, sexual orientation, cultural beliefs, and customs combine to form individual identity - in shaping our perceptions of ourselves, others, and the world in which we live? How does the text respond to or comment upon the characters, themes, or assumptions of a canonized (colonialist) work? Are there meaningful similarities among the how to write book literatures of homework quadrangle shape, different post-colonial populations? How does a literary text in the Western canon reinforce or undermine colonialist ideology through its representation of colonialization and/or its inappropriate silence about colonized peoples? (Tyson 378-379) Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of write in thesis, this theory: Edward Said - Orientalism , 1978; Culture and Imperialism , 1994 Kamau Brathwaite - The History of the Voice , 1979 Gayatri Spivak - In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics , 1987 Dominick LaCapra - The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and dissertation abstracts on special education Resistance , 1991 Homi Bhabha - The Location of Culture , 1994.

Literature and non-fiction. Chinua Achebe - Things Fall Apart , 1958 Ngugi wa Thiong'o - The River Between , 1965 Sembene Ousman - God's Bits of write, Wood , 1962 Ruth Prawer Jhabvala - Heat and Dust , 1975 Buchi Emecheta - The Joys of Motherhood , 1979 Keri Hulme - The Bone People , 1983 Robertson Davies - What's Bred in the Bone , 1985 Kazuo Ishiguro - The Remains of the Day , 1988 Bharati Mukherjee - Jasmine , 1989 Jill Ker Conway - The Road from Coorain , 1989 Helena Norberg-Hodge - Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakh , 1991 Michael Ondaatje - The English Patient , 1992 Gita Mehta - A River Sutra , 1993 Arundhati Roy - The God of Small Things , 1997 Patrick Chamoiseau - Texaco , 1997. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in personal statement length the academy. Feminist criticism is concerned with . the ways in which literature (and other cultural productions) reinforce or undermine the economic, political, social, and psychological oppression of women (Tyson). This school of write references, theory looks at how aspects of personal length, our culture are inherently patriarchal (male dominated) and . How To Write References. this critique strives to expose the dissertation explicit and how to implicit misogyny in male writing about women (Richter 1346).

This misogyny, Tyson reminds us, can extend into diverse areas of help me do my essay smoke free, our culture: Perhaps the most chilling example. is write book found in personal statement picture the world of modern medicine, where drugs prescribed for both sexes often have been tested on male subjects only (83). Feminist criticism is also concerned with less obvious forms of marginalization such as the exclusion of women writers from the traditional literary canon: . unless the critical or historical point of write, view is feminist, there is dissertation for all teachers a tendency to under-represent the contribution of women writers (Tyson 82-83). Common Space in Feminist Theories. Though a number of different approaches exist in how to write book in thesis feminist criticism, there exist some areas of help quadrangle shape, commonality. In Thesis. This list is excerpted from me do free Tyson: Women are oppressed by references patriarchy economically, politically, socially, and psychologically; patriarchal ideology is the primary means by which they are kept so In every domain where patriarchy reigns, woman is other: she is writing my research teen marginalized, defined only by her difference from male norms and values All of western (Anglo-European) civilization is deeply rooted in patriarchal ideology, for example, in the biblical portrayal of how to write book references, Eve as the origin of my research the work and life, sin and death in how to write book references the world While biology determines our sex (male or female), culture determines our gender (masculine or feminine) All feminist activity, including feminist theory and literary criticism, has as its ultimate goal to change the world by prompting gender equality Gender issues play a part in every aspect of human production and experience, including the production and experience of literature, whether we are consciously aware of my research paper the work and life wegener, these issues or not (91). Feminist criticism has, in many ways, followed what some theorists call the write book in thesis three waves of feminism: First Wave Feminism - late 1700s-early 1900's: writers like Mary Wollstonecraft ( A Vindication of the Rights of Women , 1792) highlight the inequalities between the sexes. Activists like Susan B. Paper Teen. Anthony and book references in thesis Victoria Woodhull contribute to writing paper teen rebellion and violence, the women's suffrage movement, which leads to National Universal Suffrage in 1920 with the passing of the Nineteenth Amendment Second Wave Feminism - early 1960s-late 1970s: building on more equal working conditions necessary in write book references in thesis America during World War II, movements such as the National Organization for Women (NOW), formed in 1966, cohere feminist political activism. Can Someone Community Location In A Small Area Of California. Writers like Simone de Beauvoir ( Le deuxième sexe , 1972) and Elaine Showalter established the write groundwork for the dissemination of feminist theories dove-tailed with the American Civil Rights movement Third Wave Feminism - early 1990s-present: resisting the in a area of california perceived essentialist (over generalized, over simplified) ideologies and a white, heterosexual, middle class focus of second wave feminism, third wave feminism borrows from post-structural and contemporary gender and race theories (see below) to expand on how to references, marginalized populations' experiences.

Writers like Alice Walker work to . reconcile it [feminism] with the concerns of the essay and geographical boundaries of california black community. [and] the survival and wholeness of her people, men and women both, and for the promotion of dialog and community as well as for the valorization of women and of all the varieties of work women perform (Tyson 97). How is the relationship between men and women portrayed? What are the power relationships between men and how to write book in thesis women (or characters assuming male/female roles)? How are male and female roles defined? What constitutes masculinity and femininity? How do characters embody these traits?

Do characters take on traits from opposite genders? How so? How does this change others’ reactions to them? What does the work reveal about the operations (economically, politically, socially, or psychologically) of patriarchy? What does the homework quadrangle work imply about the possibilities of sisterhood as a mode of in thesis, resisting patriarchy?

What does the work say about women's creativity? What does the history of the work's reception by the public and by the critics tell us about the operation of patriarchy? What role the do my essay community location and geographical boundaries in a work play in terms of women's literary history and literary tradition? (Tyson) Here is a list of book references in thesis, scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of writing my research the work and life of alfred wegener, this theory: Mary Wollstonecraft - A Vindication of the Rights of Women , 1792 Simone de Beauvoir - Le deuxième sexe , 1972 Julia Kristeva - About Chinese Women , 1977 Elaine Showalter - A Literature of Their Own , 1977; Toward a Feminist Poetics, 1979 Deborah E. McDowell - New Directions for write Black Feminist Criticism, 1980 Alice Walker - In Search of Our Mother's Gardens , 1983 Lillian S. Robinson - Treason out Text: Feminist Challenges to the Literary Canon, 1983 Camile Paglia - Sexual Personae: The Androgyne in Literature and Art , 1990.

This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Gender Studies and can someone community location boundaries in a of california Queer Theory (1970s-present) Gender(s), Power, and Marginalization. Gender studies and references in thesis queer theory explore issues of writing paper and violence, sexuality, power, and marginalized populations (woman as other) in how to book references literature and culture. Much of the work in gender studies and queer theory, while influenced by feminist criticism, emerges from post-structural interest in abstracts on special education for all teachers fragmented, de-centered knowledge building (Nietzsche, Derrida, Foucault), language (the breakdown of sign-signifier), and psychoanalysis (Lacan). A primary concern in gender studies and queer theory is the manner in which gender and sexuality is discussed: Effective as this work [feminism] was in changing what teachers taught and write references in thesis what the students read, there was a sense on the part of some feminist critics that. it was still the old game that was being played, when what it needed was a new game entirely. The argument posed was that in order to counter patriarchy, it was necessary not merely to think about new texts, but to think about them in radically new ways (Richter 1432).

Therefore, a critic working in gender studies and queer theory might even be uncomfortable with the writing paper and life binary established by book in thesis many feminist scholars between masculine and feminine: Cixous (following Derrida in Of Grammatology ) sets up a series of my research paper, binary oppositions (active/passive, sun/moon. father/mother, logos/pathos). Each pair can be analyzed as a hierarchy in which the former term represents the in thesis positive and masculine and the latter the negative and feminine principle (Richter 1433-1434). Many critics working with gender and queer theory are interested in the breakdown of binaries such as male and female, the in-betweens (also following Derrida's interstitial knowledge building). For example, gender studies and queer theory maintains that cultural definitions of sexuality and what it means to be male and female are in flux: . the distinction between masculine and feminine activities and behavior is constantly changing, so that women who wear baseball caps and fatigues. can be perceived as more piquantly sexy by some heterosexual men than those women who wear white frocks and gloves and look down demurely (Richter 1437). Moreover, Richter reminds us that as we learn more about our genetic structure, the biology of male/female becomes increasingly complex and help my essay free murky: even the physical dualism of how to write book, sexual genetic structures and bodily parts breaks down when one considers those instances - XXY syndromes, natural sexual bimorphisms, as well as surgical transsexuals - that defy attempts at binary classification (1437). What elements of the text can be perceived as being masculine (active, powerful) and feminine (passive, marginalized) and homework help shape how do the characters support these traditional roles?

What sort of write references, support (if any) is given to personal statement length picture, elements or characters who question the masculine/feminine binary? What happens to those elements/characters? What elements in the text exist in the middle, between the perceived masculine/feminine binary? In other words, what elements exhibit traits of both (bisexual)? How does the author present the text? Is it a traditional narrative? Is it secure and forceful? Or is it more hesitant or even collaborative? What are the politics (ideological agendas) of specific gay, lesbian, or queer works, and how are those politics revealed in. the work's thematic content or portrayals of its characters? What are the how to book references poetics (literary devices and strategies) of a specific lesbian, gay, or queer works? What does the work contribute to our knowledge of queer, gay, or lesbian experience and history, including literary history?

How is queer, gay, or lesbian experience coded in texts that are by writers who are apparently homosexual? What does the work reveal about the help quadrangle shape operations (socially, politically, psychologically) homophobic? How does the literary text illustrate the problematics of sexuality and sexual identity, that is the ways in which human sexuality does not fall neatly into the separate categories defined by the words homosexual and heterosexual? Here is how to write references in thesis a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of homework help shape, this theory: Luce Irigaray - Speculum of the Other Woman , 1974 Hélène Cixous - The Laugh of the Medusa, 1976 Laura Mulvey - Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, 1975; Afterthoughts on Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, 1981 Michele Foucault - The History of write references, Sexuality , Volume I, 1980 Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick - Epistemology of the Closet , 1994 Lee Edelman - Homographesis, 1989 Michael Warner Judith Butler - Imitation and Gender Insubordination, 1991.

This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in dissertation abstracts education for all teachers the academy. Ecocriticism is an umbrella term under which a variety of approaches fall; this can make it a difficult term to define. As ecocritic Lawrence Buell says, ecocriticism is an “increasingly heterogeneous movement” (1). But, “simply put, ecocriticism is the study of the how to references relationship between literature and the physical environment” (Glotfelty xviii). Emerging in the 1980s on my essay smoke, the shoulders of the environmental movement begun in the 1960s with the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring , ecocriticism has been and continues to be an “earth-centered approach” (Glotfelty xviii) the complex intersections between environment and culture, believing that “human culture is connected to write book references in thesis, the physical world, affecting it and affected by it” (Glotfelty xix). Can Someone Do My Essay And Geographical Boundaries In A Area. Ecocriticism is interdisciplinary, calling for collaboration between natural scientists, writers, literary critics, anthropologists, historians, and more. Ecocriticism asks us to examine ourselves and the world around us, critiquing the how to write book way that we represent, interact with, and construct the environment, both “natural” and manmade. At the heart of ecocriticism, many maintain, is “a commitment to environmentality from personal length picture whatever critical vantage point” (Buell 11).

The “challenge” for ecocritics is write book “keep[ing] one eye on the ways in personal statement which ‘nature’ is always [] culturally constructed, and the other on the fact that nature really exists” (Gerrard 10). Similar to critical traditions examining gender and race, ecocriticism deals not only with the how to references in thesis socially-constructed, often dichotomous categories we create for reality, but with reality itself. Several scholars have divided Ecocriticism into two waves (Buell)(Glotfelty), recognizing the abstracts education for all teachers first as taking place throughout the eighties and nineties. The first wave is how to book in thesis characterized by its emphasis on nature writing as an object of study and as a meaningful practice (Buell). Central to this wave and to the majority of can someone do my essay location boundaries area, ecocritics still today is the environmental crisis of our age, seeing it as the duty of both the humanities and the natural sciences to raise awareness and invent solutions for a problem that is both cultural and physical. As such, a primary concern in how to references in thesis first-wave ecocriticism was to “speak for” nature (Buell 11). This is, perhaps, where ecocriticism gained its reputation as an “avowedly political mode of writing my research paper, analysis” (Gerrard 3). Write References. This wave, unlike its successor, kept the cultural distinction between human and nature, promoting the statement length value of nature. The second wave is particularly modern in how to its breaking down of some of the long-standing distinctions between the human and the non-human, questioning these very concepts (Gerrard 5). The boundaries between the human and the non-human, nature and writing my research non-nature are discussed as constructions, and ecocritics challenge these constructions, asking (among other things) how they frame the environmental crisis and its solution.

This wave brought with it a redefinition of the term “environment,” expanding its meaning to include both “nature” and the urban (Buell 11). Out of this expansion has grown the ecojustice movement, one of the more political of ecocriticism branches that is “raising an awareness of class, race, and gender through ecocritical reading of text” (Bressler 236), often examining the plight of the poorest of a population who are the victims of write book, pollution are seen as having less access to “nature” in the traditional sense. These waves are not exactly distinct, and there is debate over what exactly constitutes the two. For instance, some ecocritics will claim activism has been a defining feature of ecocriticism from the beginning, while others see activism as a defining feature of primarily the first wave. While the picture exact features attributed to write in thesis, each wave may be disputed, it is clear that Ecocriticism continues to evolve and has undergone several shifts in attitude and direction since its conception. This trope, found in much British and American literature, focuses on the dichotomy between urban and rural life, is “deeply entrenched in Western culture”(Gerrard 33). At the forefront of works which display pastoralism is a general idealization of the nature and dissertation abstracts education teachers the rural and the demonization of the urban. Often, such works show a “retreat” from city life to the country while romanticizing rural life, depicting an idealized rural existence that “obscures” the reality of the hard work living in such areas requires (Gerrard 33).

Greg Gerrard identifies three branches of the pastoral: Classic Pastoral, “characterized by nostalgia” (37) and an appreciation of nature as a place for human relaxation and reflection; Romantic Pastoral, a period after the Industrial Revolution that saw “rural independence” as desirable against the expansion of the how to write book in thesis urban; and American Pastoralism, which “emphasize[d] agrarianism” (49) and represents land as a resource to be cultivated, with farmland often creating a boundary between the urban and the wilderness. An interesting focus for many ecocritics is the way that wilderness is represented in literature and popular culture. This approach examines the ways in homework shape which wilderness is constructed, valued, and write book in thesis engaged. Representations of wilderness in British and can someone do my essay boundaries in a small area American culture can be separated into a few main tropes. First, Old World wilderness displays wilderness as a place beyond the how to book references borders of civilization, wherein wilderness is treated as a “threat,” a place of “exile” (Gerrard 62). This trope can be seen in Biblical tales of creation and early British culture. Old World wilderness is often conflated with demonic practices in early American literature (Gerrard 62). New World wilderness, seen in portrayals of wilderness in later American literature, applies the homework quadrangle shape pastoral trope of the “retreat” to wilderness itself, seeing wilderness not as a place to fear, but as a place to find sanctuary.

The New World wilderness trope has informed much of the “American identity,” and often constructs encounters with the wilderness that lead to a more “authentic existence” (Gerrard 71). As a branch of ecocriticism, ecofeminism primarily “analyzes the how to book references interconnection of the oppression of women and location and geographical small area of california nature” (Bressler 236). Drawing parallels between domination of references in thesis, land and the domination of men over women, ecofeminists examine these hierarchical, gendered relationships, in which the land is often equated with the feminine, seen as a fertile resources and the property of man. The ecofeminism approach can be divided into two camps. The first, sometimes referred to as radical ecofeminism, reverses the patriarchal domination of man over woman and nature, “exalting nature,” the non-human, and the emotional” (Gerrard 24). This approach embraces the idea that women are inherently closer to nature biologically, spiritually, and emotionally. The second camp, which followed the first historically, maintains that there is no such thing as a “feminine essence” that would make women more likely to connect with nature (Gerrard 25). Can Someone Do My Community Location Boundaries Small Of California. Of course, ecofeminism is a highly diverse and write in thesis complex branch, and help me do many writers have undertaken the job of examining the hierarchical relationships structured in our cultural representations of nature and of women and other oppressed groups. In particular, studies regarding race have followed in this trend, identifying groups that have been historically seen as somehow closer to how to in thesis, nature. The way Native Americans, for instance, have been described as “primitive” and portrayed as “dwelling in harmony with nature,” despite facts to the contrary.

Gerrard offers an examination of this trope, calling it the Ecological Indian (Gerrard 120). Similar studies regarding representations and oppression of aboriginals have surfaced, highlighting the misconceptions of these peoples as somehow “behind” Europeans, needing to progress from “a natural to a civilized state” (Gerrard 125). Taking an personal, ecocritical approach to a topic means asking questions not only of a primary source such as literature, but asking larger questions about cultural attitudes towards and definitions of write references, nature. Generally, ecocriticism can be applied to a primary source by either interpreting a text through an ecocritical lens, with an eye towards nature, or examining an ecocritical trope within the text. The questions below are examples of questions you might ask both when working with a primary source and when developing a research question that might have a broader perspective. How is nature represented in personal statement length this text? How has the references in thesis concept of nature changed over time? How is the setting of the play/film/text related to the environment? What is the influence on metaphors and representations of the land and the environment on help, how we treat it? How do we see issues of environmental disaster and crises reflected in popular culture and literary works?

How are animals represented in this text and what is their relationship to humans? How do the roles or representations of men and women towards the environment differ in book this play/film/text/etc. Help Quadrangle. Where is the environment placed in the power hierarchy? How is nature empowered or oppressed in this work? What parallels can be drawn between the how to write references in thesis sufferings and oppression of groups of people (women, minorities, immigrants, etc.) and treatment of the land? What rhetorical moves are used by environmentalists, and what can we learn from them about our cultural attitudes towards nature? There are many more questions than these to writing rebellion and violence, be asked, and references a large variety of approaches already exist that are asking different questions. Do some research to check on the state of ecocritical discussion in your own area of interest.

There are many more approaches to analyzing interactions between culture and nature, many of which are interdisciplinary. The following texts are recommended to help you start exploring other avenues of Ecocriticsm. Lawrence Buell - “ The Environmental Imagination : Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture ” (1995) and “Toxic Discourse,” 1998 Charles Bressler - Literary criticism: an introduction to dissertation teachers, theory and write book references in thesis practice , 1999 Cheryll Glotfelty and me do Harold Fromm The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology , (1996) Greg Garrard Ecocriticism , 2004 Donna Haraway - A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and write Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century, (1991) ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment (Journal) Joseph Makus - The Comedy of Survival: literary ecology and a play ethic, (1972) Leo Marx The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America , (1964) Raymond Williams - The Country and The City , (1975) Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness (1968) Appalachian Wilderness (1970) The Monkey Wrench Gang (1975) Mary Hunter Austin. A Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and can someone essay community location and geographical boundaries small There (1949) Henry David Thoreau. Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems (1798) Lyrical Ballads, with Other Poems (1800) This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and write book references schools of criticism and writing my research and life of alfred how they are used in the academy. Critical Race Theory (1970s-present) Critical Race Theory, or CRT, is a theoretical and interpretive mode that examines the appearance of race and racism across dominant cultural modes of expression.

In adopting this approach, CRT scholars attempt to understand how victims of book in thesis, systemic racism are affected by cultural perceptions of race and how they are able to represent themselves to counter prejudice. Closely connected to homework quadrangle, such fields as philosophy, history, sociology, and law, CRT scholarship traces racism in America through the nation’s legacy of slavery, the Civil Rights Movement, and recent events. In doing so, it draws from write references in thesis work by writers like Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. Dissertation Abstracts Teachers. Du Bois, Martin Luther King, Jr., and how to book references in thesis others studying law, feminism, and post-structuralism. CRT developed into its current form during the mid-1970s with scholars like Derrick Bell, Alan Freeman, and statement picture Richard Delgado, who responded to what they identified as dangerously slow progress following Civil Rights in the 1960s. Prominent CRT scholars like Kimberlé Crenshaw, Mari Matsuda, and how to references Patricia Williams share an the work and life wegener, interest in recognizing racism as a quotidian component of American life (manifested in book references in thesis textual sources like literature, film, law, etc). In doing so, they attempt to paper rebellion and violence, confront the beliefs and practices that enable racism to how to write book references in thesis, persist while also challenging these practices in order to seek liberation from systemic racism. As such, CRT scholarship also emphasizes the importance of finding a way for diverse individuals to share their experiences.

However, CRT scholars do not only locate an individual’s identity and experience of the world in his or her racial identifications, but also their membership to a specific class, gender, nation, sexual orientation, etc. They read these diverse cultural texts as proof of the institutionalized inequalities racialized groups and individuals experience every day. As Richard Delgado and dissertation abstracts on special for all teachers Jean Stefancic explain in their introduction to the third edition of Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge , “Our social world, with its rules, practices, and assignments of prestige and write book in thesis power, is not fixed; rather, we construct with it words, stories and silence. Me Do My Essay Smoke Free. But we need not acquiesce in arrangements that are unfair and one-sided. By writing and speaking against them, we may hope to contribute to a better, fairer world” (3).

In this sense, CRT scholars seek tangible, real-world ends through the intellectual work they perform. This contributes to many CRT scholars’ emphasis on social activism and transforming everyday notions of race, racism, and power. More recently, CRT has contributed to splinter groups focused on Asian American, Latino, and Indian racial experiences. What is the significance of race in contemporary American society? Where, in what ways, and to what ends does race appear in dominant American culture and shape the ways we interact with one another? What types of texts and other cultural artifacts reflect dominant culture’s perceptions of race? How can scholars convey that racism is a concern that affects all members of society? How does racism continue to function as a persistent force in American society? How can we combat racism to ensure that all members of how to write book in thesis, American society experience equal representation and access to fundamental rights? How can we accurately reflect the experiences of victims of racism?

As we can see, adopting a CRT approach to literature or other modes of cultural expression includes much more than simply identifying race, racism, and racialized characters in statement length fictional works. Rather, it (broadly) emphasizes the importance of examining and how to attempting to understand the socio-cultural forces that shape how we and others perceive, experience, and respond to racism. These scholars treat literature, legal documents, and other cultural works as evidence of American culture’s collective values and beliefs. Personal Statement Picture. In doing so, they trace racism as a dually theoretical and historical experience that affects all members of a community regardless of their racial affiliations or identifications. Most CRT scholarship attempts to demonstrate not only how racism continues to be a pervasive component throughout dominant society, but also why this persistent racism problematically denies individuals many of the constitutional freedoms they are otherwise promised in the United States’ governing documents.

This enables scholars to locate how texts develop in and through the cultural contexts that produced them, further demonstrating how pervasive systemic racism truly is. CRT scholars typically focus on both the evidence and the origins of racism in American culture, seeking to eradicate it at its roots. Additionally, because CRT advocates attending to the various components that shape individual identity, it offers a way for references in thesis scholars to understand how race interacts with other identities like gender and class. As scholars like Crenshaw and teen Willams have shown, CRT scholarship can and should be amenable to adopting and adapting theories from related fields like women’s studies, feminism, and history. In doing so, CRT has evolved over references in thesis the last decades to address the various concerns facing individuals affected by racism. Interestingly, CRT scholarship does not only draw attention to and address the concerns of help me do, individual affected by book racism, but also those who perpetrate and are seemingly unaffected by racial prejudice. Scholars like W.E.B.

Du Bois, Peggy McIntosh, Cheryl Harris, and paper and violence George Lipsitz discuss white privilege and notions of write, whiteness throughout history to better understand how American culture conceptualizes race (or the seeming absence of race). White privilege: Discussed by Lipsitz, Lee, Harris, McIntosh, and other CRT scholars, white privilege refers to the various social, political, and economic advantages white individuals experience in statement picture contrast to non-white citizens based on their racial membership. These advantages can include both obvious and subtle differences in access to how to write, power, social status, experiences of education for all teachers, prejudice, educational opportunities, and much more. Write Book References In Thesis. For CRT scholars, the notion of statement picture, white privilege offers a way to discuss dominant culture’s tendency to normalize white individuals’ experiences and ignore the experiences of how to write book references, non-whites. Fields such as CRT and whiteness studies have focused explicitly on writing paper, the concept of white privilege to understand how racism influences white people. Microaggressions : Microaggressions refer to how to write, the seemingly minute, often unconscious, quotidian instances of prejudice that collectively contribute to racism and the subordination of racialized individuals by dominant culture. Peggy Davis discusses how legal discourse participates in and can counteract the effects of microaggressions.

Institutionalized Racism : This concept, discussed extensively by Camara Phyllis Jones, refers to the systemic ways dominant society restricts a racialized individual or group’s access to opportunities. These inequalities, which include an individual’s access to material conditions and power, are not only deeply imbedded in legal institutions, but have been absorbed into American culture to such a degree that they are often invisible or easily overlooked. Social construction : In the context of dissertation education teachers, CRT, “social construction” refers to the notion that race is a product of social thought and relations. It suggests that race is a product of book, neither biology nor genetics, but is rather a social invention. Writing Paper And Violence. Intersectionality and anti-essentialism : These terms refer to the notion that one aspect of an individual’s identity does not necessarily determine other categories of membership. As Delgado and Stefancic explain, “Everyone has potentially conflicting, overlapping identities, loyalties, and allegiances” ( CRT: An Introduction 10). Write Book In Thesis. In other words, we cannot predict an individual’s identity, beliefs, or values based on categories like race, gender, sexuality, religion, nationality, etc; instead, we must recognize that individuals are capable of claiming membership to my research paper rebellion, a variety of different (and oftentimes seemingly contradictory) categories and belief systems regardless of the identities outsiders attempt to write book references, impose upon them. Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic. Critical Race Theory: An Introduction . Writing Paper And Violence. 2 nd ed.

New York: New York University Press, 2012. Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic, eds. Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. 3 rd ed. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2013. Print. Recommended Sources for references Additional Research.

Bell, Derrick A. “Who’s Afraid of Critical Race Theory?” University of abstracts on special education for all, Illinois Law Review 4 (1995): 893-910. Crenshaw, Kimberlé, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas, eds. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. New York: The New Press, 1995. Davis, Peggy. “Law as Microaggression.” Yale Law Journal 98 (1989): 1559-1577. Gates, Henry Louis. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African American Literary Criticism . New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Harris, Cheryl. “Whiteness as Property.” Harvard Law Review 106.8 (1993): 1707-1791. hooks, bell. Feminist Theory: From the Margins to the Center. Boston: South End Press, 1984.

Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in how to book references in thesis Whiteness: How White People Profit from dissertation abstracts on special education for all Identity Politics . Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. Spillers, Hortense. “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book.” Diacritics 17.2 (1987): 64-81. Williams, Patricia. Seeing a Color-Blind Future: The Paradox of write book in thesis, Race. New York: Noonday Press, 1998.

This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. (1990s to Present) Disability studies considers disability in political, aesthetic, ethical, and my research rebellion cultural contexts, among others. Write Book In Thesis. In literature, many critics examine works to writing my research paper and life wegener, understand how representations of disability and “normal” bodies change throughout history, including the ways both are defined within the write book limits of historical or cultural situations. Disability studies also investigates images and descriptions of disability, prejudice against people with disabilities (ableism), and paper the ways narrative relates to disability (see “Narrative Prosthesis” below). It’s important to understand disability as part of one’s identity, much like race, class, gender, sexuality, and nationality. How To In Thesis. Because of its concern with the body and quadrangle embodiment, disability studies also intersects other critical schools like gender studies, queer studies, feminism, critical race studies, and more. In fact, many races, classes, ethnicities, and other parts of identity have been classified as or associated with disabilities in the past, emphasizing what feminist and disability theorist Rosemarie Garland-Thomson describes as the how to references tendency of disability to be a “synecdoche for all forms that culture deems non-normative” (259).

Put differently, disability frequently signifies things outside of the “normal” world, making it an important area to investigate critically. The Social Model: Physical vs. Social. One approach to can someone location boundaries in a small of california, disability studies is the how to book references social model, a theory that distinguishes between impairment and disability. On Special For All. “Impairment” refers to a physical limitation, while “disability” refers to social exclusion. For instance, damage to the optic nerve resulting in limited vision may be an impairment. In Thesis. However, the inaccessibility of our society to essay community and geographical in a small of california, those who are partially or fully blind is really based on assumptions about what a “normal” body is, not on some universal Truth or ideal. The social model stresses that we live in in thesis a disabling societythat the issue isn’t people with disabilities; rather, society has failed to account for can someone do my community location and geographical boundaries in a small the diversity of bodies that live in the world. Sociologist Tom Shakespeare writes that the social model is useful for creating a group identity, spreading knowledge about disability, and promoting activism. However, the how to references in thesis social model has been criticized in recent decades for paper too-easily making distinctions between physical impairment and social disability (Shakespeare 202). The way we understand the body is based on socially constructed terms, ideas, and narratives; therefore, the body is always already socially “coded” in one way or another. How To Write Book References In Thesis. So, the clear dividing line between physical and social sometimes breaks down.

Nevertheless, the social model is a good starting point for many when thinking about disability. Many literary critics in disability studies examine the ways novels and other public spaces reinforce concepts about “normal” individuals. For instance, Lennard Davis writes about the historical context of the term “normal,” noting that the word’s modern use came into being with the help smoke free rise of statistics and eugenics in the nineteenth century. Book References. At this time, the smoke free idea of “the average man” became central to national discourses. For Davis, a normal body is actually a theory or idea based on “the average man,” a concept that ultimately disguises the drastic differences among individuals in a society. In the context of literature, Davis writes, “the very structures on which the novel rests tend to be normative, ideologically emphasizing the universal quality of the central character whose normativity encourages us to identify with him or her” (11). Therefore, investigating normalcy in literary texts allows one to use a disability studies approach when reading almost any work. In a similar vein, Garland-Thomson uses the term “normate” to how to write in thesis, describe those who are unmarked by the stigmas of disability, framing disability as a minority (rather than medical) discourse. The word “normate” highlights assumptions about the help my essay smoke free body in politics, rhetoric, literature, and other areas, including the book references in thesis erasure of cultural and homework help bodily difference (compare “normate” to terms like “cisgender” or “cissexual,” for instance). Narrative Prosthesis: The Story’s “Crutch”

Narrative is references also intricately tied to disability. Theorists Sharon Snyder and David Mitchell write that disabled characters act as a “crutch upon which literary narratives lean for shape their representational power, disruptive potentiality, and analytical insight” (49). Unlike some marginalized groups, people with disabilities have frequently been at the foreground of representation, according to Snyder and Mitchell in how to write book references in thesis Narrative Prosthesis . For example, a captain’s prosthetic leg may entail a story about his obsession with a whale, or characters like Tiny Tim may serve as wellsprings of pity and emotion. Personal Statement. In Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex , the protagonist’s disfigured foot and book references eventual blindness metaphorize disability as destiny, and the hunchbacked protagonist of William Shakespeare’s Richard III has a complex performance history that blurs high- and low-art conventions. Statement Length Picture. The list goes on.

“Narrative prosthesis” refers the ways narrative uses disability as a device of characterization or metaphor, but fails to further develop disability as a complex point of view. Disability is used to mark characters as “unique,” and it is sometimes what prompts a narrative in the first place; however, few works develop complex perspectives about disability (Mitchell and Snyder 10). If a work does feature disability prominently, it is often used as a symbol or for how to write book references in thesis comparative purposes. For example, Benjy in The Sound and the Fury has a cognitive disability, but many critics argue he is sometimes reduced to a “moral arbiter for the rest of the characters” (Bérubé 575), a standard on which the education for all teachers reader’s judgements about morality might be based. In short, stories often revolve around disability yet erase it simultaneously. How is disability represented in literature? How are “normal” people or bodies constructed? How is normalcy reinforced? Is disability a catalyst for the narrative? Are people with disabilities gendered differently? As asexual?

As feminized? In what ways do disability, gender, race, nationality, and class intersect? Does the write references narrative refigure the ways we define the human body? For example, how is prosthesis or technology tied to the body, and how does this change the ways we relate to our environment? How are disabilities like blindness tied to “Truth” or deafness to communication within a literary work? What symbolism is attached to disability? Disability studies is a recent and developing area compared to other theories and schools of criticism in literature; nevertheless, there are some works that stand out in the field. My Research Paper The Work Wegener. The following list is in no way comprehensive; rather, it provides avenues for exploration in literary criticism, theory, and how to book in thesis history. Contours of Ableism (2009) by Fiona Kumari Campbell Concerto for the Left Hand (2008) by me do my essay free Michael Davidson Enforcing Normalcy (1995) by write book in thesis Lennard J. Davis The Birth of the Clinic (1963) and Madness and writing my research paper teen Civilization (1964) by Michel Foucault Extraordinary Bodies (1996) and references in thesis Staring: How We Look (2009) by Rosemarie Garland-Thomson Feminist, Queer, Crip (2013) by my research and violence Alison Kafer Bodies of Modernism (2017) by Maren Tova Linett Narrative Prosthesis (2000) and Cultural Locations of how to write references, Disability (2005) by do my essay community location and geographical in a area of california Sharon L. Snyder and David T. Mitchell A Disability History of the United States (2013) Kim Nielsen Aesthetic Nervousness (2007) by Ato Quayson Deafening Modernism (2015) by Rebecca Sanchez Disability Aesthetics (2010) and Disability Theory (2008) by Tobin Siebers The Question of Access (2011) by Tanya Titchkosky. Bérubé, Michael. “Disability and Narrative.” PMLA , vol. 120, no.

2, Mar. 2005, pp. 568-76. Davis, Lennard. “Constructing Normalcy: The Bell Curve, the Novel, and the Invention of the Disabled Body in the Nineteenth Century.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 3-16. Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “Integrating Disability, Transforming Feminist Theory.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 257-73. Mitchell, David and Sharon Snyder. Narrative Prosthesis: Disability and the Dependencies of Discourse . Book In Thesis. U of Michigan P, 2000. Shakespeare, Tom. Paper Teen Rebellion. “The Social Model of Disability.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 197-204.

Copyright 1995-2017 by The Writing Lab The OWL at book, Purdue and Purdue University. Writing And Life Wegener. All rights reserved. Book References In Thesis. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of free, this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of write references, fair use.

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A Few General Facts about How To Write 5 Paragraph Essay ? In general, the 5-paragraph essay is regarded as the typical essay writing task. This type of essay is how to write book references in thesis, utilized in the majority of writing my research rebellion well-established examinations, like TOEFL, IELTS or SAT. Book? Seeing as in the majority of such examinations you need to stick to homework help quadrangle, a time limit when it comes to finishing the “Writing” part, it’s advisable to learn the structure of the 5-paragraph essay by heart. This way, you’ll be able to complete the exam swiftly and how to references, efficiently. The best feature of this format is the fact that it can be used for a large variety of essays, such as Expository, Narrative, Persuasive, Cause and Effect or Persuasive essays.

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Different educational establishments from all over the globe utilize different rules. Nevertheless, one of the most well-established criteria types is the 5 point type. This involves five different sections, namely Focus, Organization, Conventions, Style and Content. Write Book References In Thesis? Focus: Did the student take enough time to demonstrate their hypothesis? Did they meet this target? Organization: Did the personal length picture essay have a fluent style?

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