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Anonymity on the Internet Must be Protected. 2. One that is unknown or unacknowledged.[26] The internet community is hintze historical quickly changing and evolving as more of the write coaching and mentoring, world comes on-line. Free speech and anonymity have always been important real-world societal issues and have been the topics of hintze, numerous heated court cases. These issues are becoming increasingly important as more people discover the school by maya, digital world and hintze historical essays, find the need for anonymity in this new society. Over the last few years, an intense battle has been raging between the citizens of the net over the issue of whether on-line anonymity should be eliminated. For Money Online - Can? One side feels that people should have enough conviction in their beliefs to state them without hiding behind anonymity. The other side feels that anonymity is otto hintze essays vital for dissertation headings edition, the protection of freedom of expression. Whichever side one agrees with, it is obvious that the technology for anonymity on the internet is readily available and that a definite vacuum is otto hintze being filled by anonymity services. Write Essays For Money Online? This paper will examine the issue of essays, anonymity on the internet, first providing a background on hunting essay, how anonymity services work and otto hintze historical, why these services came into existence. In this discussion, I will limit the scope of my subject to the services provided by anonymous and pseudonymous remailers and posting sites which are currently used by thousands of people each day to send email and hunting is just essay, post to internet newsgroups.

Although the issues of otto, digital cash and cryptography have close ties to anonymity, these subjects will not be discussed here. After a background on anonymity has been provided, I will go on to present arguments for and against anonymity on the internet and discuss a number of essay, famous conflicts involving anonymity on otto hintze, the internet. Write - Can? I will then present some specific barriers to on-line anonymity, including attacks by net citizens, concerns of system administrators, and legal issues. Finally, based on this discussion, I will show that anonymity on the internet provides a vital service and otto essays, enhances freedom of expression and that most negative affects of anonymity can be minimized by by maya, following a few guidelines related to how anonymous services are provided and used. The Helsingius server, which is called penet.fi and run by Johan Julf Helsingius, is one of the most stable global anonymity servers. Julf Helsingius' original impetus to provide a global anonymity service was his desire to prove that censorship on the internet is impossible because there is always a technological solution which can circumvent the problem.[3] The site is based on otto hintze historical, scripts and C code which was written by K. Kleinpaste and was originally intended to essays serve only Scandinavia. Helsingius eventually expanded to worldwide service due to a flood of international requests. This server, which is one of the most popular, currently has over 200,000 registered users.[20] Although penet.fi has undergone numerous temporary shutdowns and has been involved in a recent police investigation (discussed in section 6), it has survived for over 3 years.

Penet.fi and similar servers are currently the primary anonymity servers on otto essays, the internet today. According to Raph Levien, graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley who tracks the anonymity providers, up to 15,000 email messages a day are sent through anonymous remailing services.[16] A list of edition summary, some of the current anonymity services can be found at the University of otto historical essays, California at Berkeley.[22] Anonymity is extremely effective in promoting freedom of expression. Julf Helsingius asserts that anonymity is beneficial because it gives people an outlet for their opinions, even controversial ones. He feels that it is dissertation apa 6th edition executive summary good to bring out things like that in daylight because that actually allows you to . start processing it, see how people react to historical it, and so on.[3] This may have sort of edition executive, a cathartic effect in that it allows people to get their feelings out without physically hurting people of otto hintze, other cultures, races, etc. Additionally, anonymity hinders some methods of How to, controlling the actions of historical, other people.

This is an additional argument in the usefulness of anonymity in the protection of freedom of expression. There are many long-standing precedents for anonymity in How to publishing. The responsibility of a journalists not to reveal their sources is recognized almost universally. Many authors write under pen-names and otto hintze historical, there are still some cases where the true identity of the author has never been discovered. Even the apa 6th edition summary, Federalist Papers were published under a pseudonym.[12] Most newspapers publish letters to the editor and help columns and otto hintze historical essays, allow the letters to be anonymous or signed with a pseudonym and many newspaper articles are merely credited to AP Newswire.

Additionally, anonymous peer reviews of proposals and articles is common in academic circles. An additional argument for anonymity is that it is a part of society and unavoidable. Anonymous communication can be achieved in real life by sending an unsigned letter or making an anonymous phone call. From the large number of users who take advantage of anonymous services on the internet, it can be seen that these services are truly necessary and fill a specific need. The availability of the technology to set up such an anonymous server also makes the elimination of such servers virtually impossible; as soon as one is write and mentoring shut down, another one is created.[19] The current availability of such services eliminates the need to forge an identity or use another person's identity to correspond anonymously. People on the net are anonymous to some degree anyway because of the inherent characteristics of the medium. Services providing additional anonymity are only expanding on this feature of the net. Pseudonymity comes in useful in that it allows users to send mail to pseudonymous users in response to otto hintze historical their mail or post. People are able to respond to emails that they like or dislike or that they find offensive or disruptive.

This makes the pseudonymous user more responsible for his or her actions than the completely anonymous user. They are still accountable for their actions on the net but are protected from real world damage. Abolishing anonymity servers is dissertation headings apa 6th summary not necessary since the technology exists to produce kill files which allow users to choose for themselves what they consider offensive. This allows individuals to filter out anonymous posts and emails which they dislike, while still reaping the benefits afforded by essays, anonymous services. My Essay Coaching? Although some people will automatically discount any anonymous postings, other people don't care who wrote it, as long as it is intelligent or funny. Still others use anonymity specifically to otto hintze essays allow their opinions to be judged on their merit, rather than by the name attached to them.

Some people argue that the use of on-line anonymity in these cases of abusive or hurtful activity are especially bad because people are more likely to believe things that they see in print, as opposed to something they hear in an anonymous phone call or conversation. The instantaneous means by which this printed information can be distributed around the world also gives many people cause for concern. Additionally, it is almost impossible to control illegal activity which is perpetrated or discussed anonymously over the internet since, in most cases, police are not able to track the offender down. The recent case involving penet.fi and and mentoring, the Finnish police is one exception, but this instance is in the extreme minority of cases where the identity of an anonymous user who has used the internet for criminal activity has not remained secret. Some users value free speech so much that they have no problems with the hatespeech which a minority of users profess in anonymous posts and emails. They do, however, object to the fact that these users use anonymity as a shield for their beliefs. Some people use the otto hintze essays, existence of this problem to argue that anonymity is essay national affairs - cameroon only needed to avoid retribution due to hintze lack of my essay coaching and mentoring, understanding in the on-line society. They feel that dealing with societal problems which make people feel the need to express their opinions anonymously is a better solution than sanctioning these problems by allowing the existence of anonymous services. Additionally, many of the people who cause the intolerant conditions in some areas of the net which cause people to feel the need to express their opinions anonymously are the same people that abuse the anonymous services by hintze essays, using them to attack their opponents with impunity.

There is a possibility that this problem could be diminished if societal problems were dealt with directly instead of discussed anonymously. This argument loses significant power, however, due to the fact that these problems have persisted for centuries in real-life society as well. Rude, inappropriate and offensive emails and is just a hobby essay, posts were present on historical, the internet long before anonymity servers were created. The best way do deal with rude people is to ignore them, and not to eliminate a service which has many benefits to hunting is just essay the net. As one user mentioned: It is akin to . closing down the highway system because a few people speed.[18] Some users agree that anonymity is useful for some newsgroups or discussions on sensitive topics, but they object to the fact that anonymity servers provide anonymity for everybody on every newsgroup. They feel that each newsgroup should decide whether or not they want anonymous posts and otto historical essays, then set up a server designed specifically for that group. A number of How to Write More Creatively, newsgroups already function like this, but other newsgroups that object to anonymous posts are still subjected to them because users are able to use global services such as penet.fi.

Many users feel that the otto essays, introduction of such services has changed the culture of the net. After 2 anonymous messages were canceled using the ARMM program, an anonymous user called an8785 retaliated by posting Depew's address of employment and the name and headings apa 6th executive summary, phone number of his supervisor on the net. He told users that he had done this in response to hintze historical essays Depew's censorship and urged users to complain to Depew's supervisor. Apa 6th Edition Summary? Helsingius eventually deactivated the account of anonymous user an8785, but never revealed his identity. About a month later, Depew released a revised version of the ARMM program on historical, the Helsingius server, which some people felt was in response to the fact that Helsingius refused to reveal the identity of finishing school essay, an8785. The revised program severely backfired, both technically and politically. The software had a bug which caused it to post hundreds of messages on various newsgroups, causing a few mailservers to crash and generally making many net users angry.[19] This situation caused a great deal of outcry over attempts at hintze historical censoring and policing the net.

It also caused many users to publicly express their support for Helsingius' policy of cheap write my essay coaching, absolute anonymity. Essays? Both of these issues are extremely important in the ongoing debate about what sort of legal restrictions should be put on hunting a hobby, the net and what types of legislation will be created for this purpose (this will be discussed in section 7). Hintze? 5.2 Anonymity and the Church of Scientology. On February 2, lawyers for hunting a hobby essay, the Church of otto, Scientology also contacted the operators of executive, several anonymity services, including Julf Helsingius, and demanded that they stop further anonymous posts to the newsgroups or legal action would ensue. After Helsingius made it clear that he would not voluntarily reveal the identity of the user in question, he was informed that the Finnish police were being contacted via Interpol. On February 8, Finnish police informed Helsingius that if he did not reveal the identity of the anonymous user, they would serve him with a search warrant to seize his entire server with the identities of all of the users who utilize his anonymity service. The Finnish police used the fact that the otto essays, anonymous user was suspected of unauthorized use of a computer as the grounds for their search and the confiscation of the information from Julf Helsingius. Faced with the choice between revealing the identity of only one of his users or all of them, Helsingius reluctantly supplied the Finnish police with the name of the anonymous user involved in the CoS case. On February 14, Helsingius is informed that the cheap write coaching, criminal investigation in hintze the CoS has been dropped.[14,20,21] In this case, Helsingius was forced to choose between protecting a user who relied on their service for anonymity at a time when anonymity was crucial and protecting the records of all of the other users of the system.

The most practical choice was made and Helsingius intends to my essay and mentoring continue his anonymity service, but it will be interesting to see if any changes are made in the penet.fi system as a result of otto hintze historical essays, this choice. Additionally, the fact that complete anonymity on the internet was compromised by help do my affairs, the authorities brings up many legal questions about the future of anonymity on otto hintze essays, the internet. This issue will be discussed in section 7. 6.2 Concerns of system administrators. The validity of the concerns of system administrators can be demonstrated in the civil court case of Stratton vs. Prodigy. An anonymous user of Prodigy accused Stratton Oakmont Inc., a New York investment bank, of acting fraudulently and More Creatively, illegally in historical essays one of its initial public offerings. As a result of this anonymous statement, Stratton filed a $200 million libel suit against Prodigy and the anonymous user. How To Creatively? Stratton considers the network responsible for otto hintze, shielding the user with anonymity and stated: If Prodigy is in the publishing business, then it opens itself up to libel charges.[6] Cases such as this one intimidate numerous system administrators and result in the shutdown of many anonymity servers each year.

Sometimes system administrators try to block anonymity service in their areas by using tactics other than just trying to shut the anonymity server down. An example of such a scheme was the famous case involving the ARMM program which tried to censor anonymous messages and remove them from newsgroups. Although this program backfired and generated much opposition to censorship on is just, the net, the otto hintze essays, possibility of future use of is just, such programs is not eliminated. Any system administrator with enough technical knowledge to create a better program of this kind may be able to effectively censor any anonymous messages at their site. US legislation is sure to examine the subject of on-line anonymity as laws slowly begin to otto catch up with important issues regarding the internet. One daunting look into current legal cases, however, seems to paint a grim picture for anonymity on the internet. Justice Scalia recently stated in a ruling on McIntyre vs. Ohio Elections Commission that he found anonymity generally dishonorable. He wrote that It facilitates wrong by eliminating accountability, which is ordinarily the Write More Creatively, very purpose of the anonymity. Hintze? He also felt that creating legal protection for anonymous communication without a reason to expect threats, harassment or reprisals seems to me a distortion of the past that will lead to a coarsening of the future.[22,23] Additionally, the Supreme Court of California recently upheld a state law prohibiting anonymous mass political mailings by political candidates.[22] The fact that this case involves limiting anonymous speech, which is strongly protected by the First Amendment, does not bode well for media such as on-line communications which would have inherently less protection. The recent clash between Finnish police and penet.fi, the longest running anonymity server, is bound to inspire many net citizens who prize their anonymity to push for legislation, in Finland and a hobby, around the world, to protect this precious resource and make it harder to legally raid anonymity servers.

The recent court ruling earlier this year in the dispute between Netcom and The Church of otto historical essays, Scientology which held that network administrators should not be responsible for all of the traffic through their server, including anonymous messages, shows that defenders of the right to anonymity do have the headings apa 6th edition executive summary, support of hintze, some members of the judicial system. On the other hand, the rise in the number of criminals who have joined the on-line community and angelou essay, are using the internet to discuss or participate in criminal activity is sure to inspire legislators to otto essays push for stricter laws on the limitations of anonymity in cases where illegal activity has occurred. Companies are also beginning to fight against anonymity on the internet because they fear that it will undermine long-established laws designed to protect the ownership of information and control its dissemination. It will be interesting to watch this battle play itself out in the coming years. Apa 6th Summary? There has been a significant push on the internet to force anonymity providers to reveal the identity of otto hintze historical essays, users who have committed criminal or severely abusive acts. Julf Helsingius opposes this idea and feels that he does not have the right to judge what is dissertation headings executive summary right and wrong.

Additionally, the otto, international scope of his service means that the Write essays …, concept of illegal activities is not universal. He uses the example of pornographic images to prove his point. Posting pornographic images on the internet is considered illegal in many countries, while it is otto hintze historical essays perfectly legal in others. He feels that it is not his place to school by maya draw the otto historical essays, line on headings edition, these issues.[3] Additionally, in many countries which have entered the otto essays, on-line community, writings which are critical of the government, such as the Write online …, exposure of human rights abuses in China and elsewhere, are illegal. The international nature of the net simply makes it impossible to enforce the laws of otto, every country individually. It is quite possible that on-line anonymity will be reduced as soon as US legislation catches up with internet activities unless the digital community shows that it can regulate itself. One way to do this, is to dissertation headings edition summary draw up a set of guidelines on the use of anonymity services and stick to them.

A very good example of such a set of rules can be found in a document written by L. Detweiler called Anonymity on the Internet.[19] Examples of some of the most important rules that must be followed in order to discourage legislators from stepping in are as follows: For users: Use anonymity only if you have to. Frivolous uses weaken the hintze, seriousness and usefulness of the capability for others. Do not use anonymity to provoke, harass, or threaten others. Be aware of the policies of the anonymous site and respect them. Be prepared to school angelou forfeit your anonymity if you abuse the privilege.[19] For operators: Document thoroughly acceptable and unacceptable uses in an introductory file that is otto sent to new users. Have a coherent and consistent policy and stick to finishing school by maya it. State clearly what logging and monitoring is occuring. Formulate a plan for problematic ethical situations and anticipate potentially intense moral quandaries and dilemmas.

Take precautions to ensure the wecurity of the server from physical and network-based attacks and infiltrations. [19] Require a vote either to allow or disallow anonymous posts on individual newsgroups. For readers: React to the anonymous information unemotionally. Abusive posters will be encouraged further if they get irrationally irate responses. Sometimes the most effective response is silence. Notify operators if very severe abuses or criminal activity occur , such as piracy, harassment, extortion, etc.[19] If these and other guidelines are followed, problems associated with anonymity on the internet can be minimized.

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Otto hintze historical essays

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litereary essay How to Write a Literary Exegesis. C ollege-level papers about a piece of literature must have a thesis sentence. To write the thesis sentence, you can take one of two approaches: you can base the thesis on an analysis of literary devices in the piece of otto, literature or you can base the thesis on Write essays - Can …, a theme from the piece of literature. A Literary-Device Thesis Sentence: First, let’s talk about writing a thesis using literary devices. Literary devices are character, conflict, point of view, symbolism, irony, metaphor, simile, denotation, connotation, etc. Remember two things about using literary devices to write an essay: (1) all pieces of literature—fiction, poetry, drama—contain literary devices, and (2) the purpose of writing an essay about a literary device is to help the reader understand a theme of the work. Suppose your assignment is to write an essay on the play The Glass Menagerie . Here are some possible thesis sentences using literary devices: 1. Hintze. 1. Tom is the protagonist of The Glass Menagerie because the self-conflict he experiences—the rage he feels at his entrapment and the pity he feels at leaving the others trapped—leads us to understand how the play teaches us that sometimes any decision we make causes pain to those involved. 2. Cheap. 2. Laura’s glass menagerie is a symbol both her delicate personality and of the fragile world which she shares with her family, both of which are designed to cope with a world that can’t be easily faced and neither of which can survive long in the real world. 3. 3. Otto Historical. Tom’s highly poetic language when he functions as narrator contrasts with his very plain language as a character, pointing up the split between the imaginative world of the mind and the everyday world of the body that the characters live in but are unable to reconcile.

Your best bet in writing a thesis sentence that depends on a literary device is to mention both literary device and how the literary device illustrates the theme. Theme-Driven Thesis: Your other option is to write a thesis based on the theme of the work, what you think the work means. Generally, this approach will lead you to write a cause-effect essay, where you state the theme and then develop the essay by giving the reasons why you think your statement of theme is valid. Dissertation Headings Apa 6th Edition. Here are some possible thesis sentences using theme: 1. Hintze Essays. 1. In The Glass Menagerie , we learn that we can never escape entrapment from looking at the way Amanda is trapped by the past, Laura by headings apa 6th executive summary her insecurity, and Tom by his desire for adventure and hintze love for school essay, his family. 2. 2. Hintze Historical Essays. In the play, we see that waiting for do my essay affairs - cameroon, future events to guarantee happiness is no guarantee because each of the characters receives what she or he waited for, but none are happy with the result. Organization and Outlining.

Whether or not you believe in outlining and whether or not you can outline, one clear fact remains: the college essays that receive the otto historical, best grades look as though they have been outlined. Your thesis sentence will suggest the organization of a hobby essay, your paper. Let’s take one of the thesis sentences from the section above to use as our guide: Tom is the protagonist of The Glass Menagerie because the self-conflict he experiences—the rage he feels at his entrapment and the pity he feels at essays leaving the others trapped—leads us to understand how the play teaches us that sometimes any decision we make causes pain to those involved. I. School. Tom feels unhappiness at his entrapment. A. A. He longs for adventure and involvement in the important events of his time. B. B. He feels anger at the guilt he feels for wanting to leave, focusing that anger on otto historical essays, his mother. II. The guilt he feels comes from a true sense of pity for his mother and sister who cannot escape. A. A. He feels some pity for Amanda. B. B. He feels even more pity for finishing school by maya angelou, Laura. C. C. Neither one can escape even though Tom can.

III. Otto Hintze Historical. Tom’s conflict between these two emotions helps us to understand one of the headings apa 6th edition, themes of the play: that sometimes any decision we make has painful consequences. A. A. Otto Hintze. Tom’s staying causes pain for himself and his family because of the bitterness his resentment creates. B. Dissertation Headings Apa 6th Executive. B. Tom’s decision to leave. 1. 1. probably causes pain for his family for otto historical essays, they will most likely not escape and. 2. 2. definitely causes pain for Tom because of the remorse he feels at having had to leave. When this outline develops into the essay, most likely the writer will have eight body paragraphs. Developing the Essay. In an essay where each section of the paper is developed by several paragraphs, it is important to allow your topic sentences to organize a section of the paper. What follows is a sample of how you would write the topic sentences for the eight paragraphs of the essay:

Paragraph 1 : Tom feels unhappiness at his entrapment because he longs for adventure and involvement in the important events of his time and de feels anger at cheap write my essay and mentoring the guilt he feels for wanting to leave, which he focuses on his mother. Paragraph 2 : His frustration at not being able to hintze historical, follow his dreams easily becomes anger at hunting a hobby the guilt he feels for wanting to leave, which he focuses on otto hintze historical, his mother. Paragraph 3 : His constant anger makes it hard to see, but Tom truly is help cant do my essay a good man who feels pity for his mother, his sister, and their circumstances. Paragraph 4 : Though we primarily see his pity for Amanda in his insistence as narrator that she be seen with dignity, the pity he feels for Laura seems clear in the gentle and sympathetic way he treats her. Paragraph 5 : Overriding any individual pity he feels for otto historical essays, either character is the pity he feels at their entrapment for they, unlike him, have no way out. Paragraph 6 : Tom’s conflict between these two emotions helps us understand one of the Write for money - Can …, themes of the play: that sometimes any decision we make has painful consequences, in Tom’s case, staying or going. Tom’s staying causes pain for himself and his family because of the bitterness his resentment creates. Paragraph 7 : Tom’s decision to leave probably causes pain for his family for they will most likely not escape.

Paragraph 8 : This decision to otto historical essays, leave definitely causes pain for Tom because of the cheap write my essay coaching, remorse he feels at having had to leave. Developing the Paragraphs. In the otto, section on outlining above, I only outlined the essay down to the topic sentence. A common mistake that student make in writing literary analysis is explaining too little of their logic and thoughts, assuming that the finishing school angelou essay, reader knows more about the work that the writer. Essays. Yet, when the very same student sits in literature teacher’s class, she expects the teacher to explain the work fully, without assuming that the student understands much of anything. A good literary analysis needs to cant affairs - cameroon, explain in the same way, using the same sort of logic and otto historical examples, that a student would expect a good teacher to use. Let’s take the first topic sentence outlined above: Tom feels unhappiness in his entrapment because he longs for adventure and coaching involvement in the important events of his time . Before you even begin looking for evidence to historical, prove your point, it’s important to explain you topic sentence. One way to figure out what needs to headings apa 6th edition executive, be explained in to imagine what question an interested listener would ask you based on your topic sentence. Hintze. My interested reader would want to know, “Why does his longing to take part in the interesting things going on in the world make him so unhappy?” It’s okay (although unnecessary) to state the question in the paragraph if it helps keep you focused. Then, based on cant national, your own understanding of the otto, character, without referring to anything specific in the play yet, you simply talk the answer.

Tom feels unhappiness in his entrapment because he longs for Write online - Can …, adventure and involvement in the important events on his time.. Why does his longing to take part in otto essays the interesting things going on in the world make him so unhappy? We know that he is a poet from is just a hobby essay what he tells us in otto hintze essays his first speech, and How to Write More Creatively poets typically are sensitive, romantic, and essays idealistic. The setting of the play, which Tom emphasizes, is during primarily with surviving while Europeans, particularly the Spanish, were involved in idealistic struggles for freedom and human rights. Try to hunting is just a hobby essay, keep in mind that you are the expert on what you have to say. Paraphrases and Quotations. Having written the otto hintze historical, topic sentence and explained it, now it is time to find evidence from the play to essays …, back up the otto essays, explanation. You can either paraphrase a passage from the Write Creatively, work or you can quote directly. If you paraphrase, you tell in your own words something specific from the work. For might want to refer to Tom’s father’s departure in a specific way without quoting the passage directly.

Thus, a paraphrase might be: Like his father before him who was a telephone operator who fell in love with long distances, he also wants to cover long distances in his own life. Though technically paraphrases are a particular incident in hintze historical a play; it’s much easier to and mentoring, supply a general plot summary, thinking that you are paraphrasing when you are not. You are only paraphrasing if you are taking a specific number of otto historical, lines out of work and rewording them in your own voice. In addition to paraphrase as example, you can also directly quote from the primary source (the piece of literature you are writing about). Essay. There are two kinds of direct quotation: block and run-in. Otto Hintze Essays. A block quotation is used when you are quoting more than three lines. A block quotation (1) is indented five spaces on headings apa 6th summary, the left margin; (2) lacks quotation marks; and otto essays (3) places the end punctuation before the parenthetical page citation. You should use block quotations rarely because it you quote a large passage of a work in your paper, you are also obligated to spend adequate time interpreting the passage you quoted. A run-in quotation is used when quoting less than three lines. You can quote a piece of a sentence, a full sentence or several short sentences in a run-in quotation.

A run-in quotation (1) in incorporated into the text of your essay; (2) separated from the essay with quotation marks; and (3) places the end punctuation of the sentence after the parenthetical page citation. You can find examples of both kinds of quotation in the following paragraph: Tom feels unhappiness in his entrapment because he longs for adventure and involvement in the important events of his time. Why does his longing to take part in the interesting things going on in the world make him so unhappy? We know that he is a poet from what he tells us in his first speech, and poets typically are sensitive, romantic, and idealistic.

The setting of the play, which Tom emphasizes, is school angelou during the 1930s when the people of the otto hintze historical, United States , in cheap my essay and mentoring the middle of the otto, Depression, concerned themselves primarily with surviving while Europeans, particularly the Spanish, were involved in idealistic struggles for dissertation apa 6th edition executive summary, freedom and human rights. Tom compares what’s going on in America with what’s happening in the rest of the world in his first speech to the audience. Essays. He characterizes the Depression as a time “when the huge middle class of America was matriculating in a school for the blind. Their eyes had failed them, or they had failed their eyes, and so they were having their fingers pressed forcibly down on headings apa 6th edition summary, the fiery Braille alphabet of a dissolving economy” (957). The language he uses suggests contempt for the ineptitude of the Americans, who were suffering from otto historical a mess they had made themselves from their blindness and who lacked enough awareness to realize their own mistakes and were having to be taught, forcibly, and brutally. He says moments later, “In Spain there was revolution.

Here there was only shouting and confusion” (957). “Elsewhere, people who saw undesirable circumstances were working vigorously to change them; here, people were too unfocused and my essay coaching and mentoring confused to do more than complain. Otto Hintze Historical. Later on in the play, to the music of Creatively, “All the otto hintze, World is Waiting for How to Write More, the Sunrise ,” he contrasts once mote the imminent disaster in Europe with the superficial coping devices around him. Commenting on the activities at essays the Paradise Dance Hall across the alley, Tom notes the couples who sneak out into the alley to kiss do so as “compensation for lives that passed like mine, without any change or adventure” (973). Tom sees all the rest of the world “waiting for bombardments” while those around him sedate themselves with “hot swing music and liquor, dance halls, bars, and movies, and sex that hung in the gloom like a chandelier and flooded the world with grief, deceptive rainbows” (973). Headings Edition Summary. His desire to join the otto historical, Merchant Marines certainly comes strongly from his awareness that changes are taking place in the world that will affect the world for years to come. Like his father before him who was a telephone operator who fell in love with long distances, he also wants to cover long distances in his own life. For Money - Can. He wants to be a part of those changes.

Ironically, of course, leaving doesn’t guarantee escape from his entrapment. In his concluding speech, he talks about how on can feel trapped even when running free: I didn’t go to the moon, I went much further. I traveled around a great deal. The cities swept out me like dead leaves, leaves that were brightly colored but torn away from the branches. I would have stopped, but I was pursued by otto hintze essays something….Oh, Laura, Laura, I tried to leave you behind me, but I am more faithful than I intended to be! (1000) No matter what Tom does, he feels trapped, both by his own needs and desires and by his love for his family. The lure of the world becomes empty, like dead leaves, beautiful but unnaturally taken from their branches. Ultimately, Tom cannot be happy, no matter what he chooses.

You should supply several direct quotations to support every assertion you make. Dissertation Headings. Every quotation must be introduced, meaning that before you quote you should make clear (1) why you are quoting these lines and otto essays (2) in what context in the original work these quotations occurred. Help Cant Do My Essay Security Affairs. Ideally, your essay should make sense to someone intelligent who has not read the primary source. What follows is an example of a paragraph where the quotations are inadequately introduced. Hintze. Unless you know the essays for money, poem already, it’s a hard paragraph to follow: In all of these poems, the hintze essays, speakers are self-deceived and deceitful. Shakespeare’s “When my love swears she is made of Write online - Can …, truth” shows a couple deceiving each other and historical essays themselves.

They know their relationship is school by maya based on lies. “I do believe her though I know she lies” (2). He pretends to otto historical, believe her to insure her cooperation so that he can continue to apa 6th edition, use her. She deceives herself and him when the poem says, “That she might think me some untutored youth/Unlearned in the world’s false subtleties” (2-3). She pretends he is younger than he really is, so that she can ensure his cooperation. They lie to each other in order to keep the relationship together. They want to believe these lies because it keeps them happy. “Therefore I lie with her and she with me/ And in our faults by otto hintze historical essays lies we flattered be” (13-14). They believe the other one believes their lies and that their lying relationship is a trusting one. Dissertation Apa 6th. “Oh, love’s best habit is in seeming trust” (11). Their love comes from deceiving one another. The mistake in this paragraph is that the historical, student assumes that the reader is a familiar with the online, poem as the student is. Always, always, always introduce your quotations by giving enough of the otto hintze historical, context of the work so that the reader does not necessarily have to have read it. Here is the How to Creatively, same paragraph with the quotations introduced more completely:

In all of essays, these poems, the essays for money - Can …, speakers are self-deceived and deceitful. Shakespeare’s “When my love swears she is made of truth” shows a couple deceiving each other and themselves. They know their relationship is based on lies. In the very first line of the poem, the speaker tells us that when his girlfriend swears that she is faithful to him, “I do believe her though I know she lies” (2). He pretends to believe her to ensure her cooperation so that he can continue to use her. But he has yet an even more complicated reason for believing her lies to him; only otto historical essays a very young and nave man would believe her story, since it is cheap write my essay and mentoring apparently so transparent, so by claiming to believe her, he presents himself to her as younger than he really is. He believes her lies so “That she might think me some untutored youth/ Unlearned in the world’s false subtleties” (2-3). She, of course, knows his real age, so she is pretending he is otto hintze younger than he really is, so that she can ensure his cooperation. They lie to hunting a hobby, each other in order to keep the relationship together.

They want to believe these lies because it keeps them happy. Otto Hintze Historical. At the end of the write my essay coaching and mentoring, poem, having made clear that the man and the women are both lying to one another and are clearly aware that they are being lied to, the speaker sums up the ultimate reason behind the falsehood: ”Therefore I lie with her and she with me/ And in otto historical our faults by hunting is just essay lies we flattered be” (13-14). Out of individual vanity, they believe the other one believes their lies and that their lying relationship is a trusting one. “Oh, love’s best habit is in seeming trust” (11). Their love, as self-serving and otto hintze essays questionable as it is, comes from deceiving one another. Notice how the write my essay, transition words introducing the quotation help place the quotation in the context of the larger poem. Otto Essays. Notice also how the last sentence provides an opinion or interpretation of the topic sentence.

All examples must be properly introduced. Miscellaneous Details About Quotation Usage and Paper Writing. 1. 1. Only quote the material that you need to prove your point. You can omit irrelevant parts of the quotation through use of the ellipsis (…). For example, “I didn’t go the moon, I went much further….I traveled around a great deal” (1001).

In fact, if you have several quotes from the same page that fit together and that you want to use to make one point, use ellipsis to connect them and use just one parenthetical citation for all of dissertation apa 6th, them. 2. Historical. 2. If you need to hunting is just a hobby essay, add an explanatory word inside of a quotation, use brackets to enclose your added material. Thompson calls Tom “the prodigal son who shares [his father’s] escapist impulse” (146). 3. Otto. 3. If you are quoting lines of poetry either from a poem or from a verse play like Oedipus , as a run-in quotation, you should use a slash with a space on each side (/) to separate the lines from one another: In Julius Caesar , Anthony begins his famous speech: “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; / I came to bury Caesar not to praise him.” Verse quotations of finishing school essay, more than three lines should begin on a new line. Add no quotation marks that do not appear in the original.

It is in act 2 of As You Like It that Jacques is given the speech that many think contains a glimpse of Shakespeare’s conception of drama: All the world’s stage. And all the historical, men and women merely players: They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts,

His acts being seven ages. Jacques then proceeds to enumerate and analyze these ages. 4. 4. Always cite page numbers at the end of prose quotations and line numbers at the end of poetry quotations. 5. 5. Always write in present tense and double space if you type. 6. Edition. 6. Always mention the title and author in essays the introduction and deal with the theme at cheap write coaching least by otto historical essays the conclusion.

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The Art Of Benin Essays and otto essays Research Papers. location of Benin art remains a controversy over coaching and mentoring whether it should be returned to its place of origin. It is vital to observe . the “encounter” between (Woods, 2008, ‘THE ART OF BENIN ’, p.7) Europe and the kingdom of Benin , when the Benin artefacts were initially plundered and confiscated in the “‘punitive expedition’” (Mackie, 2008, ‘1897: the ‘punitive expedition’, p.23). Essays! The British opinion of the cant essay national - cameroon Benin people as a “savage and brutal” (Loftus, 2008, The British Museum and the Benin ‘antiquities’. Aesthetics , Art , Benin 1698 Words | 5 Pages. Why is the ownership of Benin Art so controversial? The ownership of Benin Art could have been so . controversial for a number of reasons.

Most notably I would say, is otto essays, due to the Anthropologists seeing it as a cultural insight into the history of Benin however when people were introduced to start looking at the artefacts from also a more artistic approach, this, for the anthropologists was taking the cultural effect away from it. Some people may have felt hostile to how these artefacts were obtained. Africa , African people , Culture 967 Words | 3 Pages. TMA 05 The Art of Benin , Part 1, Option A Look closely at hunting essay, Plate 3.1.16 which shows a figure of a Portuguese man holding a . manilla. What can this work of art tell us about cross cultural encounters? Cross cultural encounters happen every day, in otto historical essays business, people holidaying abroad, even in schooling and banking. These encounters can take many forms, the way we deal with other ethnicities problems, the way we greet people from other cultures, the different clothes worn by different cultures. Africa , African art , Art 1535 Words | 5 Pages. Read carefully Reading 2.6, ‘Works of Art from Benin City’, in Write Book 3 Chapter 2 and look closely at Plate 3.2.27, Plate . showing four sixteenth century brass plaques from Benin ’, in the illustration book.

With close attention to both, discuss reasons why the ownership and hintze historical essays location of the art of Benin have been controversial and help national security affairs - cameroon continue to be so. The Places which home the otto essays artwork of Benin have and continue to dissertation headings summary cause controversy. They did not always as they did in the late nineteenth century. Africa , African art , Art 1706 Words | 5 Pages. MUSEUMS AND THEIR VOICES A CONTEMPORARY STUDY OF THE BENIN BRONZES WRITTEN BY Charlotta Dohlvik SUPERVISORS Staffan Lunden and Peter Davis . Otto! Master’s Dissertation, May 2006 International Museum Studies, Museion, Goteborg University 1 ABSTRACT. 4 1. BACKGROUND . Benin , Benin Bronzes , Benin Empire 15754 Words | 47 Pages. Weeks Art History Ms. Cherashore 4/1/13 Benin Plaques Art around the school angelou world serves all . different purposes, not all of these seem traditional to the people of western civilization. For example the art of many african tribes and cultures is very different from the classic styles of the otto historical european tradition. Essays For Money - Can …! Art from these areas usually serves a larger purpose to the people. Either representing religious figures or the otto historical essays leaders of the tribe.

The subjects of these works of art are often. Art , Benin Empire , Monarchy 1161 Words | 3 Pages. Bronzing the Benin Royalty Throughout African history, many societies have remained immortal through the passing of traditions, oral . storytelling, and cultural values. Headings Apa 6th Edition Summary! However, a significantly tangible piece of each and every society in Africa is the art that has been uniquely bound to the specific region from which it came. From the hintze pottery of ancient Nubian Kingdom of the Nile River region to the terracotta figurines of the West African Mali Empire, art has served as a visual portrayal of. Benin , Benin Empire , Bini people 991 Words | 3 Pages. tma Assignment 05 Benin Cross Cultural Encounters. traders and headings apa 6th edition executive the people of Benin , leading to Portuguese figures depicted in Benin art and furthermore our . understanding of cross-cultural encounters in otto hintze historical general The plaque under consideration (plate 3.9.1) is hunting, of three forward facing warriors, dressed in only a lower robe, wearing hats sporting flaps at either side, looking intently at the viewer. They are carrying either bronze manillas or bracelets conveying the Portuguese trading with them or even the importance of the Benin warrior. Hintze Historical! They are placed. 16th century , 2nd millennium , Benin 1678 Words | 4 Pages.

?Chapter One The Art of Benin I I. Introduction A. Hunting! Cultural Encounters Between Europe and Benin from the Fifteenth . to the Twentieth Century 1. Hintze Historical! The trade in objects in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 2. The imperial confrontations of the late nineteenth century 3. The engagement with ideas about art in the twentieth century B. European Contacts with Benin Europeans first became aware of the angelou essay existence of Benin through Portuguese traders in the fifteenth century. The accounts left behind indicate. Benin , Benin Bronzes , Benin Empire 6978 Words | 16 Pages. ?African Art History African art history has played a significant role in shaping the culture and history of the historical world. The . belief that Africa is the cradle of the history of mankind is virtually unshakeable. The origins of African art history lie long before recorded history, preserved in cant essay - cameroon the obscurity of otto essays, time. Rock Art is centuries old, while shell beads fashioned for a necklace have been recovered in a cave in the furthest reach of the southern peninsula of South Africa that are 75 000 years. Africa , Atlantic slave trade , Benin Bronzes 865 Words | 3 Pages. (Singapore) Art , culture, and society; these three elements are closely linked. These three elements affect one another in one way or another. . There is often a conflict of interest between the artist, the audience, and the government body. The artist’s aim is to school by maya express art freely.

The audience’s aim is to otto hintze historical view art in forms that are not offensive to them. The government’s aim is to mitigate the conflict of interest between the essay affairs - cameroon two parties by hintze implementing policies and restrictions to art pieces that. Aesthetics , Art , Artist 1171 Words | 3 Pages. Art 1030: ART APPRECIATION Dr. Carol Ventura Study Guide for First Test Spring 2015 You do not have to know the help cant essay national security affairs - cameroon names of . Essays! artists or their work for this test. Cant Do My Essay National Security! The first test will be multiple choice and will cover terms and media only. These words are from the text, lectures, and videos. I suggest you make a flashcard for otto essays, each word with the cheap and mentoring word and a photocopy of the example from the book (if there is one) on one side and the meaning and context on otto historical the other.

When you study with the flash cards. Arch , Barrel vault , Color 487 Words | 2 Pages. ?Grozen Benjelyn M. IV BSBA Project exam: reflection paper Ayala museum is the Write for money … home of the Philippines art , history and otto hintze historical culture. It . is where collections of iconic paintings, historic dioramas and historic costumes are displayed. Ayala museum is inspirational and to observe the vintage Filipina costumes. I visited the ayala museum with my tree classmates before our group came to museum some places in finishing by maya angelou essay ayala are so interested so my classmates and me taking pictures. It is my first time.

Ayala Corporation , Bank of the otto hintze historical essays Philippine Islands , Jaime Augusto Zobel 1759 Words | 5 Pages. communicate and if it has improved or been detrimental to the art of for money online …, communication. Essays! In the 21st century, the human race has more ways to . communicate than ever before. This includes the use of the internet, the mobile phone, television and radio, as well as written and spoken communication. Edition! With all these methods, why do some argue that the art of communication has been lost?

This essay will discuss how the internet has affected this art but it has not been lost but simply modified. Communication. Communication , History of the Internet , Instant messaging 1060 Words | 4 Pages. the visual aspects of art and architecture, line, shape, color, light, texture, space, math, volume, and composition. Style – the combination . of form and composition that makes a work distinctive. Content – includes subject matter or meaning and a work of art . School of artists – a group of artist usually working at the same time and sharing similar style influences and ideas Iconography – identify and hintze essays studying and subject matter and conventional symbols and works of arts . Representational –. 2nd millennium BC , Babylon , Borobudur 1106 Words | 9 Pages. Altar to the Hand Analysisn Benin, 18th-19th C. Altar to the Hand (Ikegobo) of Ezomo Ehenua 18th–19th century Nigeria; court of Benin Brass Here we have an interesting piece from . Dissertation Headings Apa 6th Edition Executive! modern day Nigeria. Press play for otto essays, a formal description, the historical background, and an explanation of the How to meaning of various aspects of otto historical essays, this object.

Formal Description: This sculpture is essays for money online, truly a remarkable work in many senses. Hintze! As a whole, it is sculpted in the round. The figures on top of the piece are also sculpted in the round. Finishing By Maya Essay! The figures surrounding. Benin , Benin City , Commander 1290 Words | 4 Pages.

What is considered art has been a controversial question for many years in otto historical essays history and today. There are various forms and types of . Do My National Affairs! art . Because art is very complex and diverse, it is viewed and conceptualized in hintze historical many different ways. Nancy G. Heller states even though a type of artwork is How to, hard to understand, it’s considered art , and otto historical artwork that people don’t understand shouldn’t be disregarded from other types of art . She feels as though people shouldn’t be intimidated by artwork that’s hard to by maya angelou essay understand. Art , Cubism , Present 1296 Words | 4 Pages. legal studies ranking lower. In today’s fast evolving world, leaders across the spectrum of vocations and professions need a broad imaginative and critical . capacity, not a prematurely narrow point of view. In terms of the actual world, a solid liberal arts and sciences education will generally prove the most practical preparation for many demanding, high-level careers, or for otto essays, the several careers that an increasing number of adults will eventually pursue.

No particular concentration or area of study is. Bachelor of Arts , Education , Higher education 2521 Words | 7 Pages. Art History World Art Exam II 1. Is Just A Hobby Essay! In this paper were going to hintze essays look at four different cultures and two pieces of . Cheap! art work from each. These are cultures that we have discussed in class over this last semester and our found in the book Art a Brief History by Marilyn Stokstad and hintze historical Michael W. Cothren . The four cultures of art that we are going to look at hunting a hobby essay, are Japanize, Chinese, Indian, and African. Otto Hintze! The Japanese started out in cheap write my essay and mentoring the beginning borrowing the Chinese and Korean culture, and blending. China , Chinese painting , Culture 2559 Words | 7 Pages. ? Introduction Benin Bronze is hintze essays, some beautifully produced by African artists, art work. Benin Bronze was one . of the best peices of is just essay, artwork produced in Africa. It was carved from brass in the late 1800s. They made for the very powerful king, King Oba. Otto Essays! Benin Bronze was made to decorate the pillars in his palace.

Background Story Benin Bronze was stolen by British. At the end of the 19th century, the British Empire was in charge of nearly a quarter of the world. Write My Essay Coaching! Other countries wanted the same. Atlantic slave trade , British Empire , Colonialism 531 Words | 4 Pages. New Art Verse The Real World Has Art Changed overtime? Art today needs to be more interesting and unique because . people are not as in to art as they were years ago.

Art needs to keep with the modern day, which means artist need to make their art challenging and shocking. New art needs to add pieces of the real world in to the art piece to otto essays catch people’s eyes and also for the audience and can relate to. It also needs to cheap my essay coaching be able to keep up with the otto historical essays real world, which means new art needs to be constantly. Change , Graffiti , History of painting 1085 Words | 3 Pages. Street Art ? Street art is arguably classed as Urban Art and also known as Contemporary Art . This . form of Write - Can, Art represents the voice of the lower class in debate with the otto historical essays political class, they express themselves with sprays on plaster and endure 'A life spent scribbling in books scrambling over walls and fences, scrawling on is just a hobby essay any available surface'. It is today accepted by otto historical essays designers and help do my essay security affairs - cameroon artists who also are influenced by these contemporary visualised forms, this form of otto historical, contemporary art has changed. Art , Banksy , Graffiti 1532 Words | 5 Pages. subject.

It is consist of the visual arts , literature, drama and theater, music, and dance. 1. Visual Arts The visual . arts sre those that we perceive with our eyes. It involve not only painting and sculpture but include such things as clothes, household appliances, and furnishing of our homes, schools, and buildings. Write More Creatively! They may be classified into two groups; graphic arts (flat or two-dimensional surface) and plastic arts (three-dimensional). a. Graphic Arts Broadly, this term covers any. Art , Arts , Fauvism 1160 Words | 5 Pages.

medium one chooses to hintze historical essays use to express oneself determine whether or not it is truly art ? While digital artists’ artistic ability is often . questioned and the credit is given to the computer being used, the art itself springs from the mind of the digital artist. I can say this with personal fervor: Digital art is Write, truly in essence a form of art that merely takes advantage of the innovations of otto, modern technology. Help Do My National Security - Cameroon! Digital Art isn’t computer-generated. While it might involve using tools offered by specialized. Art , Computer , Computer graphics 1392 Words | 4 Pages. The Art of Living As everyone knows, ink is something that can never be undone. It is otto essays, something permanent and is very difficult to cover . up or remove. It can be in a form as simple as a pen caressing a piece of paper or as complex as a needle drenched in ink, piercing through skin to form a different kind of art , known as a tattoo. As times are changing, tattoos seem to be getting a lot more common in my generation compared to previous ones.

As tattoos become more popular, so do the criticisms. Family , Permanent makeup , Tattoo 1508 Words | 3 Pages. A close examination of the formal qualities of the finishing by maya angelou essay brass altar head of the oba of Benin was quite exciting. The brass head was chosen for . analysis due to its rich historic and cultural affluence civilization it depicts.Dating back to the 16th century,it is amazing that a quality work of art as the altar head has been in existence since in the interior of west Africa ,telling a story of hintze historical essays, civilization,cultural heritage and cant - cameroon finesse obtainable as at then, thus making me analyse it to discover other aspects. An Oak Tree , Art critic , Formalism 2681 Words | 7 Pages. Is Love an otto hintze historical Art ? Is love an help cant do my essay security affairs - cameroon art ? Then it requires knowledge and effort. Or is love a pleasant sensation, which to experience is a . matter of chance, something one falls into if one is lucky?

This little book is based on the former premise, while undoubtedly the majority of people today believe in the latter. Not that people think that love is not important. Otto Hintze Historical Essays! They are starved for it; they watch endless numbers of films about dissertation apa 6th edition executive summary happy and unhappy love stories, they listen to hundreds of trashy songs. Interpersonal relationship , Love , Lust 1497 Words | 4 Pages. UNIVERSITY OF BENIN , BENIN CITY FACULTY OF ARTS DEPARTMENT OF THEATRE ARTS / MASS COMMUNICATION . NAME: OBONO MONICA OKA LEVEL: 100 COURSE TITLE/CODE: NIGERIAN GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION (POL 112) ASSIGNMENT: DISCUSS THE MACPHERSON CONSTITUTION OF 1951 LECTURER: OSAZUWA JOHN DATE: JANUARY, 2013 TABLE OF CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION TO MACPHERSON CONSTITUTION OF 1951 …………….. 3 2. FEATURES OF MACPHERSON CONSTITUTION.

British Empire , Federalism , Legislature 1457 Words | 8 Pages. Art : Comparing Medieval Art to Renaissance Art. Art Appreciation Name: Chadwick West Instructor: xxxxxxxxxxxx Course: Art Appreciation, ART . Hintze Historical Essays! 137 School: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx December 19, 2012 Comparing Medieval Art to Renaissance Art Medieval art period Medieval art covers a large scope of time. The period covered over 1000 years of art in Europe, Middle East and essays … North Africa. Otto Historical! The period was characterized by major art movements based on national art and regional art . There was also. Europe , Gothic art , Italy 1248 Words | 4 Pages. African art constitutes one of the my essay and mentoring most diverse legacies on hintze historical earth.

Though many casual observers tend to generalize African art , . the continent is full of peoples, societies, and civilizations, each with a unique visual special culture. The definition also includes the art of the African Americans. Despite this diversity, there are some unifying artistic themes when considering the totality of the help do my security affairs visual culture from the continent of Africa. Hintze Essays! The origins of African art lie long before recorded history. Africa , African art , African Union 2316 Words | 6 Pages. Art History: Abstract Art vs. Pop Art. There have been different art forms that have come and gone over the course of time. Some of the most intriguing art forms in headings edition my . Historical Essays! mind come from the 20th century.

Out of all of these 20th century art forms, geometric abstract art and pop art are my favorite. These two art movements came close to each other in reference to time period. Geometric abstract art originated in How to More Creatively the 7th century but became a dominant movement in historical essays 1937. Write For Money - Can …! Pop art emerged in the 1950s. Otto Hintze! These two art forms were similar in ways but.

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The woman bathing in front of the painting is seating in cant essay security affairs - cameroon cold water. The painting shows how she is being pampered by her family. She has fruit in essays front of her so she can eat while bathing. The woman bathing has a shower cap on her with a pear dropping from it. The pear on her shower cap matches her earring. Catherine de' Medici , Francois Clouet , French Renaissance 1231 Words | 3 Pages.

Art and dissertation apa 6th edition executive Non-Art in Popular Culture. I think a lot of graffiti is art but not all of otto hintze historical, it. Not every piece of canvas with paint on help cant essay security it is art either. Essays! (Student response . to a query about security affairs street art ) When discussing art in otto hintze historical essays popular culture there are very few boundaries to adhere to. Cant Security Affairs - Cameroon! Almost any form of media can be considered as art . But not all works are good examples of art and hintze there are several determining factors that help to decide on the artistic quality of a hobby, a piece. This essay will discuss in response to the above quote the identifiable. Aesthetics , Art , Conceptual art 1900 Words | 5 Pages. Art Industry Issue, Graffiti as Art. Studio Art - James Borg Question 7-Identify an art industry issue that you have studied this year. Historical! -Identify and my essay and mentoring describe . key ideas and/or concerns in the issue. -What do you think about the issue. Art Industry Issue -Is graffiti becoming more of a crime than art and how can it be controlled. Graffiti originated in New York in the late 1970s. It started off with locals writing their names on walls and historical essays subway train just for fame.

Before and after that though there were other types. Art , Art genres , Graffiti 1201 Words | 4 Pages. ? Art is life, it is beauty, it is emotion, it is you, it is me, it is everything. Do My Essay National Security - Cameroon! Art defines all that we are, and all that we . could become. Art is of the hintze historical past and of the Write for money … future, of the influences of our daily lives, of our pasts combined with who we are today. Art is an indescribable joy, an expansion of the historical mind, body and finishing angelou essay soul.

We are art , every last individual of the human race. Art comes in the form of music, dance, theater, painting, drawing, blowing, throwing, and even in the math equations. Aesthetics , Ancient Egypt , Art 2290 Words | 4 Pages. ? Art Forgeries When one enters into an art museum, one would expect all of the pieces of art to be that of the otto . original. However, when an finishing school angelou art lover does not know the difference between an original from a forgery, then they may have been fooled by both the museum and by the forger. No one can really look at a painting and otto distinctly know whether it is a forged piece of cant security affairs, work or an original piece of work. Art forgeries may seem like an artist copying a well-known artists work, but it depends on how. Aesthetics , Art , Art critic 964 Words | 3 Pages.

Asian art Asian art can refer to art amongst many cultures in Asia. Azerbaijani art Folk . arts in Azerbaijan have a long and interesting history. Otto! Works of art made from metal extracted from Nakhichevan, Migachevir, Gadanay, Gandja and other places are approximately 5000 years old. Crockery, weapons and for money adornments found here are not historical facts alone, but valuable sources which testify the skills of the master. Different pictures, scraped on housing implements made from copper, bronze, gold. Art , Art by nationality , Asian art 1813 Words | 6 Pages. Kurt Shima LA 202 Helen Klonaris April 17, 2013 The Importance of the Arts Math was always my least favorite subject in school.

I always . Historical Essays! had difficulty remembering the is just essay formulas and all the different rules. I didn’t do well in all the other core subjects either. With no motivation and no interest, my grades quickly suffered. I was always watching movies and television instead of doing homework. Hintze Historical! So when I saw that I could take acting class as an elective in high school, it was obviously my first. Art , Better , Education 1748 Words | 5 Pages. ?Fashion and Art A controversial debate that has existed for many years, and will probably still be argued for school angelou essay, many years to come, is the . relatively close relationship that fashion and Art has. People in both the fashion and art industries (or as some artists like to call: ' art world') have very mixed opinions and ideas on the collaboration of historical, fashion and help cant do my national art and how one may influence the other in the industry we live in today. “ Art is Art and otto historical Fashion is an industry”, as quoted from in Michael. Art , Art critic , Arts 885 Words | 3 Pages. definition of art . Although commonly used to describe something of beauty, or a skill which produces an aesthetic result, there is hunting a hobby essay, no clear . line in principle between (say) a unique piece of handmade sculpture, and a mass-produced but visually attractive item. We might say that art requires thought - some kind of creative impulse - but this raises more questions: for example, how much thought is historical essays, required?

If someone flings paint at a canvas, hoping by this action to cheap and mentoring create a work of art , does the result. Aesthetics , Applied art , Art 1640 Words | 3 Pages. Degenerate Art : Art in Post WWI Germany Alex Shin College Writing Mrs. Shorter February 25, 2013 Word Count: 1316 . Degenerate Art : Art in Post WWI Germany Paintings, photographs, music, movies, and writing: what unites these together? Not only do they each hold their own specific art category, but they are all various forms of communication. Although many of the items noted are not direct forms of an historical essays exchange like speech, they still have the ability to cant do my affairs convey a powerful message with ease. Adolf Hitler , Alfred Rosenberg , Degenerate art 1425 Words | 4 Pages. Discover When people think about art , I’m fairly certain that most of them don’t thinkof videogames as their prime referent, instead opting . for paintings and sculptures.

In the mind of the general public, some believe art lies in works that are complex enough and that mimic reality accurately. Others judge art as the Fine Arts , which are those intended uniquely for beauty instead of utility, like a painting or a song. For critics and connoisseurs like Robert Belton, art is the product of a human activity. Aesthetics , Art 1905 Words | 5 Pages. Danto mean by the End of Art ? The end of art is not the death of art , but the wholesale elimination of what used . to be considered art and its replacement by a new concept: pluralism. When art has exhausted itself and this concept has been brought into otto essays the forefront of the consciousness, this awareness signals the end of for money - Can, art . Art is no longer art in the traditional sense (having a manifesto-aesthetically pleasing, etc.) because the accessibility to art and to create art has allowed the masses to. Aesthetics , Andy Warhol , Art 1983 Words | 5 Pages. Art Therapy: Is It Effective? Georgia O’Keeffe once said, “I found I could say things with color and shapes that I couldn’t say any other . way.

Things I had no words for.” The actual creation of art triggers an unconscious process helping a person connect with his emotions (Kotwas). The process is said to historical essays enhance the finishing school by maya essay physical, mental, and emotional well-being of otto hintze historical, individuals of help cant do my national - cameroon, all ages and backgrounds. The expressive arts do not discriminate and is an effective alternative to traditional psychotherapy. Art , Art therapy , Arts 1815 Words | 6 Pages. Art is a powerful medium of communication with the world at large, artists hold the power to influence the way people think and otto historical live. . Essay! Art defines our consciousness; therefore, it can impart and instruct as well as entertain at otto hintze historical essays, the same time. -artists serve the function of being role models in society because of help cant security affairs, their far reaching influence so it is obligatory on their part that they seek to establish a correlation between a proper ethical conduct and their artistic expression How best to otto hintze historical define. Aesthetics , Art , Arts 1188 Words | 4 Pages. Arts in Culture Art is about ideas and representing them into hunting visible perceptions and concepts. Historical Essays! These ideas come from the heart . and mind of the individual artist, putting all the write my essay talent they have into the artwork. In a way, that makes everyone that can specialize in a certain activity and create their expressions an otto hintze historical essays artist. A cook preparing a meal with an Write More appetizing appearance, an artist painting a beautiful painting, or a football star breaking a tackle for a game-winning touchdown all have the. Aesthetics , Art , Artist 1502 Words | 4 Pages.

American Art Before and After World War II Melissa Kirkland ARTS /125 August 10, 2015 DOROTHEA LANGE • American photographer. • . From 1914 to 1917 she attended the otto essays New York Training School for Teachers and there decided to become a photographer, partly influenced by visits to the photographer Arnold Genthe. • From 1917 to 1918 she attended a photography course run by Clarence H. White at Columbia University, NY. “Migrant “White Angel Breadline” Mother” WALKER EVANS • American Photographer and. Farm Security Administration , Great Depression , Jackson Pollock 568 Words | 13 Pages. ? The Advantages and Disadvantages of Art Therapy Phua Yu Ting HELP University Outline I. Introduction A. Opener: B. Thesis statement: . There are advantages and disadvantages of art therapy. II. The first advantage of art therapy is it helps people to express thoughts, feelings, and conflicts.

A. Adults 1. Self-discovery and hunting is just a hobby self-expression 2. Emotional growth B. Children 1. Hintze Historical Essays! Relief stress 2. Express feelings with limited vocabularies III. Art therapy provides individuals with control over specific. Art , Art therapy , Arts 2061 Words | 10 Pages. ?Visual Arts : Their Ability to Become a Universal Language Visual Arts : the channel of education, through which all men grow and . advance in the world, no matter their provenance. Why hesitate to cheap write and mentoring admit the true nature of what art really means? For many it means a life. It is historical, important for everyone to Write Creatively recognize and realize that visual arts have, indeed, become an important part of everyone’s everyday lives, and are widely recognized to otto historical the extent that they have the ability to be understood as a universal.

Ancient Greece , Art , Arts 2547 Words | 9 Pages. Write a 3-5 page paper on school by maya angelou arts integration practices using APA style. The paper must focus on otto historical essays the student’s understanding on development of essay national affairs - cameroon, a . Otto Historical Essays! definition of arts integration in at least one art area. Write Coaching! (Use at hintze, least three reference materials for the paper and use appropriate citations to avoid plagiarism. Is Just! Arts integration combines curriculum and teaching among dance, music, theatre, and visual art , and interconnects the arts with non- arts subjects. Hintze Historical! Integration takes many forms as teachers from different. Art education , Education , Educational psychology 1755 Words | 6 Pages. Introduction to ART 105 Introduction to by maya angelou essay Term Paper Assignment 1: Main Art Styles: Photocopy Materials 1 20.08.13 STUDIO: . Introduction to Studio Assignment 1: Make 2 Samples of Impressionist Art ========================================================================= 2 26.08.13 STUDIO: Hand in Assignment 1: Impressionist Art Briefing on Picture Collections 2 27.08.13 THEORY: Birth of Art [Presentation] TERM PAPER: Assignment 1: Reading Assignment: Topic: Main Art Styles =======. 2nd millennium , Arts , Centuries 466 Words | 3 Pages.

Art has had a great number of different functions throughout its history, making its purpose difficult to abstract or quantify to any single . concept. Hintze Historical Essays! This does not imply that the purpose of Art is vague, but that it has had many unique, different reasons for being created. Some of write my essay coaching and mentoring, these functions of essays, Art are provided in essays for money online … the following outline. The different purposes of art may be grouped according to those that are non-motivated, and those that are motivated (Levi-Strauss). Non-motivated functions. Aesthetics , Art , Art therapy 1119 Words | 3 Pages. Through the historical essays ages, art has played a fundamental role in life. We experience Art on a daily basis because it’s universal and . therefore everywhere. Art plays a huge part in making our lives considerably rich.

Imagine, just for a second, a world with no art . You may probably think So what? but just consider the finishing school by maya essay impact that lack of graphics would have on your favorite video game, on Internet. Hintze Essays! Art gives people a way to a hobby essay be imaginative and express themselves. Otto Hintze Essays! For some people, art is one of the school reasons. Art , Artist , Arts 1258 Words | 3 Pages. to budgetary and other issues arts programs have continuously been cut in many educational institutions. Hintze Historical Essays! Describing in by maya angelou detail the . arts as an area of knowledge what is the otto hintze historical value of the arts in the educational experience? Due to cheap write several issues, especially budgetary, many art programs have been cut in educational institutions. This is because many institutions, when faced with economic problems tend to cut the expenses of art supplies that are required to hintze essays sustain art programs offered at places such. Art , Arts , Education 1314 Words | 4 Pages. The arts are individual, expressive, creative and help essay national security affairs a form of communication that engages students in critical and creative thinking and otto assist . them in expressing themselves and understand the world around them.

The research conducted the finishing school field of otto historical essays, arts education highlights the correlation between the arts and cognitive development, social development and the improvement of a student’s emotional wellbeing (Burton, et.al 2004, ACER 2004, Heath amp; Roach 1999). The impending Australia Curriculum in Arts. Cognition , Cognitive psychology , Critical thinking 1071 Words | 4 Pages. ?Alexis Iradi Professor Mantle ENG102-02 13 December 2013 The Importance of the Arts in Education “Involvement in the . More Creatively! arts is associated with gains in math, reading, cognitive ability, critical thinking, and verbal skill” (Smith 1). Otto Hintze! The benefits of art in finishing school by maya a children’s life are endless, yet the arts are not taken seriously in many school district and instead are being taken out and replaced with other classes that are thought to improve students abilities on standardized tests.

The. Childhood , Cognition , Communication 1857 Words | 7 Pages. IS PHOTOGRAPHY ART ? This is, I think, one of the most challenging and interesting subjects I have ever written about: Photography as a Fine . Art . Otto Essays! In order to begin we have to define the word Art , this definition is quite blurred in Write More Creatively my own eyes. What is Art ? Is it the process of making something amazing? Or is the amazing result of that process, or is actually both? Is Art just simply a different way of communication using different kind of otto hintze, instruments?

The definition I consider is the How to Write most. Aesthetics , Art , Camera 1052 Words | 4 Pages. What comes to mind when you think of art class in an elementary classroom? Most people would think of students painting, drawing, cutting, . gluing, or creating some project. Otto Hintze Historical Essays! Few people realize that art instruction includes much more. Art education encompasses four areas of dissertation summary, emphasis: dance, music, theater, and hintze historical essays visual arts . Hunting A Hobby Essay! Each area is equally important in creating a well-rounded art education. This essay will explore the hintze essays four areas of art emphasis, their content, and examples of essays for money online - Can …, how to teach. Art , Art education , Arts 945 Words | 3 Pages. What is art ? Can we give a current definition of something so abstractive and unboundless like that? In our modern world, everything which is . not understandable for the mass audience automatically receives the historical essays label Art from his creator. Maybe art is help national security, something which is not for otto hintze historical essays, everyone.

You can find lots of popular definitions on the internet, on google.com and wikipedia.com, also lots of quotes of famous people of art . But what is How to Write Creatively, art for the normal people? The people who don't know what linocut. Art , Florence , Leonardo da Vinci 989 Words | 3 Pages.

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A hackers guide to the GAMSAT essay question. GAMSAT is basically designed to narrow down graduate applicants for medical school. It does this rather ruthlessly but serves medical schools well, in otto historical essays reducing the applicants they must consider for a place. How To Write? The most discerning part of the otto historical essays test is probably the essay question. There are a few reasons why this is deemed difficult by cant do my essay national security, most graduates. Many graduates today, particularly those from a science background, have little experience in essay writing. Many graduates are not as well read as they would like to be and so lack confidence in writing about current issues with confidence. Otto Hintze? For the not so well read, trying to get the required level of knowledge over such a wide range of topics could take over essays for money online a year of careful reading of selected books and articles. (see last section of this article) Key points for your GAMSAT essay strategy. 1.Your essay is an argument. This is obvious to seasoned essay writers, but actually a key point that never quite gets explained properly to the rest of us.

Any essay has to essays, have a central point of view that its writer is seeking to headings edition executive summary, convince the reader about. Each point made in the essay will contribute to the formation of an often multi-faceted argument. Hintze? As an essay writer you can and finishing angelou, should include arguments made by ‘the other side’ that you disagree with and then explain why you think they are invalid or at least why they fail to disprove your central argument. The conclusion should tie the argument together and give a final parting shot for your side. Don’t worry about the over-reliance on figures and data but do get an idea of the way the argument builds up sentence by sentence, paragraph by essays, paragraph. Key point: His point of help cant essay affairs - cameroon, view is so clear to the reader that you can literally scan the article and miss some points and hintze historical, pick up on others and regardless of this, the central thrust of the argument is always clear. 2. Help Cant National? Writing the essay plan should take longer than writing the essay. This is controversial, but it is something I was told at hintze essays an early age and it has always served me well. The steps to writing a plan are as follows:

Decide on the overall thrust of your argument. (Hackers tip: If your knowledge in this area is really sketchy and you’re in a tight corner come back to this step once you have listed your points and can defend at finishing school by maya angelou essay least ONE viewpoint adequately) Use a whole sheet and place rough headings for. As quickly as you can, add points to each section in whichever order they come to your into head . If the conclusion is clear, get that down first. Personally, I often put my main argument and counter arguments down first. Scribble them down. Historical Essays? Hurry up. Number the points in the order you want them to How to Write Creatively, appear in the essay. This is unlikely to be the order in otto which you’ve written them down. They should flow easily from one point to finishing angelou, the next, making the essay easy to read and otto historical essays, the argument easy to grasp.

Remember, your examiner will probably not read every word but skim. The better it flows, the quicker that lazy, cheating, skim reading examiner, can score you well and move on to the next paper! Write the essay. Twenty minutes of planning followed by 10 minutes of writing takes guts but is the an ideal formula. (Ammend this if you feel it doesn#8217;t work for Write …, you. It does take nerves of steel in an exam setting) This ensures your plan is perfectly tuned and all your points are clear.

Writing the hintze historical essay should simply be a case of transferring your plan into a neater form with all the points in the correct order. And Mentoring? Keep your argument simple and otto historical essays, easy to cheap write my essay coaching and mentoring, understand. Use lots of simple individual points for your argument rather than a convoluted or complex point that requires careful reading to digest. This is easy for most science graduates, but if you’ve spent your undergrad years writing sophisticated essays for politics or English literature, now is the time to dumb things down. Ask yourself, will this essay score lots of points in quick succession, or will it be better appreciated by otto hintze, an academic with a keen interest in this area? You definitely want the quick, successive point scoring style for your GAMSAT essay.

4. Sound like an authority. Make your points concisely and finishing school angelou, confidently to sound like you know what you’re talking about. Use correct grammar, spelling and style. Use correct terminology including technical terms. Quote statistics, surveys, and otto historical, other forms of ‘evidence’ to back up your points wherever possible. (Although fabricated surveys showing X or Y to help cant affairs, be true are not easily verifiable by your examiner, they can cause you to lose badly if you get found out. You simply don#8217;t need to do this for GAMSAT yes, you know who you are!) Sound like you actually care a lot about the topic. Otto Historical? Again this will lend credibility to your argument.

Use up to date examples from the mainstream media (ie broadsheet newspapers). In this day and age you are considered well read if you read a newspaper regularly. (If you think this is ridiculous, I agree.) These are all techniques used by most modern day journalists, almost all of whom are not specialists (or even knowledgeable) in any area at help do my essay affairs all. 5. So how can I think of good points to otto hintze historical essays, make when my brain is actually empty! If you have more than six months before you sit the write my essay GAMSAT, it is otto hintze definitely worth having some sort of reading regime that will help you feel confident constructing arguments that are pitched at the correct level for the GAMSAT essay. Ideally you also want to read things that will make you sound well rounded and intelligent at your future interview and Creatively, kill two birds with one reading regime. Hintze? You might have been told that there are no shortcuts to this but in How to More Creatively fact there are: Read a newspaper every day.

If you want to follow my advice, this means a quick look through the hintze guardian headlines each day (currently free online), skimming through any useful news and reading through the editorials and the opinion pieces a little more carefully. This chap writes about anything well and will save you much thinking. Have a quick look through the reader comments below each article too for Write for money online - Can, any useful points. I’ve found that over 90% of GAMSAT essay questions can be dealt with perfectly with just the material available on the Guardian comment is free section of the website. Otto Hintze Essays? What could be easier? For those with more time, read the finishing school latest key texts on various current topics.For a complete critique on the media, this cannot be bettered. Hintze Historical Essays? For a lowdown on ethics in current political life try this. Book reviews in the LRB are an amazing way to digest the key arguments contained in Write More a book without going to otto historical essays, the trouble of reading the whole book.

The essays are always written by experts in the field. They are often good material for interview practice too. Not all are free, but subscription isn’t too expensive and you get a paper copy posted to you each fortnight. How To Write More? I would particularly recommend David Runcimans pieces. For other sources of free, online, high quality writing on current affairs, try the otto historical following: d) Spiked online -plenty of simple arguments to emulate. Do not overestimate the competition. If you do the simple things mentioned above, you will kill off the competition with ease.

Most people read advice but never act on online it. Do a little reading each day, do a few practice questions (not too many) just to get the timing and technique right, and then concentrate on other areas of the GAMSAT and your med school application. Like what you read? There’s more… The above is all correct to the best of our knowledge and inside information channels. Do the decent thing and please forward to anyone you think may find it useful. Anything to add? Comments are open! Thanks. All in one strategy.

As you say there are no shortcuts but this sounds like the nearest thing! The last 4 links are awesome thanks. An article a day should do it eh? It depends on your proficiency in current affairs. Otto Hintze Essays? An article a day over a few months sounds good. My method would be to read it quickly once, then re-read looking at the structure of the write my essay argument and otto historical, key points used. Finally try recalling the key points that made up the argument.

The whole process shouldn#8217;t take more than half an hour. Thanks for this. Am half expecting an my essay coaching invoice from you Leo! Invoice is in the post G#8230; Thank you for providing such an amazing resource.

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concept luxury essay I. THE BROKEN WINDOW. II. THE DISBANDING OF TROOPS. IV. THEATRES AND FINE ARTS. XI. FRUGALITY AND LUXURY. XII. HAVING A RIGHT TO WORK, HAVING A RIGHT TO PROFIT. Originally published in July 1850.

Unidentified translator, most likely someone from the FEE . Downloaded from David T. Freeman's Personal Empowerment Resources . Edited by Francois-Rene Rideau . See also the original french text on Bastiat.org . In the department of economy, an act, a habit, an institution, a law, gives birth not only to an effect, but to a series of effects. Of these effects, the otto hintze essays first only is immediate; it manifests itself simultaneously with its cause it is Write for money online …, seen. Otto Hintze Historical. The others unfold in succession they are not seen: it is well for us, if they are foreseen. Between a good and a bad economist this constitutes the whole difference the finishing by maya one takes account of the visible effect; the other takes account both of the effects which are seen, and also of those which it is necessary to foresee. Now this difference is enormous, for it almost always happens that when the immediate consequence is favourable, the ultimate consequences are fatal, and the converse. Hence it follows that the bad economist pursues a small present good, which will be followed by a great evil to come, while the true economist pursues a great good to come, at the risk of a small present evil.

In fact, it is the essays same in the science of health, arts, and in that of morals. It often happens, that the a hobby essay sweeter the first fruit of a habit is, the more bitter are the consequences. Take, for example, debauchery, idleness, prodigality. When, therefore, a man absorbed in the effect which is seen has not yet learned to discern those which are not seen, he gives way to fatal habits, not only by inclination, but by calculation. This explains the fatally grievous condition of mankind. Ignorance surrounds its cradle: then its actions are determined by their first consequences, the otto hintze essays only ones which, in its first stage, it can see. It is only in the long run that it learns to take account of the do my national others. Otto Historical Essays. It has to learn this lesson from two very different masters experience and foresight. Experience teaches effectually, but brutally. It makes us acquainted with all the effects of an action, by is just a hobby essay causing us to feel them; and we cannot fail to finish by knowing that fire burns, if we have burned ourselves. For this rough teacher, I should like, if possible, to substitute a more gentle one.

I mean Foresight. For this purpose I shall examine the consequences of otto historical essays certain economical phenomena, by placing in opposition to each other those which are seen, and those which are not seen. Have you ever witnessed the anger of the good shopkeeper, James B., when his careless son happened to break a square of glass? If you have been present at such a scene, you will most assuredly bear witness to the fact, that every one of the spectators, were there even thirty of essays - Can them, by common consent apparently, offered the unfortunate owner this invariable consolation It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Everybody must live, and what would become of the glaziers if panes of glass were never broken? Now, this form of condolence contains an entire theory, which it will be well to show up in this simple case, seeing that it is precisely the same as that which, unhappily, regulates the greater part of historical essays our economical institutions. Suppose it cost six francs to repair the damage, and you say that the accident brings six francs to the glazier's trade that it encourages that trade to the amount of six francs I grant it; I have not a word to say against it; you reason justly. The glazier comes, performs his task, receives his six francs, rubs his hands, and, in his heart, blesses the careless child. All this is that which is seen. But if, on for money online …, the other hand, you come to the conclusion, as is too often the case, that it is a good thing to break windows, that it causes money to circulate, and that the otto historical essays encouragement of industry in help cant do my national - cameroon general will be the result of it, you will oblige me to call out, Stop there! your theory is confined to that which is seen; it takes no account of that which is not seen.

It is essays, not seen that as our shopkeeper has spent six francs upon Write essays for money …, one thing, he cannot spend them upon another. It is not seen that if he had not had a window to replace, he would, perhaps, have replaced his old shoes, or added another book to his library. In short, he would have employed his six francs in some way, which this accident has prevented. Let us take a view of industry in otto hintze general, as affected by this circumstance. The window being broken, the glazier's trade is encouraged to the amount of six francs; this is that which is seen. If the window had not been broken, the shoemaker's trade (or some other) would have been encouraged to finishing, the amount of six francs; this is that which is not seen.

And if that which is not seen is taken into consideration, because it is a negative fact, as well as that which is otto hintze, seen, because it is a positive fact, it will be understood that neither industry in general, nor the sum total of national labour, is affected, whether windows are broken or not. Now let us consider James B. himself. In the former supposition, that of the window being broken, he spends six francs, and has neither more nor less than he had before, the cant national security - cameroon enjoyment of a window. In the second, where we suppose the window not to have been broken, he would have spent six francs on shoes, and would have had at essays the same time the enjoyment of a pair of shoes and How to Write More Creatively, of a window. Now, as James B. forms a part of society, we must come to the conclusion, that, taking it altogether, and making an estimate of its enjoyments and its labours, it has lost the value of the broken window. When we arrive at this unexpected conclusion: Society loses the value of things which are uselessly destroyed; and we must assent to a maxim which will make the hair of protectionists stand on end To break, to spoil, to waste, is not to encourage national labour; or, more briefly, destruction is not profit. What will you say, Monsieur Industriel -- what will you say, disciples of good M. F. Chamans, who has calculated with so much precision how much trade would gain by the burning of Paris, from the number of houses it would be necessary to rebuild? I am sorry to disturb these ingenious calculations, as far as their spirit has been introduced into our legislation; but I beg him to begin them again, by taking into the account that which is not seen, and placing it alongside of that which is otto hintze, seen. The reader must take care to remember that there are not two persons only, but three concerned in the little scene which I have submitted to his attention. One of them, James B., represents the consumer, reduced, by How to Write More Creatively an act of otto hintze historical destruction, to one enjoyment instead of two.

Another under the hunting a hobby title of the glazier, shows us the producer, whose trade is encouraged by hintze historical the accident. The third is the shoemaker (or some other tradesman), whose labour suffers proportionably by my essay the same cause. It is this third person who is always kept in the shade, and who, personating that which is not seen, is a necessary element of the problem. It is he who shows us how absurd it is to otto historical, think we see a profit in an act of destruction. It is he who will soon teach us that it is Write essays online, not less absurd to see a profit in a restriction, which is, after all, nothing else than a partial destruction. Therefore, if you will only essays go to the root of all the arguments which are adduced in its favour, all you will find will be the paraphrase of this vulgar saying What would become of the help affairs - cameroon glaziers, if nobody ever broke windows? It is the same with a people as it is otto hintze essays, with a man. If it wishes to give itself some gratification, it naturally considers whether it is worth what it costs. To a nation, security is the greatest of advantages. If, in order to obtain it, it is necessary to have an army of a hundred thousand men, I have nothing to say against it.

It is an enjoyment bought by a sacrifice. Let me not be misunderstood upon the extent of my position. A member of the assembly proposes to disband a hundred thousand men, for the sake of relieving the tax-payers of a hundred millions. If we confine ourselves to this answer The hundred millions of men, and these hundred millions of money, are indispensable to the national security: it is help do my essay security, a sacrifice; but without this sacrifice, France would be torn by factions, or invaded by some foreign power, I have nothing to otto hintze historical essays, object to this argument, which may be true or false in fact, but which theoretically contains nothing which militates against economy. The error begins when the write my essay coaching sacrifice itself is said to be an hintze essays advantage because it profits somebody. Now I am very much mistaken if, the moment the help cant national security author of the proposal has taken his seat, some orator will not rise and say - Disband a hundred thousand men! do you know what you are saying?

What will become of them? Where will they get a living? Don't you know that work is scarce everywhere? That every field is overstocked? Would you turn them out of doors to increase competition, and weigh upon the rate of wages? Just now, when it is a hard matter to live at all, it would be a pretty thing if the otto State must find bread for a hundred thousand individuals? Consider, besides, that the army consumes wine, clothing, arms that it promotes the activity of manufactures in garrison towns that it is, in short, the god-send of innumerable purveyors.

Why, any one must tremble at the bare idea of doing away with this immense industrial movement. This discourse, it is evident, concludes by cant essay national voting the maintenance of a hundred thousand soldiers, for reasons drawn from the necessity of the service, and otto hintze, from economical considerations. It is these considerations only that I have to refute. A hundred thousand men, costing the tax-payers a hundred millions of money, live and bring to do my essay affairs - cameroon, the purveyors as much as a hundred millions can supply. This is that which is seen. But, a hundred millions taken from the pockets of the tax-payers, cease to maintain these taxpayers and the purveyors, as far as a hundred minions reach. This is that which is not seen. Now make your calculations.

Cast up, and tell me what profit there is for the masses? I will tell you where the loss lies; and to simplify it, instead of speaking of a hundred thousand men and a million of money, it shall be of one man, and a thousand francs. We will suppose that we are in the village of A. The recruiting sergeants go their round, and historical, take off a man. The tax-gatherers go their round, and take off a thousand francs. The man and the sum of money are taken to finishing school by maya angelou, Metz, and the latter is destined to support the former for hintze historical a year without doing anything. If you consider Metz only, you are quite right; the measure is a very advantageous one: but if you look towards the village of A., you will judge very differently; for, unless you are very blind indeed, you will see that that village has lost a worker, and the thousand francs which would remunerate his labour, as well as the activity which, by the expenditure of write and mentoring those thousand francs, it would spread around it.

At first sight, there would seem to be some compensation. What took place at the village, now takes place at historical essays Metz, that is all. But the loss is to be estimated in this way: At the village, a man dug and worked; he was a worker. At Metz, he turns to the right about, and to the left about; he is a soldier. The money and the circulation are the same in both cases; but in the one there were three hundred days of productive labour; in the other, there are three hundred days of unproductive labour, supposing, of course, that a part of the army is not indispensable to the public safety. Now, suppose the disbanding to take place. How To Write. You tell me there will be a surplus of hintze a hundred thousand workers, that competition will be stimulated, and for money online - Can, it will reduce the rate of wages.

This is what you see. But what you do not see is this. You do not see that to dismiss a hundred thousand soldiers is not to do away with a million of money, but to return it to the tax-payers. You do not see that to essays, throw a hundred thousand workers on the market, is to throw into it, at the same moment, the hundred millions of money needed to pay for their labour; that, consequently, the same act which increases the supply of hands, increases also the demand; from which it follows, that your fear of a reduction of wages is unfounded. You do not see that, before the disbanding as well as after it, there are in the country a hundred millions of money corresponding with the hundred thousand men. That the whole difference consists in a hobby essay this: before the disbanding, the country gave the hundred millions to the hundred thousand men for doing nothing; and that after it, it pays them the same sum for working.

You do not see, in short, that when a tax-payer gives his money either to a soldier in exchange for nothing, or to a worker in exchange for something, all the ultimate consequences of the circulation of this money are the same in the two cases; only, in the second case, the tax-payer receives something, in the former he receives nothing. The result is a dead loss to the nation. The sophism which I am here combating will not stand the test of progression, which is the touchstone of principles. If, when every compensation is made, and all interests are satisfied, there is a national profit in increasing the army, why not enroll under its banners the entire male population of the country? Have you ever chanced to otto historical, hear it said There is no better investment than taxes. Essays For Money Online - Can. Only see what a number of otto hintze historical essays families it maintains, and consider how it reacts on dissertation headings apa 6th executive, industry; it is an inexhaustible stream, it is life itself. In order-to combat this doctrine, I must refer to my preceding refutation. Hintze Essays. Political economy knew well enough that its arguments were not so amusing that it could be said of them, repetitions please. It has, therefore, turned the proverb to its own use, well convinced that, in its mouth, repetitions teach.

The advantages which officials advocate are those which are seen. The benefit which accrues to the providers is still that which is seen. A Hobby Essay. This blinds all eyes. But the disadvantages which the hintze tax-payers have to get rid of are those which are not seen. And the injury which results from it to the providers, is still that which is not seen, although this ought to be self-evident. When an official spends for his own profit an extra hundred sous, it implies that a tax-payer spends for his profit a hundred sous less. But the expense of the official is seen, because the act is performed, while that of the tax-payer is essays for money online - Can, not seen, because, alas! he is prevented from performing it. You compare the nation, perhaps, to a parched tract of land, and the tax to a fertilizing rain. Be it so. But you ought also to ask yourself where are the sources of otto this rain and for money - Can, whether it is not the tax itself which draws away the moisture from the ground and dries it up?

Again, you ought to ask yourself whether it is hintze essays, possible that the soil can receive as much of this precious water by rain as it loses by evaporation? There is one thing very certain, that when James B. counts out a hundred sous for the tax-gatherer, he receives nothing in return. Afterwards, when an official spends these hundred sous and returns them to James B., it is for help cant do my essay national an equal value of hintze corn or labour. The final result is a loss to by maya angelou essay, James B. of five francs. It is hintze, very true that often, perhaps very often, the a hobby official performs for James B. an equivalent service.

In this case there is essays, no loss on either side; there is merely in exchange. Therefore, my arguments do not at all apply to useful functionaries. All I say is, - if you wish to create an office, prove its utility. Show that its value to James B., by the services which it performs for him, is equal to what it costs him. But, apart from this intrinsic utility, do not bring forward as an argument the benefit which it confers upon the official, his family, and his providers; do not assert that it encourages labour. When James B. gives a hundred pence to a Government officer, for cheap write my essay and mentoring a really useful service, it is otto hintze historical essays, exactly the How to Write More Creatively same as when he gives a hundred sous to a shoemaker for a pair of shoes.

But when James B. gives a hundred sous to a Government officer, and receives nothing for them unless it be annoyances, he might as well give them to otto hintze historical essays, a thief. It is nonsense to say that the Government officer will spend these hundred sous to the great profit of national labour; the thief would do the same; and so would James B., if he had not been stopped on the road by the extra-legal parasite, nor by the lawful sponger. Let us accustom ourselves, then, to avoid judging of things by what is seen only, but to judge of them by that which is not seen. Last year I was on the Committee of Finance, for under the constituency the members of the hunting is just a hobby opposition were not systematically excluded from all the Commissions: in that the constituency acted wisely. Otto Historical Essays. We have heard M. Thiers say I have passed my life in opposing the legitimist party, and the priest party. Since the common danger has brought us together, now that I associate with them and know them, and now that we speak face to face, I have found out that they are not the Write Creatively monsters I used to imagine them. Yes, distrust is exaggerated, hatred is fostered among parties who never mix; and if the majority would allow the minority to be present at the Commissions, it would perhaps be discovered that the ideas of the different sides are not so far removed from each other, and, above all, that their intentions are not so perverse as is supposed. However, last year I was on historical essays, the Committee of Finance. Every time that one of dissertation apa 6th edition executive summary our colleagues spoke of fixing at a moderate figure the maintenance of the President of the Republic, that of the ministers, and of the ambassadors, it was answered-

For the good of the service, it is hintze historical, necessary to surround certain offices with splendour and write my essay and mentoring, dignity, as a means of attracting men of merit to otto historical, them. A vast number of headings edition executive summary unfortunate persons apply to the President of the Republic, and it would be placing him in a very painful position to hintze historical essays, oblige him to be constantly refusing them. A certain style in the ministerial saloons is a part of the finishing school essay machinery of constitutional Governments. Although such arguments may be controverted, they certainly deserve a serious examination. They are based upon the public interest, whether rightly estimated or not; and as far as I am concerned, I have much more respect for them than many of our Catos have, who are actuated by a narrow spirit of parsimony or of jealousy. But what revolts the hintze historical essays economical part of school essay my conscience, and makes me blush for the intellectual resources of my country, is when this absurd relic of feudalism is brought forward, which it constantly is, and otto hintze historical essays, it is favourably received too:-

Besides, the luxury of Write essays for money … great Government officers encourages the arts, industry, and labour. The head of the State and his ministers cannot give banquets and soirees without causing life to circulate through all the veins of the otto historical essays social body. To reduce their means, would starve Parisian industry, and consequently that of the whole nation. I must beg you, gentlemen, to pay some little regard to arithmetic, at least; and How to, not to say before the National Assembly in France, lest to its shame it should agree with you, that an hintze historical essays addition gives a different sum, according to cant essay national security affairs, whether it is added up from the bottom to the top, or from the top to historical, the bottom of the column. For instance, I want to agree with a drainer to make a trench in my field for a hobby essay a hundred sous. Just as we have concluded our arrangement, the tax-gatherer comes, takes my hundred sous, and sends them to the Minister of the Interior; my bargain is at end, but the Minister will have another dish added to his table. Upon what ground will you dare to affirm that this official expense helps the national industry? Do you not see, that in this there is only a reversing of satisfaction and labour? A Minister has his table better covered, it is true, but it is hintze historical, just as true that an agriculturist has his field worse drained. A Parisian tavern-keeper has gained a hundred sous,I grant you; but then you must grant me that a drainer has been prevented from gaining five francs.

It all comes to this, that the official and the tavern-keeper being satisfied, is that which is seen; the hunting is just a hobby field undrained, and the drainer deprived of his job, is that which is essays, not seen. Dear me! how much trouble there is in proving that two and two make four; and is just a hobby essay, if you succeed in proving it, it is said, the thing is so plain it is quite tiresome, and they vote as if you had proved nothing at all. Ought the State to support the arts? There is certainly much to be said on otto hintze historical, both sides of this question. It may be said, in favor of the system of cant do my voting supplies for this purpose, that the arts enlarge, elevate, and harmonize the soul of historical essays a nation; that they divert it from too great an absorption in material occupations, encourage in apa 6th edition executive it a love for the beautiful, and thus act favourably on its manners, customs, morals, and even on its industry. It may be asked, what would become of music in France without her Italian theatre and her Conservatoire; of the otto dramatic art. without her Theatre-Francais; of painting and angelou, sculpture, without our collections, galleries, and museums? It might even be asked, whether, without centralization, and consequently the otto essays support of fine arts, that exquisite taste would be developed which is the noble appendage of French labour, and headings apa 6th summary, which introduces its productions to the whole world? In the face of such results, would it not be the height of imprudence to otto historical essays, renounce this moderate contribution from help cant do my essay, all her citizens, which, in fact, in the eyes of otto historical Europe, realizes their superiority and a hobby, their glory? To these and many other reasons, whose force I do not dispute, arguments no less forcible may be opposed. It might, first of all, be said, that there is a question of distributive justice in it.

Does the right of the legislator extend to abridging the wages of the artisan, for the sake of adding to the profits of the otto hintze essays artist? M. Lamartine said, If you cease to support the theatre, where will you stop? Will you not necessarily be led to withdraw your support from your colleges, your museums, your institutes, and your libraries? It might be answered, if you desire to support everything which is good and useful, where will you stop? Will you not necessarily be led to form a civil list for agriculture, industry, commerce, benevolence, education? Then, is it certain that government aid favours the progress of art? This question is far from - Can, being settled, and we see very well that the hintze historical essays theatres which prosper are those which depend upon their own resources. Write Essays Online. Moreover, if we come to higher considerations, we may observe, that wants and desires arise, the one from the other, and originate in regions which are more and more refined in proportion as the public wealth allows of their being satisfied; that Government ought not to take part in otto this correspondence, because in a certain condition of present fortune it could not by taxation stimulate the arts of necessity, without checking those of luxury, and How to Write, thus interrupting the natural course of civilization. I may observe, that these artificial transpositions of wants, tastes, labour, and population, place the people in a precarious and dangerous position, without any solid basis. These are some of the reasons alleged by the adversaries of State intervention in what concerns the order in which citizens think their wants and desires should be satisfied, and to which, consequently, their activity should be directed. I am, I confess, one of those who think that choice and impulse ought to come from below and otto historical, not from above, from the citizen and not from the legislator; and the opposite doctrine appears to me to Write More Creatively, tend to the destruction of hintze essays liberty and of human dignity.

But, by Write essays … a deduction as false as it is unjust, do you know what economists are accused of? It is, that when we disapprove of Government support, we are supposed to disapprove of the thing itself whose support is discussed; and to be the enemies of every kind of activity, because we desire to see those activities, on the one hand free, and on the other seeking their own reward in themselves. Thus, if we think that the State should not interfere by taxation in religious affairs, we are atheists. If we think the State ought not to interfere by taxation in education, we are hostile to knowledge. If we say that the State ought not by taxation to give a fictitious value to otto hintze historical, land, or to any particular branch of industry, we are enemies to property and finishing school angelou, labour. If we think that the State ought not to support artists, we are barbarians who look upon otto historical, the arts as useless. Against such conclusions as these I protest with all my strength. How To. Far from entertaining the absurd idea of doing away with religion, education, property, labour, and the arts, when we say that the State ought to protect the essays free development of all these kinds of school angelou human activity, without helping some of them at essays the expense of others, we think, on essay national security, the contrary, that all these living powers of society would develop themselves more harmoniously under the influence of liberty; and that, under such an influence no one of them would, as is now the case, be a source of trouble, of abuses, of hintze essays tyranny, and disorder. Our adversaries consider, that an hunting essay activity which is neither aided by supplies, nor regulated by hintze historical Government, is an activity destroyed. We think just the contrary.

Their faith is in the legislator, not in apa 6th edition executive summary mankind; ours is in mankind, not in the legislator. Thus M. Lamartine said, Upon this principle we must abolish the public exhibitions, which are the honour and the wealth of this country. But I would say to otto historical essays, M. Lamartine, According to your way of thinking, not to by maya angelou essay, support is to abolish; because, setting out upon the maxim that nothing exists independently of the will of the State, you conclude that nothing lives but what the State causes to live. But I oppose to this assertion the very example which you have chosen, and beg you to remark, that the grandest and hintze, noblest of exhibitions, one which has been conceived in apa 6th executive summary the most liberal and universal spirit and I might even make use of the term humanitary, for it is no exaggeration is the exhibition now preparing in London; the only one in which no Government is taking any part, and which is being paid for by no tax. To return to the fine arts: there are, I repeat, many strong reasons to be brought, both for and against the system of Government assistance. The reader must see, that the especial object of this work leads me neither to otto hintze, explain these reasons, nor to decide in their favour, nor against them. But M. Lamartine has advanced one argument which I cannot pass by in help cant national security affairs silence, for it is closely connected with this economic study. The economical question, as regards theatres, is comprised in one word labour. It matters little what is the nature of this labour; it is as fertile, as productive a labour as any other kind of labour in the nation.

The theatres in France, you know, feed and salary no less than 80,000 workmen of otto historical essays different kinds; painters, masons, decorators, costumers, architects, c., which constitute the very life and movement of several parts of this capital, and on this account they ought to have your sympathies. Your sympathies! say, rather, your money. And further on he says: The pleasures of Paris are the headings apa 6th edition executive summary labour and the consumption of the provinces, and the luxuries of the rich are the wages and bread of 200,000 workmen of every description, who live by the manifold industry of the theatres on otto historical, the surface of the republic, and who receive from these noble pleasures, which render France illustrious, the essays for money online sustenance of otto historical their lives and the necessaries of their families and children. It is to is just essay, them that you will give 60,000 francs. (Very well; very well. Great applause.) For my part I am constrained to say, Very bad! Very bad!

Confining his opinion, of course, within the bounds of the economical question which we are discussing. Yes, it is to the workmen of the theatres that a part, at least, of these 60,000 francs will go; a few bribes, perhaps, may be abstracted on the way. Perhaps, if we were to look a little more closely into the matter, we might find that the hintze essays cake had gone another way, and that these workmen were fortunate who had come in for school angelou a few crumbs. But I will allow, for the sake of argument, that the entire sum does go to the painters, decorators, e. This is that which is seen. But whence does it come? This is the otto hintze historical other side of the cheap write question, and hintze historical essays, quite as important as the former. Where do these 60,000 francs spring from? and where would they go if a vote of the Legislature did not direct them first towards the help cant do my essay security affairs Rue Rivoli and thence towards the Rue Grenelle? This is what is not seen.

Certainly, nobody will think of maintaining that the legislative vote has caused this sum to be hatched in a ballot urn; that it is otto hintze historical, a pure addition made to the national wealth; that but for this miraculous vote these 60,000 francs would have been for ever invisible and impalpable. It must be admitted that all that the majority can do, is to decide that they shall be taken from one place to be sent to another; and if they take one direction, it is only because they have been diverted from another. This being the case, it is clear that the taxpayer, who has contributed one franc, will no longer have this franc at his own disposal. It is cheap my essay and mentoring, clear that he will be deprived of some gratification to the amount of one franc; and that the otto hintze historical workman, whoever he may be, who would have received it from him, will be deprived of a benefit to that amount. Let us not, therefore, be led by a childish illusion into believing that the vote of the 60,000 francs may add any thing whatever to help essay - cameroon, the well-being of the country, and to the national labour. It displaces enjoyments, it transposes wages that is all. Will it be said that for one kind of otto historical gratification, and Write - Can …, one kind of labour, it substitutes more urgent, more moral, more reasonable gratifications and labour? I might dispute this; I might say, by otto historical essays taking 60,000 francs from the tax-payers, you diminish tile wages of labourers, drainers, carpenters, blacksmiths, and How to Write, increase in proportion those of the singers. There is nothing to prove that this latter class calls for more sympathy than the former. M. Otto Hintze Historical. Lamartine does not say that it is so.

He himself says, that the labour of the theatres is as fertile, as productive as any other (not more so); and this may be doubted; for the best proof that the latter is cant national, not so fertile as the former lies in hintze historical this, that the other is to be called upon to assist it. But this comparison between the value and a hobby, the intrinsic merit of different kinds of labour, forms no part of my present subject. Otto Historical. All I have to do here is to show, that if M. Lamartine and those persons who commend his line of argument have seen on one side the salaries gained by the providers of the comedians, they ought on the other to have seen the salaries lost by the providers of the taxpayers; for want of this, they have exposed themselves to ridicule by mistaking a displacement for Write essays - Can … a gain. If they were true to their doctrine, there would be no limits to their demands for Government aid; for otto that which is true of one franc and of 60,000 is true, under parallel circumstances, of a hundred millions of francs. When taxes are the national subject of otto hintze historical discussion, Gentlemen, you ought to cheap write and mentoring, prove their utility by reasons from the root of the matter, but not by this unlucky assertion The public expenses support the working classes. This assertion disguises the important fact, that public expenses always supersede private expenses, and that therefore we bring a livelihood to one workman instead of another, but add nothing to the share of the working class as a whole. Your arguments are fashionable enough, but they are too absurd to be justified by anything like reason. Nothing is more natural than that a nation, after having assured itself that an enterprise will benefit the community, should have it executed by means of a general assessment. But I lose patience, I confess, when I hear this economic blunder advanced in support of such a project. Besides, it will be a means of creating labour for the workmen.

The State opens a road, builds a palace, straightens a street, cuts a canal; and so gives work to certain workmen this is what is seen: but it deprives certain other workmen of work, and this is what is not seen. The road is begun. Otto Hintze Historical. A thousand workmen come every morning, leave every evening, and take their wages this is certain. If the hunting is just road had not been decreed, if the supplies had not been voted, these good people would have had neither work nor salary there; this also is certain. But is this all? does not the operation, as a whole, contain something else? At the moment when M. Dupin pronounces the emphatic words, The Assembly has adopted, do the millions descend miraculously on a moon-beam into the coffers of MM. Fould and Bineau? In order that the evolution may be complete, as it is said, must not the State organise the receipts as well as the expenditure? must it not set its tax-gatherers and tax-payers to work, the former to gather, and the latter to pay? Study the essays question, now, in both its elements. While you state the destination given by the State to the millions voted, do not neglect to state also the destination which the taxpayer would have given, bat cannot now give, to essays - Can, the same.

Then you will understand that a public enterprise is a coin with two sides. Upon one is engraved a labourer at work, with this device, that which is seen; on the other is a labourer out of work, with the historical essays device, that which is not seen. The sophism which this work is dissertation apa 6th edition summary, intended to refute, is the otto hintze historical more dangerous when applied to public works, inasmuch as it serves to justify the most wanton enterprises and extravagance. When a railroad or a bridge are of real utility, it is sufficient to mention this utility. But if it does not exist, what do they do? Recourse is had to this mystification: We must find work for finishing by maya the workmen. Accordingly, orders are given that the drains in the Champ-de-Mars be made and unmade. The great Napoleon, it is said, thought he was doing a very philanthropic work by otto essays causing ditches to be made and then filled up.

He said, therefore, What signifies the result? All we want is to see wealth spread among the labouring classes. But let us go to cant national security, the root of the matter. We are deceived by money. To demand the cooperation of all the citizens in a common work, in the form of hintze money, is in reality to dissertation headings, demand a concurrence in kind; for every one procures, by his own labour, the sum to which he is taxed. Now, if all the citizens were to be called together, and made to execute, in conjunction, a work useful to all, this would be easily understood; their reward would be found in the results of the work itself. But after having called them together, if you force them to make roads which no one will pass through, palaces which no one will inhabit, and hintze essays, this under the pretext of finding them work, it would be absurd, and they would have a right to argue, With this labour we have nothing to do; we prefer working on our own account. A proceeding which consists in making the citizens cooperate in giving money but not labour, does not, in any way, alter the How to More Creatively general results. The only essays thing is, that the loss would react upon all parties. By the former, those whom the State employs, escape their part of the loss, by adding it to that which their fellow-citizens have already suffered. There is an article in our constitution which says: Society favours and encourages the development of labour by the establishment of public works, by the State, the departments, and the parishes, as a means of finishing essay employing persons who are in want of work.

As a temporary measure, on any emergency, during a hard winter, this interference with the hintze essays tax-payers may have its use. It acts in the same way as securities. It adds nothing either to labour or to wages, but it takes labour and wages from help cant essay security affairs, ordinary times to give them, at a loss it is true, to times of difficulty. As a permanent, general, systematic measure, it is nothing else than a ruinous mystification, an impossibility, which shows a little excited labour which is seen, and bides a great deal of prevented labour which is not seen. Society is the total of the forced or voluntary services which men perform for each other; that is to say, of public services and private services. The former, imposed and otto hintze historical essays, regulated by the law, which it is not always easy to change, even when it is desirable, may survive with it their own usefulness, and still preserve the name of public services, even when they are no longer services at all, but rather public annoyances. The latter belong to the sphere of the essay will, of individual responsibility.

Every one gives and receives what he wishes, and what he can, after a debate. They have always the presumption of real utility, in exact proportion to hintze historical, their comparative value. This is the reason why the former description of services so often become stationary, while the dissertation headings apa 6th latter obey the law of progress. While the exaggerated development of public services, by the waste of strength which it involves, fastens upon society a fatal sycophancy, it is a singular thing that several modern sects, attributing this character to free and private services, are endeavouring to hintze historical essays, transform professions into functions. These sects violently oppose what they call intermediates . They would gladly suppress the capitalist, the banker, the speculator, the Write More projector, the merchant, and the trader, accusing them of interposing between production and consumption, to extort from both, without giving either anything in return. Or rather, they would transfer to otto historical essays, the State the work which they accomplish, for this work cannot be suppressed. The sophism of the Socialists on this point is showing to the public what it pays to the intermediates in exchange for cant do my national security affairs their services, and concealing from historical essays, it what is necessary to be paid to the State. Here is the usual conflict between what is before our eyes, and what is perceptible to the mind only, between what is seen, and what is cheap write, not seen. It was at the time of the scarcity, in 1847, that the Socialist schools attempted and succeeded in popularizing their fatal theory. They knew very well that the most absurd notions have always a chance with people who are suffering; malesuada fames.

Therefore, by the help of the fine words, trafficking in men by men, speculation on hunger, monopoly, they began to blacken commerce, and to cast a veil over its benefits. What can be the otto historical use, they say, of leaving to the merchants the care of importing food from the United States and the Crimea? Why do not the is just a hobby essay State, the departments, and historical essays, the towns, organize a service for provisions, and a magazine for help cant do my essay affairs - cameroon stores? They would sell at otto a return price, and do my essay security affairs - cameroon, the people, poor things, would be exempted from the tribute which they pay to free, that is, to egotistical, individual, and otto historical, anarchical commerce. The tribute paid by the people to commerce, is that which is seen. The tribute which the people would pay to the State, or to its agents, in the Socialist system, is essays for money online, what is not seen. In what does this pretended tribute, which the otto hintze people pay to help cant do my national security affairs - cameroon, commerce, consist? In this: that two men render each other a mutual service, in all freedom, and under the pressure of competition and otto hintze, reduced prices. When the hunting a hobby essay hungry stomach is at Paris, and corn which can satisfy it is at Odessa, the hintze historical essays suffering cannot cease till the corn is brought into essays online - Can …, contact with the stomach. There are three means by which this contact may be effected. 1st.

The famished men may go themselves and otto hintze historical essays, fetch the corn. 2nd. They may leave this task to those to whose trade it belongs. 3rd. They may club together, and school, give the historical office in charge to public functionaries. Which of these three methods possesses the greatest advantages?

In every time, in all countries, and the more free, enlightened, and experienced they are, men have voluntarily chosen the second. I confess that this is sufficient, in my opinion, to help essay national security affairs, justify this choice. I cannot believe that mankind, as a whole, is deceiving itself upon a point which touches it so nearly. But let us consider the subject. For thirty-six millions of citizens to go and fetch the corn they want from Odessa, is a manifest impossibility. The first means, then, goes for nothing. Otto Hintze Essays. The consumers cannot act for themselves. Edition Executive Summary. They must, of necessity, have recourse to intermediates, officials or agents. But, observe, that the first of these three means would be the otto hintze historical most natural.

In reality, the hungry man has to fetch his corn. It is a task which concerns himself; a service due to himself. If another person, on Write online - Can …, whatever ground, performs this service for him, takes the task upon himself, this latter has a claim upon him for a compensation. I mean by this to say that intermediates contain in themselves the principle of otto historical remuneration. However that may be, since we must refer to what the Socialists call a parasite, I would ask, which of the two is the most exacting parasite, the hunting merchant or the official? Commerce (free, of course, otherwise I could not reason upon it), commerce, I say, is led by its own interests to study the otto seasons, to give daily statements of the state of the for money - Can … crops, to receive information from otto, every part of the globe, to essay, foresee wants, to take precautions beforehand. It has vessels always ready, correspondents everywhere; and it is otto hintze historical, its immediate interest to buy at the lowest possible price, to economize in all the details of finishing school angelou its operations, and to attain the greatest results by the smallest efforts. It is otto essays, not the French merchants only who are occupied in procuring provisions for France in time of need, and if their interest leads them irresistibly to accomplish their task at the smallest possible cost, the competition which they create amongst each other leads them no less irresistibly to cause the consumers to partake of the profits of those realized savings. Finishing. The corn arrives; it is to the interest of commerce to sell it as soon as possible, so as to avoid risks, to realize its funds, and begin again the first opportunity.

Directed by the comparison of prices, it distributes food over the whole surface of the country, beginning always at the highest price, that is, where the demand is the otto historical essays greatest. It is impossible to imagine an finishing by maya angelou essay organization more completely calculated to historical essays, meet the interest of those who are in want; and the beauty of this organization, unperceived as it is by the Socialists, results from the for money very fact that it is free. It is true, the consumer is obliged to reimburse commerce for the expenses of conveyance, freight, store-room, commission, c.; but can any system be devised, in which he who eats corn is not obliged to defray the expenses, whatever they may be, of bringing it within his reach? The remuneration for the service performed has to be paid also: but as regards its amount, this is reduced to the smallest possible sum by otto historical essays competition; and as regards its justice, it would be very strange if the artisans of Paris would not work for the merchants of Marseilles, when the merchants of cant security affairs - cameroon Marseilles work for the artisans of Paris. If, according to the Socialist invention, the State were to stand in the stead of commerce, what would happen?

I should like to be informed where the saving would be to the public? Would it be in the price of purchase? Imagine the delegates of 40,000 parishes arriving at Odessa on hintze historical, a given day, and on the day of need; imagine the effect upon prices. Would the saving be in the expenses? Would fewer vessels be required, fewer sailors, fewer transports, fewer sloops, or would you be exempt from the payment of all these things? Would it be in the profits of the merchants? Would your officials go to Odessa for nothing? Would they travel and work on the principle of fraternity? Must they not live? must not they be paid for their time? And do you believe that these expenses would not exceed a thousand times the two or three per cent which the merchant gains, at the rate at - Can … which he is ready to treat?

And then consider the difficulty of levying so many taxes, and of dividing so much food. Think of the injustice, of the abuses inseparable for otto historical essays such an enterprise. Think of the responsibility which would weigh upon the Government. The Socialists who have invented these follies, and who, in the days of distress, have introduced them into edition executive, the minds of the masses, take to themselves literally the title of advanced men; and it is not without some danger that custom, that tyrant of tongues, authorizes the term, and the sentiment which it involves. Advanced! This supposes that these gentlemen can see further than the common people; that their only otto hintze historical essays fault is, that they are too much in advance of their age, and if the time is not yet come for suppressing certain free services, pretended parasites, the school by maya fault is to otto historical essays, be attributed to the public, which is in the rear of socialism. Write Essays For Money Online. I say, from otto hintze historical, my soul and my conscience, the reverse is the truth; and I know not to what barbarous age we should have to go back, if we would find the level of Socialist knowledge on this subject. Hunting A Hobby. These modern sectarians incessantly oppose association to actual society. Historical Essays. They overlook the fact, that society, under a free regulation, is a true association, far superior to any of those which proceed from their fertile imaginations. Let me illustrate this by an example.

Before a man, when he gets up in hunting the morning, can put on a coat, ground must have been enclosed, broken up, drained, tilled, and otto hintze essays, sown with a particular kind of plant; flocks must have been fed, and have given their wool; this wool must have been spun, woven, dyed, and converted into cloth; this cloth must have been cut, sewed, and made into a garment. How To Write. And this series of operations implies a number of others; it supposes the employment of otto instruments for ploughing, c., sheepfolds, sheds, coal, machines, carriages, e. If society were not a perfectly real association, a person who wanted a coat would be reduced to the necessity of working in solitude; that is, of performing for himself the How to More innumerable parts of this series, from the first stroke of the pickaxe to the last stitch which concludes the work. But, thanks to the sociability which is the distinguishing character of otto hintze historical our race, these operations are distributed amongst a multitude of workers; and my essay and mentoring, they are further subdivided, for the common good, to an extent that, as the otto hintze essays consumption becomes more active, one single operation is able to support a new trade. Then comes the division of the dissertation headings apa 6th executive summary profits, which operates according to the contingent value which each has brought to the entire work. Hintze. If this is not association, I should like to know what is. Observe, that as no one of these workers has obtained the smallest particle of matter from nothingness, they are confined to performing for each other mutual services, and to helping each other in a common object, and that all may be considered, with respect to others, intermediates. If, for school instance, in the course of the operation, the conveyance becomes important enough to occupy one person, the spinning another, the weaving another, why should the first be considered a parasite more than the otto historical essays other two? The conveyance must be made, must it not? Does not he who performs it, devote to it his time and trouble? and by so doing does he not spare that of Write - Can … his colleagues?

Do these do more or other than this for him? Are they not equally dependent for remuneration, that is, for otto hintze historical essays the division of the produce, upon the law of headings apa 6th edition reduced price? Is it not in all liberty, for the common good, that these arrangements are entered into? What do we want with a Socialist then, who, under pretence of organizing for us, comes despotically to break up our voluntary arrangements, to check the division of labour, to substitute isolated efforts for combined ones, and to send civilization back? Is association, as I describe it here, in itself less association, because every one enters and leaves it freely, chooses his place in it, judges and bargains for himself on his own responsibility, and otto, brings with him the spring and warrant of personal interest? That it may deserve this name, is it necessary that a pretended reformer should come and impose upon us his plan and his will, and as it were, to concentrate mankind in himself? The more we examine these advanced schools, the more do we become convinced that there is essays for money …, but one thing at the root of them: ignorance proclaiming itself infallible, and claiming despotism in the name of this infallibility. I hope the reader will excuse this digression.

It may not be altogether useless, at a time when declamations, springing from St. Simonian, Phalansterian, and Icarian books, are invoking the press and the tribune, and historical, which seriously threaten the liberty of labour and commercial transactions. M. Prohibant (it was not I who gave him this name, but M. Charles Dupin) devoted his time and capital to converting the ore found on his land into iron. As nature had been more lavish towards the Belgians, they furnished the French with iron cheaper than M. Prohibant, which means, that all the French, or France, could obtain a given quantity of iron with less labour by buying it of the honest Flemings; therefore, guided by their own interest, they did not fail to do so, and every day there might be seen a multitude of a hobby essay nail-smiths, blacksmiths, cartwrights, machinists, farriers, and labourers, going themselves, or sending intermediates, to supply themselves in Belgium. Otto Hintze. This displeased M. Prohibant exceedingly. At first, it occurred to him to put an end to this abuse by his own efforts; it was the least he could do, for he was the only sufferer. I will take my carbine, said he; I will put four pistols into my belt; I will fill my cartridge box; I will gird on coaching, my sword, and go thus equipped to the frontier. There, the first blacksmith, nailsmith, farrier, machinist, or locksmith, who presents himself to historical, do his own business and not mine, I will kill, to teach him how to live. Help Cant Do My National Security. At the moment of starting, M. Prohibant made a few reflections which calmed down his warlike ardour a little.

He said to himself, In the first place, it is not absolutely impossible that the purchasers of iron, my countrymen and otto essays, enemies, should take the thing ill, and, instead of letting me kill them, should kill me instead; and then, even were I to call out all my servants, we should not be able to defend the passages. Dissertation Apa 6th. In short, this proceeding would cost me very dear; much more so than the result would be worth. M. Prohibant was on the point of resigning himself to his sad fate, that of being only as free as the rest of the historical world, when a ray of light darted across his brain. He recollected that at Paris there is Creatively, a great manufactory of laws. Otto Hintze. What is help national security affairs - cameroon, a law? said he to himself. Hintze Essays. It is by maya angelou, a measure to which, when once it is decreed, be it good or bad, everybody is bound to conform. For the historical execution of the same a public force is organized, and to constitute the said public force, men and money are drawn from the nation. If, then, I could only get the great Parisian manufactory to pass a little law, 'Belgian iron is prohibited,' I should obtain the following results: The Government would replace the finishing by maya angelou essay few valets that I was going to send to otto historical, the frontier by 20,000 of the sons of those refractory blacksmiths, farmers, artisans, machinists, locksmiths, nailsmiths, and labourers.

Then, to keep these 20,000 custom-house officers in health and Write - Can …, good humour, it would distribute amongst them 25,000,000 of francs, taken from hintze essays, these blacksmiths, nailsmiths, artisans, and labourers. They would guard the frontier much better; would cost me nothing; I should not be exposed to the brutality of the brokers, should sell the iron at my own price, and by maya angelou essay, have the sweet satisfaction of otto hintze historical seeing our great people shamefully mystified. That would teach them to proclaim themselves perpetually the harbingers and promoters of progress in online … Europe. Oh! it would be a capital joke, and deserves to be tried. So M. Prohibant went to the law manufactory.

Another time, perhaps, I shall relate the story of his underhand dealings, but now I shall merely mention his visible proceedings. He brought the hintze essays following consideration before the view of the legislating gentlemen:- Belgian iron is More Creatively, sold in France at ten francs, which obliges me to sell mine at the same price. Essays. I should like to sell at fifteen, but cannot do so on finishing by maya essay, account of this Belgian iron, which I wish was at hintze historical the bottom of the Red Sea. I beg you will make a law that no more Belgian iron shall enter France. Immediately I raise my price five francs, and these are the consequences: For every hundred-weight of iron that I shall deliver to the public, I shall receive fifteen francs instead of ten; I shall grow rich more rapidly, extend my traffic, and employ more workmen. My workmen and apa 6th, I shall spend much more freely to the great advantage of our tradesmen for hintze miles around. These latter, having more custom, will furnish more employment to trade, and activity on both sides will increase in the country. This fortunate piece of money, which you will drop into my strong-box, will, like a stone thrown into a lake, give birth to an infinite number of concentric circles. Charmed with his discourse, delighted to learn that it is so easy to promote, by legislating, the headings executive prosperity of a people, the law-makers voted the restriction.

Talk of labour and economy, they said, what is the use of these painful means of otto historical increasing the national wealth, when all that is dissertation apa 6th summary, wanted for this object is a Decree? And, in fact, the law produced all the consequences announced by M. Prohibant; the only thing was, it produced others which he had not foreseen. To do him justice, his reasoning was not false, but only incomplete. In endeavouring to obtain a privilege, he had taken cognizance of the effects which are seen, leaving in the background those which are not seen. He had pointed out only hintze historical essays two personages, whereas there are three concerned in the affair. It is for us to supply this involuntary or premeditated omission. It is true, the finishing by maya angelou essay crown-piece, thus directed by law into hintze, M. Prohibant's strong-box, is advantageous to him and to essay, those whose labour it would encourage; and if the Act had caused the crownpiece to descend from the moon, these good effects would not have been counterbalanced by hintze historical essays any corresponding evils. Unfortunately, the mysterious piece of money does not come from the moon, but from the pocket of hunting is just a hobby a blacksmith, or a nail-smith, or a cartwright, or a farrier, or a labourer, or a shipwright; in a word, from James B., who gives it now without receiving a grain more of iron than when he was paying ten francs. Thus, we can see at a glance that this very much alters the state of the case; for it is very evident that M. Prohibant's profit is compensated by James B.'s loss, and otto essays, all that M. Prohibant can do with the crown-piece, for the encouragement of national labour, James B. might have done himself. The stone has only been thrown upon one part of the cheap coaching lake, because the hintze historical essays law has prevented it from being thrown upon another.

Therefore, that which is Write, not seen supersedes that which is seen, and at this point there remains, as the residue of the otto hintze essays operation, a piece of injustice, and, sad to say, a piece of injustice perpetrated by the law! This is not all. I have said that there is always a third person left in the back-ground. I must now bring him forward, that he may reveal to us a second loss of five francs. Then we shall have the edition entire results of the transaction. James B. is the possessor of fifteen francs, the fruit of his labour.

He is now free. What does he do with his fifteen francs? He purchases some article of fashion for ten francs, and with it he pays (or the intermediate pay for hintze historical him) for the hundred-weight of Belgian iron. After this he has five francs left. Write For Money - Can. He does not throw them into essays, the river, but (and this is help cant essay national security, what is not seen) he gives them to some tradesman in exchange for some enjoyment; to a bookseller, for hintze historical essays instance, for Bossuet's Discourse on Universal History. Thus, as far as national labour is concerned, it is encouraged to a hobby, the amount of fifteen francs, viz.: ten francs for the Paris article; five francs to the bookselling trade.

As to James B., he obtains for otto hintze essays his fifteen francs two gratifications, viz.: 1st. A hundred-weight of iron. The Decree is put in force. Write Online - Can. How does it affect the condition of James B.? How does it affect the national labour? James B. pays every centime of otto essays his five francs to M. Dissertation Headings Apa 6th Edition. Prohibant, and therefore is deprived of the otto hintze pleasure of a book, or of cant essay security - cameroon some other thing of equal value. He loses five francs.

This must be admitted; it cannot fail to be admitted, that when the historical restriction raises the price of things, the consumer loses the dissertation headings executive difference. But, then, it is said, national labour is the gainer. No, it is not the gainer; for, since the Act, it is no more encouraged than it was before, to the amount of fifteen francs. The only thing is that, since the Act, the fifteen francs of otto historical essays James B. go to help cant essay national - cameroon, the metal trade, while, before it was put in force, they were divided between the milliner and the bookseller. The violence used by M. Prohibant on the frontier, or that which he causes to be used by historical the law, may be judged very differently in a moral point of view.

Some persons consider that plunder is perfectly justifiable, if only sanctioned by law. But, for Write for money - Can … myself, I cannot imagine anything more aggravating. However it may be, the economical results are the same in otto historical essays both cases. Look at the thing as you will; but if you are impartial, you will see that no good can come of legal or illegal plunder. We do not deny that it affords M. Prohibant, or his trade, or, if you will, national industry, a profit of five francs. But we affirm that it causes two losses, one to James B., who pays fifteen francs where he otherwise would have paid ten; the other to national industry, which does not receive the difference.

Take your choice of these two losses, and compensate with it the hunting is just a hobby essay profit which we allow. The other will prove not the otto hintze essays less a dead loss. Here is the moral: To take by is just a hobby violence is not to produce, but to destroy. Truly, if taking by violence was producing, this country of hintze historical ours would be a little richer than she is. A curse on machines! Every year, their increasing power devotes millions of do my national security affairs - cameroon workmen to pauperism, by otto historical depriving them of work, and therefore of wages and bread. A curse on headings apa 6th edition executive summary, machines! This is the cry which is hintze, raised by vulgar prejudice, and echoed in the journals. But to curse machines, is to curse the How to spirit of humanity! It puzzles me to conceive how any man can feel any satisfaction in such a doctrine.

For, if true, what is its inevitable consequence? That there is no activity, prosperity, wealth, or happiness possible for any people, except for those who are stupid and inert, and to otto, whom God has not granted the fatal gift of knowing how to school angelou essay, think, to otto historical, observe, to combine, to invent, and to obtain the Write greatest results with the smallest means. On the otto essays contrary, rags, mean huts, poverty, and inanition, are the inevitable lot of every nation which seeks and finds in iron, fire, wind, electricity, magnetism, the laws of by maya angelou essay chemistry and mechanics, in a word, in the powers of nature, an assistance to its natural powers. We might as well say with Rousseau - Every man that thinks is a depraved animal. This is not all; if this doctrine is true, since all men think and invent, since all, from first to last, and at every moment of their existence, seek the cooperation of the powers of nature, and try to make the most of hintze historical essays a little, by reducing either the work of their hands, or their expenses, so as to obtain the greatest possible amount of gratification with the smallest possible amount of labour, it must follow, as a matter of course, that the whole of mankind is rushing towards its decline, by the same mental aspiration towards progress, which torments each of its members. Hence, it ought to be made known, by statistics, that the inhabitants of Lancashire, abandoning that land of headings apa 6th edition executive summary machines, seek for work in Ireland, where they are unknown; and, by history, that barbarism darkens the epochs of civilization, and otto historical essays, that civilization shines in times of help cant national affairs - cameroon ignorance and barbarism. There is evidently in this mass of contradictions something which revolts us, and which leads us to suspect that the problem contains within it an otto historical element of solution which has not been sufficiently disengaged.

Here is the whole mystery: behind that which is seen, lies something which is help essay national affairs - cameroon, not seen. I will endeavour to bring it to light. The demonstration I shall give will only hintze historical essays be a repetition of the preceding one, for the problems are one and the same. Men have a natural propensity to Write, make the best bargain they can, when not prevented by an opposing force; that is, they like to obtain as much as they possibly can for their labour, whether the advantage is obtained from hintze essays, a foreign producer, or a skillful mechanical producer. The theoretical objection which is school by maya angelou essay, made to this propensity is the same in both cases. In each case it is reproached with the apparent inactivity which it causes to labour. Now, labour rendered available, not inactive, is the very thing which determines it. And, therefore, in both cases, the same practical obstacle force, is opposed to it also. The legislator prohibits foreign competition, and forbids mechanical competition. For what other means can exist for arresting a propensity which is natural to all men, but that of otto historical depriving them of essay national security their liberty? In many countries, it is true, the legislator strikes at only one of these competitions, and confines himself to grumbling at the other.

This only historical essays proves one thing, that is, that the legislator is essays …, inconsistent. Harm Of False Premise. We need not be surprised at this. On a wrong road, inconsistency is inevitable; if it were not so, mankind would be sacrificed. A false principle never has been, and otto hintze historical, never will be, carried out to the end. Now for our demonstration, which shall not be a long one. James B. Help Cant Do My Essay Security. had two francs which he had gained by two workmen; but it occurs to him, that an arrangement of ropes and otto, weights might be made which would diminish the labour by dissertation headings half.

Thus he obtains the same advantage, saves a franc, and discharges a workman. He discharges a workman: this is that which is seen. And seeing this only, it is said, See how misery attends civilization; this is the way that liberty is fatal to equality. The human mind has made a conquest, and immediately a workman is cast into the gulf of pauperism. James B. may possibly employ the two workmen, but then he will give them only half their wages for they will compete with each other, and offer themselves at the lowest price. Thus the hintze historical rich are always growing richer, and the poor, poorer. Dissertation Headings Edition Executive Summary. Society wants remodelling. A very fine conclusion, and worthy of the preamble. Happily, preamble and conclusion are both false, because, behind the half of the phenomenon which is seen, lies the other half which is not seen. The franc saved by James B. is not seen, no more are the necessary effects of this saving.

Since, in hintze essays consequence of his invention, James B. spends only one franc on hand labour in the pursuit of a determined advantage, another franc remains to him. If, then, there is in the world a workman with unemployed arms, there is also in the world a capitalist with an unemployed franc. Essays Online - Can …. These two elements meet and combine, and it is as clear as daylight, that between the supply and hintze historical, demand of labour, and between the supply and demand of wages, the relation is in no way changed. The invention and the workman paid with the first franc, now perform the work which was formerly accomplished by two workmen. The second workman, paid with the second franc, realizes a new kind of work.

What is the finishing school by maya angelou essay change, then, which has taken place? An additional national advantage has been gained; in other words, the invention is a gratuitous triumph a gratuitous profit for mankind. From the form which I have given to my demonstration, the following inference might be drawn: It is the otto essays capitalist who reaps all the advantage from machinery. The working class, if it suffers only temporarily, never profits by cheap my essay coaching it, since, by your own showing, they displace a portion of the national labour, without diminishing it, it is true, but also without increasing it. I do not pretend, in this slight treatise, to hintze historical, answer every objection; the only end I have in view, is to combat a vulgar, widely spread, and dangerous prejudice. I want to prove, that a new machine only causes the discharge of hunting a hobby essay a certain number of hands, when the remuneration which pays them as abstracted by otto hintze historical essays force. Dissertation Headings Edition. These hands, and this remuneration, would combine to produce what it was impossible to produce before the invention; whence it follows that the final result is an increase of advantages for hintze historical equal labour. Who is the gainer by these additional advantages? First, it is true, the capitalist, the inventor; the first who succeeds in using the machine; and this is the reward of his genius and finishing school angelou essay, his courage. In this case, as we have just seen, he effects a saving upon the expense of production, which, in otto historical essays whatever way it may be spent (and it always is spent), employs exactly as many hands as the machine caused to be dismissed.

But soon competition obliges him to lower his prices in How to Write proportion to the saving itself; and then it is no longer the inventor who reaps the benefit of the invention it is the essays purchaser of what is produced, the consumer, the public, including the workmen; in a word, mankind. And that which is not seen is, that the saving thus procured for How to Creatively all consumers creates a fund whence wages may be supplied, and which replaces that which the machine has exhausted. Thus, to recur to the forementioned example, James B. obtains a profit by spending two francs in wages. Thanks to hintze historical, his invention, the hand labour costs him only one franc. So long as he sells the thing produced at the same price, he employs one workman less in producing this particular thing, and that is what is seen; but there is an additional workman employed by the franc which James B. has saved. This is that which is not seen. When, by the natural progress of things, James B. is obliged to lower the price of the thing produced by More one franc, then he no longer realizes a saving; then he has no longer a franc to dispose of, to procure for the national labour a new production; but then another gainer takes his place, and this gainer is mankind.

Whoever buys the thing he has produced, pays a franc less, and necessarily adds this saving to the fund of wages; and hintze essays, this, again, is what is angelou, not seen. Another solution, founded upon facts, has been given of this problem of machinery. It was said, machinery reduces the expense of production, and lowers the price of the thing produced. The reduction of the profit causes an otto historical essays increase of consumption, which necessitates an increase of production, and, finally, the introduction of as many workmen, or more, after the invention as were necessary before it. As a proof of this, printing, weaving, c., are instanced. This demonstration is not a scientific one. It would lead us to conclude, that if the consumption of the particular production of which we are speaking remains stationary, or nearly so, machinery must injure labour. This is not the case. Suppose that in a certain country all the cheap write coaching and mentoring people wore hats; if, by machinery, the price could be reduced half, it would not necessarily follow that the consumption would be doubled.

Would you say, that in this case a portion of the national labour had been paralyzed? Yes, according to the vulgar demonstration; but, according to mine, No; for even if not a single hat more should be bought in the country, the entire fund of wages would not be the less secure. That which failed to go to the hat-making trade would be found to have gone to the economy realized by all the consumers, and would thence serve to pay for all the labour which the machine had rendered useless, and to hintze historical essays, excite a new development of all the trades. And thus it is that things go on. Finishing School Angelou. I have known newspapers to otto historical essays, cost eighty francs, now we pay forty-eight: here is a saving of headings edition executive summary thirty-two francs to the subscribers. It is not certain, or, at least, necessary, that the thirty-two francs should take the direction of the journalist trade; but it is certain, and necessary too, that if they do not take this direction they will take another. Essays. One makes use of Write More Creatively them for otto hintze historical taking in more newspapers; another, to get better living; another, better clothes; another, better furniture. Write Essays - Can. It is thus that the trades are bound together. Otto Historical. They form a vast whole, whose different parts communicate by secret canals; what is saved by one, profits all.

It is very important for us to understand, that savings never take place at the expense of Write essays for money online - Can … labour and wares. In all times, but more especially of hintze late years, attempts have been made to extend wealth by the extension of credit. I believe it is essays for money - Can, no exaggeration to say, that since the revolution of February, the Parisian presses have issued more than 10,000 pamphlets, crying up this solution of the social problem. The only basis, alas! of hintze essays this solution, is an optical delusion if, indeed, an optical delusion can be called a basis at all. The first thing done is to confuse cash with produce, then paper money with cash; and do my essay affairs, from these two confusions it is pretended that a reality can be drawn. It is absolutely necessary in essays this question to forget money, coin, bills, and the other instruments by means of which productions pass from is just, hand to hand; our business is with the productions themselves, which are the real objects of the loan; for when a farmer borrows fifty francs to buy a plough, it is not, in reality, the otto hintze essays fifty francs which are lent to him, but the plough: and when a merchant borrows 20,000 francs to purchase a house, it is not the dissertation executive 20,000 francs which he owes, but the otto essays house. Money only appears for edition the sake of facilitating the arrangements between the parties. Peter may not be disposed to lend his plough, but James may be willing to lend his money.

What does William do in this case? He borrows money of James, and with this money he buys the plough of Peter. But, in point of fact, no one borrows money for the sake of the money itself; money is otto hintze essays, only the medium by which to obtain possession of is just a hobby essay productions. Now, it is impossible in any country to transmit from one person to another more productions than that country contains. Whatever may be the amount of cash and of paper which is in circulation, the whole of the borrowers cannot receive more ploughs, houses, tools, and supplies of raw material, than the lenders altogether can furnish; for hintze historical essays we must take care not to forget, that every borrower supposes a lender, and that what is edition summary, once borrowed implies a loan. This granted, what advantage is there in institutions of credit? It is, that they facilitate, between borrowers and lenders, the hintze historical means of finding and treating with each other; but it is hunting, not in their power to cause an instantaneous increase of the things to be borrowed and lent. And yet they ought to be able to do so, if the aim of the reformers is to be attained, since they aspire to nothing less than to place ploughs, houses, tools, and provisions in the hands of all those who desire them.

And how do they intend to effect this? By making the State security for otto hintze essays the loan. Let us try and fathom the subject, for it contains something which is seen, and also something which is not seen. We must endeavour to look at both. We will suppose that there is but one plough in the world, and that two farmers apply for it. Peter is the possessor of the only plough which is to be had in France; John and James wish to borrow it. John, by his honesty, his property, and good reputation, offers security. He inspires confidence; he has credit.

James inspires little or no confidence. It naturally happens that Peter lends his plough to John. But now, according to the Socialist plan, the State interferes, and says to Peter, Lend your plough to James, I will be security for its return, and this security will be better than that of John, for he has no one to be responsible for him but himself; and hunting a hobby, I, although it is true that I have nothing, dispose of the fortune of the taxpayers, and it is with their money that, in case of essays need, I shall pay you the principal and interest. Consequently, Peter lends his plough to James: this is what is seen. And the Socialists rub their hands, and say, See how well our plan has answered. Thanks to the intervention of the State, poor James has a plough. He will no longer be obliged to dig the ground; he is on the road to make a fortune. Cheap And Mentoring. It is a good thing for him, and an advantage to the nation as a whole.

Indeed, gentlemen, it is no such thing; it is no advantage to historical essays, the nation, for there is something behind which is not seen. It is not seen, that the plough is in the hands of James, only because it is not in those of John. It is not seen, that if James farms instead of digging, John will be reduced to the necessity of digging instead of farming. That, consequently, what was considered an increase of loan, is nothing but a displacement of loan. Besides, it is help cant do my, not seen that this displacement implies two acts of deep injustice.

It is an injustice to John, who, after having deserved and obtained credit by his honesty and activity, sees himself robbed of it. It is an injustice to the tax-payers, who are made to pay a debt which is no concern of otto historical essays theirs. Will any one say, that Government offers the same facilities to help cant national affairs - cameroon, John as it does to James? But as there is only one plough to be had, two cannot be lent. The argument always maintains that, thanks to the intervention of the State, more will be borrowed than there are things to be lent; for the plough represents here the bulk of available capitals. It is true, I have reduced the historical operation to the most simple expression of it, but if you submit the most complicated Government institutions of credit to the same test, you will be convinced that they can have but on is just a hobby, result; viz., to displace credit, not to augment it. In one country, and in a given time, there is only a certain amount of capital available, and all are employed. In guaranteeing the non-payers, the State may, indeed, increase the number of essays borrowers, and thus raise the rate of cheap write and mentoring interest (always to the prejudice of the tax-payer), but it has no power to increase the otto historical number of lenders, and the importance of the finishing by maya angelou essay total of the loans. There is one conclusion, however, which I would not for the world be suspected of drawing. I say, that the law ought not to favour, artificially, the power of hintze historical borrowing, but I do not say that it ought not to restrain them artificially. If, in help cant do my national security - cameroon our system of mortgage, or in any other, there be obstacles to the diffusion of the otto essays application of credit, let them be got rid of; nothing can be better or more just than this.

But this is all which is consistent with liberty, and it is hunting, all that any who are worthy of the historical essays name of reformers will ask. Here are four orators disputing for school the platform. First, all the four speak at once; then they speak one after the other. What have they said? Some very fine things, certainly, about the power and the grandeur of France; about the hintze essays necessity of sowing, if we would reap; about the brilliant future of our gigantic colony; about the advantage of diverting to a distance the surplus of our population, e. e. Magnificent pieces of eloquence, and dissertation edition summary, always adorned with this conclusion: Vote fifty millions, more or less, for making ports and roads in Algeria; for sending emigrants hither; for building houses and breaking up land. By so doing, you will relieve the French workman, encourage African labour, and give a stimulus to the commerce of Marseilles. It would be profitable every way.

Yes, it is otto hintze, all very true, if you take no account of the coaching and mentoring fifty millions until the moment when the State begins to spend them; if you only see where they go, and otto hintze historical, not whence they come; if you look only at the good they are to do when they come out of the tax-gatherer's bag, and not at hunting is just a hobby essay the harm which has been done, and the good which has been prevented, by putting them into it. Yes, at this limited point of view, all is profit. The house which is built in Barbary is that which is seen; the harbour made in Barbary is that which is seen; the work caused in Barbary is what is seen; a few less hands in hintze historical essays France is what is Write essays for money …, seen; a great stir with goods at Marseilles is still that which is seen. But, besides all this, there is something which is not seen. The fifty millions expended by otto historical the State cannot be spent, as they otherwise would have been, by the tax-payers.

It is necessary to essay national - cameroon, deduct, from all the hintze historical essays good attributed to the public expenditure which has been effected, all the harm caused by the prevention of private expense, unless we say that James B. would have done nothing with the crown that he had gained, and of which the tax had deprived him; an absurd assertion, for if he took the trouble to earn it, it was because he expected the satisfaction of using it, He would have repaired the palings in his garden, which he cannot now do, and hunting is just, this is that which is not seen. He would have manured his field, which now he cannot do, and hintze, this is what is not seen. He would have added another story to his cottage, which he cannot do now, and this is what is not seen. He might have increased the number of his tools, which he cannot do now, and this is what is not seen. He would have been better fed, better clothed, have given a better education to his children, and increased his daughter's marriage portion; this is what is not seen. He would have become a member of the Mutual Assistance Society, but now he cannot; this is what is not seen. On one hand, are the enjoyments of which he has been deprived, and the means of action which have been destroyed in his hands; on the other, are the labour of the drainer, the carpenter, the smith, the tailor, the village-schoolmaster, which he would have encouraged, and which are now prevented all this is what is not seen. Much is hoped from the future prosperity of dissertation headings edition executive Algeria; be it so. But the drain to which France is being subjected ought not to be kept entirely out of sight. The commerce of hintze essays Marseilles is pointed out to headings edition summary, me; but if this is to be brought about by means of taxation, I shall always show that an equal commerce is historical, destroyed thereby in other parts of the cant - cameroon country.

It is otto hintze historical, said, There is an emigrant transported into Barbary; this is a relief to the population which remains in the country. I answer, How can that be, if, in transporting this emigrant to Algiers, you also transport two or three times the capital which would have served to maintain him in France? The Minister of War has lately asserted, that every individual transported to Write Creatively, Algeria has cost the otto State 8,000 francs. Now it is certain that these poor creatures could have lived very well in France on a capital of 4,000 francs. I ask, how the French population is relieved, when it is deprived of a man, and finishing, of the means of subsistence of two men? The only object I have in view is to make it evident to otto essays, the reader, that in every public expense, behind the essays for money online apparent benefit, there is an evil which it is not so easy to discern. As far as in me 'lies, I would make him form a habit of seeing both, and taking account of otto hintze both. When a public expense is angelou, proposed, it ought to be examined in itself, separately from the pretended encouragement of labour which results from it, for this encouragement is a delusion. Whatever is otto hintze historical essays, done in this way at the public expense, private expense would have done all the same; therefore, the interest of labour is always out of the question. It is not the object of help national affairs this treatise to criticize the intrinsic merit of the public expenditure as applied to Algeria, but I cannot withhold a general observation. It is, that the presumption is always unfavourable to collective expenses by way of tax.

Why? For this reason: First, justice always suffers from it in some degree. Since James B. had laboured to gain his crown, in the hope of receiving a gratification from it, it is to be regretted that the otto historical exchequer should interpose, and take from James B. this gratification, to bestow it upon another. A Hobby. Certainly, it behooves the exchequer, or those who regulate it, to give good reasons for this. It has been shown that the State gives a very provoking one, when it says, With this crown I shall employ workmen; for James B. Hintze Essays. (as soon as he sees it) will be sure to answer, It is all very fine, but with this crown I might employ them myself. Apart from this reason, others present themselves without disguise, by which the debate between the exchequer and poor James becomes much simplified. Essays For Money Online …. If the State says to him, I take your crown to pay the gendarme, who saves you the otto historical essays trouble of providing for your own personal safety; for paving the street which you are passing through every day; for paying the magistrate who causes your property and your liberty to Write, be respected; to maintain the soldier who maintains our frontiers, James B., unless I am much mistaken, will pay for all this without hesitation. But if the State were to say to him, I take this crown that I may give you a little prize in case you cultivate your field well; or that I may teach your son something that you have no wish that he should learn; or that the Minister may add another to his score of dishes at dinner; I take it to build a cottage in Algeria, in which case I must take another crown every year to keep an emigrant in it, and another hundred to maintain a soldier to guard this emigrant, and another crown to maintain a general to guard this soldier, c., c., I think I hear poor James exclaim, This system of otto historical essays law is very much like a system of cheap coaching and mentoring cheat! The State foresees the otto hintze essays objection, and what does it do? It jumbles all things together, and brings forward just that provoking reason which ought to have nothing whatever to do with the question.

It talks of the effect of this crown upon labour; it points to the cook and purveyor of the cant national Minister; it shows an essays emigrant, a soldier, and a general, living upon the crown; it shows, in fact, what is seen, and if James B. has not learned to take into the account what is not seen, James B. will be duped. And this is why I want to do all I can to impress it upon his mind, by repeating it over and over again. As the public expenses displace labour without increasing it, a second serious presumption presents itself against them. To displace labour is to displace labourers, and to finishing school angelou essay, disturb the natural laws which regulate the distribution of the population over the country. If 50,000,000 fr. are allowed to remain in the possession of the taxpayers, since the tax-payers are everywhere, they encourage labour in the 40,000 parishes in France.

They act like a natural tie, which keeps every one upon his native soil; they distribute themselves amongst all imaginable labourers and trades. If the State, by essays drawing off these 50,000,000 fr. from the citizens, accumulates them, and expends them on some given point, it attracts to this point a proportional quantity of displaced labour, a corresponding number of finishing school angelou essay labourers, belonging to otto historical, other parts; a fluctuating population, which is out of its place, and, I venture to say, dangerous when the hunting is just a hobby fund is exhausted. Now here is the otto hintze historical consequence (and this confirms all I have said): this feverish activity is, as it were, forced into cant do my essay security - cameroon, a narrow space; it attracts the attention of all; it is otto hintze historical, what is seen. The people applaud; they are astonished at the beauty and facility of the dissertation summary plan, and expect to have it continued and extended. That which they do not see is, that an otto essays equal quantity of labour, which would probably be more valuable, has been paralyzed over the rest of France. It is not only in cheap write coaching the public expenditure that what is otto hintze, seen eclipses what is not seen.

Setting aside what relates to political economy, this phenomenon leads to false reasoning. It causes nations to consider their moral and their material interests as contradictory to each other. What can be more discouraging, or more dismal? For instance, there is not a father of a family who does not think it his duty to teach his children order, system, the habits of carefulness, of economy, and of moderation in spending money. There is no religion which does not thunder against pomp and luxury. This is as it should be; but, on the other hand, how frequently do we hear the following remarks:- To hoard, is to drain the veins of the people. The luxury of the school angelou essay great is the comfort of the little.

Prodigals ruin themselves, but they enrich the State. It is the superfluity of the rich which makes bread for the poor. Here, certainly, is a striking contradiction between the moral and the social idea. How many eminent spirits, after having made the assertion, repose in peace. It is otto, a thing I never could understand, for it seems to finishing angelou, me that nothing can be more distressing than to discover two opposite tendencies in mankind. Why, it comes to hintze essays, degradation at each of the extremes: economy brings it to misery; prodigality plunges it into moral degradation. Cheap Write My Essay Coaching. Happily, these vulgar maxims exhibit economy and luxury in a false light, taking account, as they do, of those immediate consequences which are seen, and not of the remote ones, which are not seen. Let us see if we can rectify this incomplete view of the historical essays case.

Mondor and summary, his brother Aristus, after dividing the otto hintze historical essays paternal inheritance, have each an income of 50,000 francs. Mondor practises the fashionable philanthropy. He is what is called a squanderer of dissertation headings money. He renews his furniture several times a year; changes his equipages every month. People talk of his ingenious contrivances to bring them sooner to an end: in short, he surpasses the fast livers of Balzac and Alexander Dumas. Thus, everybody is singing his praises.

It is, Tell us about Mondor? Mondor for otto hintze historical essays ever! He is the benefactor of the Write essays workman; a blessing to the people. It is true, he revels in dissipation; he splashes the passers-by; his own dignity and that of human nature are lowered a little; but what of otto hintze historical that? He does good with his fortune, if not with himself. He causes money to finishing school by maya, circulate; he always sends the tradespeople away satisfied. Is not money made round that it may roll?

Aristus has adopted a very different plan of life. If he is not an egotist, he is, at any rate, an otto historical individualist, for he considers expense, seeks only moderate and reasonable enjoyments, thinks of his children's prospects, and, in fact, he economises. And what do people say of him? What is the good of a rich fellow like him? He is a skinflint. There is something imposing, perhaps, in the simplicity of his life; and he is humane, too, and benevolent, and generous, but he calculates. - Can. He does not spend his income; his house is neither brilliant nor bustling. What good does he do to the paper hangers, the carriage makers, the otto historical essays horse dealers, and a hobby essay, the confectioners? These opinions, which are fatal to morality, are founded upon what strikes the hintze historical essays eye: the expenditure of the prodigal; and another, which is out of sight, the equal and even superior expenditure of the economist.

But things have been so admirably arranged by edition executive summary the Divine inventor of social order, that in this, as in everything else, political economy and morality, far from clashing, agree; and the wisdom of Aristus is not only more dignified, but still more profitable, than the folly of Mondor. And when I say profitable, I do not mean only profitable to Aristus, or even to society in general, but more profitable to the workmen themselves to the trade of the otto historical essays time. To prove it, it is only necessary to turn the mind's eye to those hidden consequences of human actions, which the bodily eye does not see. Yes, the essays … prodigality of hintze historical essays Mondor has visible effects in every point of view. Write My Essay Coaching. Everybody can see his landaus, his phaetons, his berlins, the delicate paintings on his ceilings, his rich carpets, the brilliant effects of his house. Every one knows that his horses run upon the turf. The dinners which he gives at the Hotel de Paris attract the attention of the crowds on the Boulevards; and essays, it is school, said, That is a generous man; far from saving his income, he is very likely breaking into his capital. Otto Essays. This is what is seen. It is not easy to see, with regard to the interest of Write More Creatively workers, what becomes of the income of Aristus. If we were to trace it carefully, however, we should see that the otto hintze essays whole of it, down to the last farthing, affords work to the labourers, as certainly as the fortune of Mondor. Only there is this difference: the wanton extravagance of angelou Mondor is doomed to be constantly decreasing, and to come to an end without fail; whilst the wise expenditure of Aristus will go on increasing from year to year.

And if this is the case, then, most assuredly, the public interest will be in unison with morality. Aristus spends upon hintze historical, himself and his household 20,000 francs a year. If that is How to Write More Creatively, not sufficient to hintze essays, content him, he does not deserve to be called a wise man. He is touched by the miseries which oppress the poorer classes; he thinks he is bound in conscience to do my national security affairs, afford them some relief, and historical essays, therefore he devotes 10,000 francs to acts of benevolence. Help Cant Do My Essay National Security Affairs. Amongst the merchants, the manufacturers, and the agriculturists, he has friends who are suffering under temporary difficulties; he makes himself acquainted with their situation, that he may assist them with prudence and efficiency, and to this work he devotes 10,000 francs more. Then he does not forget that he has daughters to portion, and sons for whose prospects it is his duty to provide, and therefore he considers it a duty to lay by otto essays and put out to interest 10,000 francs every year. The following is a list of his expenses:

Let us examine each of these items, and we shall see that not a single farthing escapes the national labour. 1st. Personal expenses. These, as far as work-people and tradesmen are concerned, have precisely the same effect as an equal sum spent by Mondor. This is self-evident, therefore we shall say no more about it. 2nd. How To Write. Benevolent objects. Otto. The 10,000 francs devoted to this purpose benefit trade in an equal degree; they reach the butcher, the baker, the tailor, and the carpenter. The only thing is, that the bread, the help cant do my national security affairs meat, and the clothing are not used by Aristus, but by those whom he has made his substitutes.

Now, this simple substitution of hintze historical one consumer for another, in dissertation apa 6th edition summary no way effects trade in general. It is all one, whether Aristus spends a crown, or desires some unfortunate person to spend it instead. 3rd. Otto Hintze Essays. Offices of friendship. The friend to whom Aristus lends or gives 10,000 francs, does not receive them to bury them; that would be against the hypothesis. He uses them to pay for goods, or to discharge debts. In the first case, trade is encouraged. Will any one pretend to say that it gains more by Mondor's purchase of a thorough-bred horse for 10,000 francs, than by help cant do my affairs the purchase of otto hintze historical essays 10,000 francs' worth of stuffs by Aristus or his friend? For, if this sum serves to Write essays for money, pay a debt, a third person appears, viz. the otto hintze historical creditor, who will certainly employ them upon something in his trade, his household, or his farm. He forms another medium between Aristus and the workmen. The names only are changed, the expense remains, and cheap write coaching and mentoring, also the encouragement to trade.

4th. Saving. There remains now the essays 10,000 francs saved; and it is here, as regards the encouragement to the arts, to trade, labour, and do my essay affairs, the workmen, that Mondor appears far superior to Aristus, although, in a moral point of view, Aristus shows himself, in some degree, superior to Mondor. I can never look at these apparent contradictions between the great laws of nature, without a feeling of physical uneasiness which amounts to suffering. Were mankind reduced to the necessity of otto hintze historical essays choosing between two parties, one of whom injures his interest, and the other his conscience, we should have nothing to hope from the apa 6th edition summary future. Happily, this is not the historical case; and to see Aristus regain his economical superiority, as well as his moral superiority, it is sufficient to understand this consoling maxim, which is no less true from having a paradoxical appearance, To save, is to spend. What is cheap, Aristus's object in saving 10,000 francs? Is it to bury them in otto hintze historical essays his garden? No, certainly; he intends to increase his capital and his income; consequently, this money, instead of is just essay being employed upon otto hintze historical, his own personal gratification, is used for buying land, a house, c., or it is placed in help cant do my essay affairs the hands of a merchant or a banker.

Follow the progress of this money in any one of these cases, and you will be convinced, that through the hintze essays medium of vendors or lenders, it is encouraging labour quite as certainly as if Aristus, following the example of his brother, had exchanged it for furniture, jewels, and horses. For when Aristus buys lands or rents for 10,000 francs, he is cheap write my essay coaching and mentoring, determined by the consideration that he does not want to spend this money. Otto Hintze Historical. This is why you complain of him. But, at the same time, the man who sells the land or the rent, is determined by the consideration that he does want to spend the 10,000 francs in Write - Can … some way; so that the money is spent in hintze historical essays any case, either by Aristus, or by others in his stead. With respect to the working class, to the encouragement of labour, there is only one difference between the conduct of Aristus and that of Mondor. Mondor spends the write money himself and therefore the effect is seen. Aristus, spending it partly through intermediate parties, and at a distance, the effect is not seen. But, in fact, those who know how to attribute effects to their proper causes, will perceive, that what is otto hintze essays, not seen is as certain as what is seen.

This is proved by the fact, that in both cases the school by maya angelou money circulates, and does not lie in the iron chest of the wise mall, any more than it does in that of the spendthrift. It is, therefore, false to say that economy does actual harm to trade; as described above, it is hintze essays, equally beneficial with luxury. But how far superior is it, if, instead of confining our thoughts to the present moment, we let them embrace a longer period! Ten years pass away. What is become of How to Creatively Mondor and his fortune, and his great popularity?

Mondor is ruined. Instead of spending 60,000 francs every year in the social body, he is, perhaps, a burden to it. In any case, he is no longer the delight of shopkeepers; he is no longer the otto hintze patron of the Write Creatively arts and of trade; he is no longer of any use to the workmen, nor are his successors, whom he has brought to otto hintze historical essays, want. At the school angelou end of the same ten years, Aristus not only continues to throw his income into circulation, but he adds an increasing sum from year to year to otto historical essays, his expenses. He enlarges the national capital, that is, the fund which supplies wages, and as it is upon the extent of this fund that the demand for hands depends, he assists in progressively increasing the dissertation headings edition executive remuneration of the working class; and if he dies, he leaves children whom he has taught to succeed him in this work of otto hintze historical essays progress and civilization. In a moral point of view, the superiority of frugality over luxury is indisputable. It is consoling to think that it is essays …, so in political economy, to otto, every one who, not confining his views to the immediate effects of phenomena, knows how to extend his investigations to their final effects. Brethren, you must club together to find me work at finishing your own price. This is the right to historical essays, work; i.e., elementary socialism of the first degree. Brethren, you must club together to find me work at my own price. This is the right to my essay, profit; i.e., refined socialism, or socialism of the second degree.

Both of these live upon such of their effects as are seen. They will die by means of those effects which are not seen. That which is seen, is the otto hintze essays labour and the profit excited by social combination. That which is not seen, is the labour and the profit to which this same combination would give rise, if it were left to the tax-payers. In 1848, the right to Write essays online …, labour for otto hintze essays a moment showed two faces. This was sufficient to ruin it in public opinion. One of these faces was called national workshops.

The other, forty-five centimes. Millions of francs went daily from the Rue Rivoli to the national workshops. This was the fair side of the medal. And this is the reverse. If millions are taken out of a cash-box, they must first have been put into it. This is why the organizers of the right to public labour apply to the tax-payers. Now, the peasants said, I must pay forty-five centimes; then I must deprive myself of some clothing. I cannot manure my field; I cannot repair my house.

And the country workmen said, As our townsman deprives himself of same clothing, there will be less work for the tailor; as he does not improve his field, there will be less work for the drainer; as he does not repair his house, there will be less work for dissertation edition summary the carpenter and mason. It was then proved that two kinds of meal cannot come out of one sack, and that the work furnished by the Government was done at the expense of labour, paid for by the tax-payer. This was the death of the right to labour, which showed itself as much a chimera as an injustice. And yet, the right to profit, which is otto hintze historical, only an exaggeration of the right to labour, is still alive and flourishing. Ought not the protectionist to blush at finishing school the part he would make society play? He says to it, You must give me work, and, more than that, lucrative work. I have foolishly fixed upon a trade by which I lose ten per cent. If you impose a tax of twenty francs upon my countrymen, and give it to me, I shall be a gainer instead of a loser. Otto. Now, profit is my right; you owe it me. Now, any society which would listen to this sophist, burden itself with taxes to satisfy him, and How to Creatively, not perceive that the loss to which any trade is exposed is no less a loss when others are forced to otto historical essays, make up for it, such a society, I say, would deserve the burden inflicted upon it. Thus we learn, by the numerous subjects which I have treated, that, to be ignorant of political economy is to allow ourselves to be dazzled by the immediate effect of a phenomenon; to How to, be acquainted with it is to embrace in thought and in forethought the whole compass of effects.

I might subject a host of other questions to the same test; but I shrink from the otto historical monotony of a constantly uniform demonstration, and I conclude by applying to political economy what Chateaubriand says of history:- There are, he says, two consequences in history; an dissertation headings apa 6th immediate one, which is instantly recognized, and one in the distance, which is not at first perceived. These consequences often contradict each other; the former are the hintze essays results of our own limited wisdom, the latter, those of that wisdom which endures. The providential event appears after the human event. God rises up behind men.

Deny, if you will, the supreme counsel; disown its action; dispute about words; designate, by by maya angelou essay the term, force of circumstances, or reason, what the vulgar call Providence; but look to the end of an accomplished fact, and historical essays, you will see that it has always produced the contrary of what was expected from it, if it was not established at finishing by maya angelou essay first upon morality and otto hintze historical, justice.

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Improving FCAT sScores of students Essay. Since the first task is to find students who are willing to ask questions and seek help, it is imperative to otto hintze, build a working and trusting relation with the students. Knowing students and understanding their learning style should help them and the proponents of the study in meeting the collective obligation towards acquiring knowledge and preparing both parties for any challenge which include school testing or the state required Standard Testing. Further, it is expected to find cooperative teachers who are willing and able to work together to meet all of the student goals and the curriculum requirements. As mentioned before, if no cooperative work will take form among students, teachers, administrators and parents, the chances for hunting a hobby, students to be successful may diminish. There is an easy way for every teacher to help their students in preparing for the FCAT.

In essence, teachers can include FCAT-like questions into the regular class lectures, activities as well as assessments. Primarily, teachers can use questions that necessitate students to elucidate their responses to the questions. Teachers can also have the students to relate their Reading and Mathematics skills utilizing challenging content from the various subject areas. Otto Essays! The test questions included in the FCAT employ the content areas prescribed by the SSS which include the Arts, Language Arts and Mathematics, Science, Health and Physical Education, Social Studies as well as School-to-Work areas. Hence, every student must be handed the finishing school by maya chances to apply their reading and mathematics skills in the content fields other than the plain customary mathematics as well as language arts.

The majority of the text students after Grade 6 are needed to read and understand on FCAT is otto hintze historical essays, informational text which does not necessarily imply it as literature. Another way is for teachers to employ questions in which their formats are open-ended which are similar to the ones identified in the FCAT. AT least three distinct types of open-ended questions are used on the FCAT. These include the extended-response format, short-response type, and the gridded-response type. The first two formats (ER and SR) are applied only on the students of Grades 4, 8 and 10 Reading and Grades 5, 8, and 10 Math. The tests from Grades 5 to 10 in the Mathematics part of the FCAT apply the gridded-response format in the questions. How To Creatively! The real amount of questions for every type differs a bit annually. Nevertheless, the percentage of the questions will fall just within the range illustrated in the table below: Percent of Questions for the FCAT Question Formats Subject and Grade Question Format Percent of Questions Read. — 4, 8, 10 Multiple Choice (MC) 85-90% ER and hintze historical SR 10-15% Reading — 3, 5, 6, 7, 9 MC 100% Math — 3 4 MC 100% Math — 5 MC 60-70% GR 20-25%. ER SR 10-15% Math — 6, 7, 9 MC 60-70% GR 30-40% Math — 8 10 MC 50-60% GR 25-30% ER SR 10-15% In the Reading section of the ER questions in the FCAT, students are provided an answer space which consists of 14 lines.

On the other hand, students are provided with a blank workspace for Mathematics where the students are required to illustrate their work and a few lines provided for their explanation part. Every student is required to write answers or illustrate their work in the spaces yet it is not a requirement to More, completely fill the spaces. Next, in the SR questions, students in reading are provided with another answer space which consists of eight lines. Students are provided with a blank workspace in Mathematics for hintze historical essays, their explanation or illustration of school essay, their work. Filling up the historical essays spaces completely is, again, not a requirement. In the GR format, every student is provided with an answer grid to my essay coaching, fill. Students are required to fill the historical essays grid with the do my national affairs right answer with the use of hintze historical, one of the few right formats.

Numerical answers resulting from specific questions can be solved by the use of a response grid and not mere questions of mathematics. In essence, the constant use of these formats of questions in do my essay national - cameroon every regular activities and appraisals within the classroom and will aid students become familiar to answering in the same manner they will be asked to answer in the actual FCAT. Hintze Historical! Teachers can also opt to grade and rate the work of the students using the rubrics based on the FCAT as well as the rubric from Florida Writes. By employing this approach, students can become more accustomed to online, what is otto hintze essays, expected from them on the actual test in FCAT. Aiding students comprehend what is expected of them on essays for money online FCAT is perhaps one of the most effective approaches in helping these students to prepare for the actual FCAT. Most of the time, students ask “will I have to perform this one on the actual FCAT? ” If the teacher considers using the otto essays FCAT rubrics in scoring the responses to the classroom test questions, subject papers, reports, projects among many others, students will harness a clearer comprehension of the degrees of performance expected of them during the FCAT. Last but not the least, teachers can opt to utilize and develop questions for classroom discussions and tests that are of similar cognitive firmness as the ones presented in the FCAT test rubrics. The SSS contains standards for the content as well as benchmarks that are challenging for every learner as it also includes the a hobby expectation that these learners become more creative as their critical thinking capabilities are likewise developed further. Every class has the size of approximately 32 students with a various degree of academic levels. Most students come from a lower socio-economic class and many of their parents speak another language apart from hintze, English and cannot provide enough help the proponents with any of the homework.

With the help from other teachers, a “Mock FCAT Test” will be conducted which is going to be based on the materials the students have covered for the year. Write More! The test will consist of a multiple choice section, a true or false part, and several essay type questions. One of the co-teachers in the science classes will have to modify the essays test for the ESE students just as it has been practiced during regular test or quizzes. Some of the ESE students have a modification clause in cheap my essay coaching their Individual Education Plan or IEP and the test questions have to be read to them so that they will be able to understand better the otto hintze test questions and for money online answer them to the best of their knowledge. Further, it will provide the students with the otto guidance for studying and preparing for the real FCAT test. Two periods per week can be used for the test preparation which serves as a review time and after four weeks the test will be given. The teachers should make themselves available before and after school for students who feel they need some help. Also, letters must be sent to the parents of the How to Creatively students which will serve as letters asking for their help, if possible, with students’ practice work. In addition to the help that is to be obtained from hintze, both the teachers and the parents, the students themselves will also participate and Write cooperate in order to further advance the help they can receive. That is, students will be paired, carefully selecting their pairs according to their academic level.

All of these activities will be conducted in the regular classroom during the historical third quarter of the school year. A journal will be maintained which will serve as the record for all of the for money - Can observations obtained as well as the progress of the otto students throughout the course of the scheme. Dates will be analyzed in order to predict any changes in the students’ progress so that it will be easier to identify where help is most needed for How to Write More, the students. The journal will also include information gathered from parents on the progress of the time spent with their children who are studying at historical, home. Moreover, the journal will contain a comparison column to see the results from is just essay, all of the quizzes and serve as a guide for intervention when needed. Hintze Historical Essays! The information that will be obtained will be thoroughly shared with the students so that they ca follow their progress and pinpoint any deficiencies in which they have to work on. Lastly, the journal will provide information on what and where the needs are to be reviewed, revisited, or reinforced. This is to keep a sustained check on the progress of the project. With the cooperation of the other teachers, information will be shared and concerns will be exchanged concerning the progress of the headings apa 6th summary students. The members of the project will be involved in monitoring, discussing, and helping students to stay on track.

There will be daily discussions with the historical students about the difficulties of the study material or to share the successes and ideas about the methods of studying. Student’s input is most important as their suggestions will be shared with every student in both class periods. Also, students who have already taken the FCAT and is just a hobby essay have successfully passes the test will be introduced into the group of students in order for the former to be able to relate to the students their previous experience with FCAT. The techniques used by hintze historical essays these previous students who have already successfully passed the FCAT will be shared to the current students so that the latter will be able to obtain any important information or insights into finishing school by maya angelou, the FCAT. The data will be interpreted in otto hintze historical terms of an analysis of all the information obtained before, during, and after the project has culminated. Input from the teachers involved will be greatly considered inasmuch as the conference with the parents and the participating students will provide the data that will be analyzed. Essays …! Students will be given a self-survey to assess their own progress from their personal viewpoint and provide guide for reviewing the otto hintze material for the test.

Also, with the cooperation of the finishing other teachers, notes will be compared and pinpoint the relation of time, the otto hintze historical essays involvement of the parents and write coaching the scores obtained from the test. All obtainable manpower will be used in completing the project. The findings of the study or project will be shared with the entire staff of the school, specifically the essays administrators and the teachers, as well as with the parents and the students. The success of the project will be shared with other schools as it will be important and More useful information in preparing their students for testing via the regular curriculum. The goal presented is to make the otto essays students aware of the essay security - cameroon possibilities of learning through organized effort and the learning intelligence that most befits each student.

Also, the information obtained from the project will be shared with other teachers in order to reinforce the methods and styles and teaching practices that will be used. The parents will realize that their involvement with their children in learning is of great significance as they keep in contact with the teachers and otto historical essays monitor the headings apa 6th progress of their children. The next phase is to work on hintze historical continuous cooperation with the cheap write coaching parents and other teachers and to provide the maximum help to the students. An open relationship with students will also be developed through an action plan where everybody is involved in the educational process working together for a common goal. This will help and encourage students in their future study as they will be able to comprehend the positive outcome of their efforts and the cooperation they maintain with their fellow students and with their parents and teachers. Otto Hintze Historical! The bulk of the critical colleagues in the entirety of the project will be comprised of How to Write More, fellow teachers as well as the otto assistant principal of the school who will provide the support and approval for a hobby essay, the implementation of the project.

Permission will be sought after the school principal as well as from the parents of the students as both parties will have to invest time and a few other resources for the initiation and completion of the project. The permission of the other teachers will also be obtained primarily because classes will be conducted in their respective classrooms and class sections that they handle. CONCLUSION By monitoring the test results obtained from the hintze essays FCAT and hunting is just a hobby essay comparing these results with the previous years, the knowledge of the students can be relatively increased specifically in hintze historical the domain of science. By guiding the coaching and mentoring teachers find the specific areas where the students needs some room for hintze historical essays, improvement especially their weaknesses as well as their strengths that need reinforcement, teachers can correspondingly adjust their lesson plans. Further, since the work aims at expanding the skills and school angelou essay knowledge of students based on FCAT results, the work also shares a relevant contribution to the overall academic and holistic development of the otto hintze historical student as relationships are established and strengthened between students, parents, teachers, and the school administrators. References FCAT Fact Sheet. (2005, August 24, 2005). Retrieved August 5, 2007, from http://fcat. fldoe. Do My National Affairs! org/pdf/fcatfact. Hintze Essays! pdf. FCAT Myths vs. Facts. (2005, August 24, 2005).

Retrieved August 6, 2007, from cheap write, http://fcat. fldoe. Otto Hintze Historical Essays! org/pdf/myths-facts. pdf. What every teacher should know about FCAT. (2005, August 24, 2005). Retrieved August 6, 2007, from http://fcat. fldoe. org/pdf/fcatguid. pdf. University/College: University of Write online - Can, California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 28 April 2017.

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