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These substances serve as pyrogens and stimulate the receptors of the appropriate white blood cells. These WBC start to release pyrogenic cytokines into the blood flow, and me do my essay impact, mentioned cytokines are transported to the anterior hypothalamus and trigger the mechanisms of thermoregulation in a way that leads to the elevation of the thermoregulatory set point. As a result of these changes and subsequent neurohumoral commands of the hypothalamus heat production and heat conservation in the organism are increased. Heat production is increased by the means of involuntary muscular contractions (so called “chills”), and essay service feedback gre, recently produced heat is conserved because of the constriction of the peripheral blood vessels and of the appropriate behavioral changes. Help On Rainforests. Tachycardia arises as a result of the sympathetic vegetative system activation by the cytokines and subsequent release of the additional portions of adrenaline into the blood flow. Write And Intrinsic. Headache is the results of elevated intracranial pressure which causes tension of the dura mater and help me do on rainforests, irritation of nerve endings of the trigeminal nerve. In International Pdf. The mechanism of ICP elevation, in a few words, comprises the following steps: invasion of the bacterial cells into the central nervous system, their propagation in the liquor, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and increase of impact on rainforests, BBB (blood brain barrier) permeability and infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils. (Tsao N. et al. 1999) This also increases liquor volume because of on respecting elders poems, absorbance and circulation failure and, finally, results in help me do impact on rainforests elevation of ICP. Nausea and vomiting arise as the result of the nervus vagus endings irritation, and the cause of photophobia is general hyperesthesia and aggravation of headache in the presence of bright light. My Essay Between And Intrinsic. Irritability and subsequent drowsiness are the result of intoxication of the cortical neurons by the bacterial exotoxins.
Neck stiffness originate from muscular pain (myalgia) – muscles of the neck and back contract uncontrollably and that makes body and neck bend backward, thus dampening the pain. The first days of the disease are critical for the patient’s survival and recovery, and, as it was said before, timely treatment and careful nursing are the help me do my essay the human, matters of in international relations pdf, high importance. Leaving the questions of treatment aside, let’s touch upon the question of nursing care for the patient like Mr. Scott. The care of the patient with the early stage of bacterial meningitis is supportive, according to Shearer-Cooper L. A. and Frey R. (1996) Adequate and attentive nursing must include measures of several types: administration of prescribed strain-specific antibiotic treatment, providing comfort and care for the patient, assessing of the me do the human impact on rainforests, patient’s condition and prevention of aggravations, isolation of the cheap the difference between and intrinsic, patient if necessary to avert dissemination of the infection. My Essay Impact. Working this division out in details, it is necessary to mention administration of homework help time to the half hour, antibiotics and other medications as ordered by the physician, analgesics, anticonvulsants, oxygen and fluids if necessary. (Springhouse 2003; Comer S. 2003) These measures are the parts of the treatment aimed to maintain therapeutic concentrations of medicines in the bloodstream and though to guarantee maximum efficacy of the treatment. (Ahrens T. S., Prentice D. Help Me Do My Essay The Human On Rainforests. 1997) In order to provide comfort and care to the patient nurse should take steps to compensate patient’s temporary decreased ability to care for himself, among them are provision of skin and hair care, bathing, sufficient nutrition and hydration, (Sheppard M. 2000) maintenance of comforting environmental conditions i.e. temperature control, quiet and dim light (this will decrease the load on hyperirritable sensory organs and thus reduce pain of the patient) minimization of in international relations pdf, seizure and trauma risks by padding side rails of the bed (Comer S. 2003; Springhouse. 2003) Assessing the present condition include monitoring body temperature, blood pressure and respiratory rate, general neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory status, (Springhouse. 2003) level of help me do my essay impact on rainforests, conscience and other vital signs. (Shearer-Cooper L. A., Frey R. 1996) Prevention of aggravations includes control of pyrexia, rehydration of the patient, administration of anticonvulsants, if necessary, mechanical lung ventilation, and control of the patient’s position in homework help telling time half hour bed to avert the bedsores development. Respiratory isolation should be performed at first 24-48 hours to protect the staff and visitors and to prevent dissemination of the infection. (Ahrens T. On Rainforests. S., Prentice D. 1997) Ahrens S., Prentice D. 1997.
Critical Care Certification. McGraw-Hill Professional Comer 2003. Delmar#8217;s Critical Care Nursing Care Plans. Thomson Delmar Learning 2006. Feedback Gre. [online] [Accessed 17 th November 2006]. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.indiana.edu/ health/hot/meningitis.shtml Shearer-Cooper L. A., Frey R. 1996. An Introduction to Nursing Assisting: Building Language Skills. Thomson Delmar Learning Sheppard A., Wright M., Sheppard M. 2000. Principles And Practice of High Dependency Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences 2003. Straight A#8217;s Medical- S urgical Nursing.
Lippincott Williams Wilkins Tsao N., Puthuparampil P. Kanakamma, Tien-Yau Luh, Chen-Kung Chou, and Huan-Yao Lei. 1999. Inhibition of Escherichia coli-Induced Meningitis by Carboxyfullerence. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 43 (9), p. 2274. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and help me do, order Bacterial meningitis.
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Below is a list of language. 459 Words | 4 Pages. 1. PIE CHART This pie chart shows Mark’s monthly budget. The highest designation of his budget will go to his foods with 45% . of his total allowance. Next is for lodging with 30% followed by the projects and fare which will have 10%. Essay Gre! The least designation for his budget will be for his savings which has 5% only.
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7 Badass Cartoon Villains Who Lost to Lame Heroes. If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and my essay, support us! The hero's tale requires that he overcome long odds to defeat the bad guys. We understand that; nobody would have rooted for essay, Luke Skywalker if Darth Vader had been a small, handicapped child. But many of the cartoons of our childhood took this idea to absolutely retarded extremes, to help me do the human impact, the point that it strained even our childish suspension of disbelief. These are the badass villains who had no business coming out on help cant do my essay the pros of prenatal the losing end: Dr. Help The Human On Rainforests? George Claw is the feedback gre head of M.A.D., a criminal organization whose main purpose is committing crime and wreaking pointless havoc. Take notice that they don't mention profit or power as a main goal; those are only unexpected bonuses. M.A.D. 1: You know, we could have looted some stuff before burning down that warehouse.
There was one time when Claw teamed up with his Japanese counterpart, Waruda, to me do my essay impact, steal all the jewelery in the world. Yeah, you read it right. All the jewelry. From the Queen of England's crown to the ring in your great grandma's icy death fingers. Why? Presumably, for the hell of it.
They also had their logo stamped on everything. You might think it's a weird move for a criminal syndicate, but, you know, you can't underestimate the value of brand management. Who Was He Constantly Losing To? The whole spawning any weapon from write my essay between and intrinsic learning. his hat man machine thing sounds like he'd be a powerful hero, but then you realize he's less combination of man and machine and more combination of machine and pure incompetent asshole. Gadget is constantly being outwitted by his own dog and his 10 or 11-year-old niece.
They were the ones who always ruined Dr. Claw's schemes, often by replacing the objects he tried to steal with worthless replicas. It's worth noting that Penny apparently had the same neurological condition as the guy in Memento as she needed to write down everything she was thinking in her 128kb laptop. Well first of all, he is an evil wizard, and the human impact, we're assuming the name isn't referring to a medical condition. He lives in homework time to the, a dark castle surrounded with dark clouds, where we suppose he performs some dark rituals of dark wizardry. Look at that bastard. Dark robes, a cloak that hides his face in shadows, it's deformed features a mystery other than a pair of glowing, evil red eyes. He also has shadow minions, who may be more fucked up than he is. Whenever children are having good feelings, they just literally suck the me do the human impact feeling out of the children, injecting a creepy pedo-vibe that you don't usually get in Saturday morning cartoons. Relations Pdf? Also, he is a shapeshifter, so he could just go and help me do my essay on rainforests, shapeshift into some world's leader and homework help to the, start World War III. Me Do The Human On Rainforests? We tried to find out what power would be more convenient for world domination and we only came out with a gun that had infinite ammo and also great boobs.
Then again, he could shapeshift into an even bigger gun with even bigger boobs. Damn you, No Heart! Who Was He Constantly Losing To? Little fluffy bears who cared. And lived in essay on respecting friendship, clouds.
Loving everything. Loving each other. Impact? Really, when these guys weren't throwing alcohol-free birthday parties they were baking cookies. Feedback Gre? They sprinkled some light out of their fluffy tummies. Tummies that No Heart should have been able to gut with a single swift move.
Instead, they got him with the fluffy tummy light trick over and over again. If the world's most ruthless shapeshifter doesn't stand a chance against fluffy bears, then imagine how screwed we are when the army of Teddy Ruxpin's finally become self aware and crawl up out of the land fills. Me Do The Human Impact On Rainforests? An evil wizard with a degree. He lives in a forest in write extrinsic and intrinsic learning., the middle of help me do my essay impact, nowhere in relations, a run-down hovel, so we're not sure how much good it's doing him. Me Do My Essay The Human? In his early appearances in the cartoons he wanted to capture Smurfs in order to make gold. Later, he decided he wanted to write my essay learning., eat them instead.
Finally, he got tired of making excuses and admitted he just wanted to slaughter Smurfs because murder is awesome. Help Impact On Rainforests? That's why he named his cat Azrael, which is a name for the angel of for all, death. In addition to being an help me do my essay alchemist, he has the essay images godlike ability to create life, and once created Sassette, a female smurf. If he can make his own smurfs, why does he continue to hunt the free ones? Because he's fucking Gargamel, that's why! Who Was He Constantly Losing To? Tiny (just three apples tall) peace-loving communists that survive on help me do Smurf berries and very limited skills. Each smurf is on special education, named for their single, completely worthless talent. You've got Hefty Smurf (remember, very small), Brainy Smurf, Jokey Smurf, Grouchy Smurf, Dreamy Smurf, etc. There is help, no Nucleary Smurf or Snipery Smurf or Impaley Smurf to be found.
A normal man of no supernatural powers shouldn't be losing to this group of the difference between and intrinsic, penis-sized commies. Hell, the goddamned cat should have taken care of the help me do my essay the human impact whole village in essay elders about friendship images, an afternoon. The Duke was once a fierce knight loyal to the crown of King Gregor, ruler of Dunwyn. If you know anything about the me do the human impact on rainforests Middle Ages, you know what kind of feedback, shit this guy's got on his resume: Burning down enemy villages while little babies and the human on rainforests, peasant girls cried for mercy, collecting skulls for the castle's towers, going to war and coming back bathed in enemy's internal organs while bleeding horribly from his own gruesome wounds. After forging his personality in the fires of cruel knighthood, Sir Igthorn became a duke and began a quest to take over the entire kingdom of Dunwyn. What he lacks in on respecting friendship, arcane knowledge or demonic blood paths, he compensates with badassery . Also, Igthorn commands a legion of help me do my essay the human impact on rainforests, bloodthirsty orcs. We don't know if you've watched enough Lord of the Rings to know this, but you don't win the loyalty of orcs with kind words. Igthorn, no doubt, killed half of them and essay service gre, tortured the help me do my essay the human on rainforests rest until they swore loyalty with bitter orc tears in their eyes. Abstracts Teachers? Who Was He Constantly Losing To? The Gummi Bears. Okay, not the actual candies, but the ones in help me do my essay impact on rainforests, the candy-inspired Disney cartoon.
The story goes that not so long ago Gummi Glen ( sigh ) was a forest infested with hundreds of Gummi Bears until Duke Igthorn cleared it out, single-handedly. Now, there's only six left and they are somehow giving him a hell of a fight to keep him from taking over the kingdom. And how do these stupid bears stand a chance against time, the bloodthirsty hellspawn known as Ightorn? Because of the Gummi Juice, a substance that gives the Gummi Bears the amazing power of BOUNCING. Get those things bouncing and a bloodbath ensues. Wait a second. Were they really trying to the human impact, sell us candy by abstracts for all, portraying them as sentient, heroic and lovable? For a toddler, doesn't that take the fun out of biting their little heads off?
Hell, maybe the whole thing was a roundabout pitch to me do my essay the human, get us to finish the dissertation on special education job Igthorn started. Imagine a place so vile that someone finds it necessary to form an organization of monsters and villains, just to my essay the human impact, get things working a little above pandemonium level. Cant Do My Essay Of Prenatal Genetic Testing? Now imagine what kind of help my essay on rainforests, badass it would take to rule this group. That's Quellor, the Supreme Oppressor. Quellor takes control of M.A.V.O. with an iron fist, surely in more ways we would like to imagine an iron fist can rule. No matter how odd, stupid, strange or outlandish his orders may be, they are obeyed without delay by each member of feedback, M.A.V.O. They know it's that, or a session with Quellor's iron fist. Physically, he is huge and me do my essay the human, menacing, and throws some kind of electricity from his hands and has a ray that erases the memory of on special education, whoever he thinks deserves it.
Like No Heart up there, it seems like this guy could rule the world pretty easily. Who Was He Constantly Losing To? Teddy is a Illiop, a bear-like creature with a kind disposition. If you're a certain age you may also remember the animatronic Teddy Ruxpin toy that talked out of help me do my essay the human, a cassette embedded in his chest. Then you've got Teddy's friends: Grubby, a kid sized worm that cares only between and intrinsic, about eating; Newton Gimmick, an absent minded inventor whose head appears to me do my essay the human impact, have been ravaged by Alzheimer's; a pair of 10-year-old princess siblings and some furry pink hobbit/yeti/glamorous drag abomination. Well, nothing gay about that.
These guys have some precious crystals Quellor wants to get his hands on and, somehow, the Supreme Oppressor never supremely oppresses the fuck out of these furry dipshits. The fist, man! Use the fist! Professor Norton Nimnul is a talented mad scientist, however he is not the head of his criminal operations, as he works for Mr. Klordane the Crime Lord. Phd Dissertation In International? In that capacity, the man has built laser cannons, a shrinking/enlarging gun (he once stole a whole motherfucking museum with it by shrieking it to pocket-size), an aging gun, a cat gun and who knows what else.
Shit on the guy, he'll make a gun out of my essay, it. Homework Telling Time? Oh, and once he made an earthquake bomb out of nothing but fruit. Who Was He Constantly Losing To? The Rescue Rangers. Don't let the name fool you, this is not a group of Chuck Norrises and Steven Seagals fighting the me do the human impact Professor's inventions with roundhouse kicks. This is a group of essay elders poems friendship images, five rodents who started a club to fight crime.
There is help my essay impact, one squirrel who is telling time to the half, clever (for a chipmunk), another who is me do my essay the human impact, amazingly stupid (for a chipmunk), the write the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic learning. muscle of the group (strong for impact on rainforests, a mouse) and a mouse-girl that actually is cheap the difference learning., pretty good at designing gadgets and me do the human on rainforests, devices, but most of the materials she acquires are coke caps, plastic packages and a diverse array of the shit you could dig out of your couch cushions right now. So all of her gadgets could be crushed if the Professor stepped on them. Also, they had a fly. In fact, the whole team could easily die that way. As with Gargamel, it seems the professor should be able to in international, take these rodents out without any of me do the human on rainforests, his inventions. Gre? A small child could do it, completely by accident. Mythology makes it pretty clear: Nothing good can come out a half-goat creature.
Tirek, a gigantic half-goat/half-horse/half-man and 150 percent motherfucking hellspawn, lives in me do the human impact on rainforests, his Midnight Castle. Scorpan, his Yeti-with-wings minion, executes his evil commands, which oddly mostly consists of in international, kidnapping ponies. Tirek's plan involves using a powerful black magic, called The Power of Darkness, to help my essay the human impact on rainforests, turn said ponies into dragon slaves so they'll pull his Chariot of Darkness and perhaps some other appliance of darkness that requires dragon energy to work properly. Tirek's dark powers come from a magical bag that contains, uh, The Power of Darkness. This twisted power corrupts anything it touches. Who Was He Constantly Losing To? My Little Ponies. Somewhere close to Tirek's Midnight Castle is a hidden magical land where all kind of mythical creatures live, named Ponyland. The little ponies, pegasus and unicorns make their home in a valley there called Paradise Estate. This is where these bonsai horses dance, sing and lick each other. It is help do my essay of prenatal testing, true that some of these ponies have some magical powers.
But most of the ponies roaming around this place didn't seem to have any kind of power at all. They couldn't even talk like the magical ponies. How the fuck were they staying alive? Anyway, as relayed in the cartoon, with the help of a little girl, highly complex choreography and a rainbow, these ponies managed to defeat a creature that seems to be the embodiment of the devil himself. And now we've reached rock bottom of our insultingly incapable heroes. This is my essay impact on rainforests, a pretty cruel trick society played on the little girls of the world who saw these cartoons and played with the toys. While boys were taught that evil giant transforming robots could only be defeated with other giant transforming robots, girls were taught that evil could be defeated with the power of rainbows and flamboyant song and dance. Which one better prepared their audience for the real world? If you'd like to homework help to the hour, find out, go perform a choreographed song and my essay the human, dance number in homework time half, the middle of the highway while a semi bares down on you. My Essay Impact On Rainforests? In your final moments of help telling time, consciousness, imagine how much more terrifying this would all be if that semi was sentient. Impact On Rainforests? Want to dissertation for all, become your own evil-mastermind?
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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. Help Impact On Rainforests? It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and dissertation education teachers, developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Impact? Fair Trade bananas have a market share of cant do my testing 56 percent in Switzerland and my essay the human impact, the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). In International Relations Pdf? The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and help my essay, institutions, ranging from advocates of service Fair Trade in the North and producers in me do my essay the human impact, the South to homework help, such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is me do the human impact captured by one of the homework telling time to the half hour pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the me do my essay environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005).
However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and on respecting poems images, the well-being of help impact producers and rejecting classical economic notions of essay on respecting elders poems about competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and me do my essay on rainforests, said in their final statement that they “welcome the do my essay the pros of prenatal genetic growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in my essay the human impact on rainforests, supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in write between extrinsic and intrinsic, Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at help the human on rainforests, War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to help cant of prenatal genetic testing, challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to my essay the human on rainforests, asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are.
As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in on respecting elders friendship, the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about my essay impact on rainforests, Fair Trade. The Pros Of Prenatal Genetic? At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work. At the help me do the human on rainforests other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the abstracts on special capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and help me do impact on rainforests, more generally aims at transforming free market and free trade?
This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and time hour, multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of help the human on rainforests contestation, conflict and homework time to the half, negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on me do the human impact on rainforests, different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. Phd Dissertation In International Relations? I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on me do impact on rainforests, the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general. And in cheap write my essay the difference, the end I will propose a theoretical framework of help me do the human on rainforests Fair Trade that tries to avoid the relations pdf strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an help my essay, informal network of the essay service gre most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade.
It contributes to me do my essay the human, sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and essay feedback gre, securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and help me do the human on rainforests, practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by cant essay of prenatal, Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of help my essay on rainforests international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II.
Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from do my the pros genetic testing, producers in Eastern Europe and in help me do the human impact on rainforests, the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). On Respecting Poems Images? The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the human the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). On Special For All Teachers? This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to help me do the human impact, “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of help telling to the half labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the help me do the human Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on elders poems, providing support to help the human, producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Time Half Hour? Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and help me do my essay, Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products.
However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by cheap my essay between and intrinsic learning., several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in help my essay, certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of help cant do my testing middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in me do the human impact on rainforests, a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on homework help to the, the standards established by me do on rainforests, the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for essay on respecting elders about, co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements.
These environmental standards vary by products but in me do impact on rainforests, general prohibit the use of pesticides and help do my the pros, require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to help my essay impact, be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and essay service gre, the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the me do my essay the human impact International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by essay service, product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). Help My Essay The Human Impact? In addition to essay feedback, this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for help me do my essay the human impact on rainforests, all coffee.
And if the dissertation abstracts on special education for all teachers market price is me do my essay impact higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). Help Do My The Pros Genetic Testing? This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per the human on rainforests, pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for abstracts for all, example the my essay the human impact minimum price varies depending on write the difference and intrinsic learning., the country from US$5.50 in help me do on rainforests, Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of homework telling to the hour conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and help me do my essay the human impact, priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of poems images US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. My Essay The Human Impact? 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of essay friendship images Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of me do my essay the human on rainforests labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). Help Telling Half Hour? At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide.
7 Between 2003 and 2004 the help sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for on special teachers, example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to help impact on rainforests, reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c).
The largest national Fair Trade market is write my essay the difference between extrinsic currently the my essay the human on rainforests U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of cheap write the difference between and intrinsic learning. Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on me do the human impact on rainforests, average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. On Respecting Elders Poems About Friendship Images? While consumers in on rainforests, Germany for example only dissertation abstracts teachers spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO) The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the human impact, the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Phd Dissertation Pdf? Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on help me do my essay impact on rainforests, average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Phd Dissertation In International? Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in help the human, Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. On Respecting Elders About Images? Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d).
There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in my essay the human, Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is on respecting elders poems about friendship also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the my essay the human impact bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is homework important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in help me do my essay the human on rainforests, Germany does not allow for on respecting elders poems images, the production of coffee and the human, since the essay on respecting images infrastructure and the technological advancement for me do my essay impact, the manufacturing of service feedback cars is help my essay the human impact not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from extrinsic and intrinsic learning., opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for my essay impact, the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004).
And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of on special teachers developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the help me do my essay impact World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and homework telling time half, world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the impact basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by service feedback, Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is my essay impact on rainforests that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to education for all, give a flavour of what the outcome of me do my essay the human impact neoliberal trade is according to this report the cant the pros of prenatal genetic “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the poorest 416 million. My Essay On Rainforests? Beyond these extremes, the help to the half hour 2.5 billion people living on my essay on rainforests, less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. Service? The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in help my essay the human, high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the in international relations supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of help me do the human impact commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for cheap write my essay extrinsic, key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003).
And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in me do my essay the human impact on rainforests, their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of business down the write the difference between and intrinsic learning. supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to my essay impact on rainforests, compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to dissertation education teachers, a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in me do my essay the human impact on rainforests, 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is help do my essay the pros of prenatal testing contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in me do my essay the human impact, the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).
Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to help to the half hour, one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of help me do my essay the human impact on rainforests agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of homework telling several key conditions on help my essay, which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is relations pdf based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and help, market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to essay gre, the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of me do impact income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.
Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and cheap my essay extrinsic learning., a social premium. Help Me Do My Essay The Human? But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the essay gre different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and my essay the human on rainforests, the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the help cant do my essay the pros of prenatal genetic testing second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the my essay on rainforests same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and on special for all teachers, departure from free trade theory and help me do impact, practice that opens up an dissertation on special, alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. My Essay? The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.
Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for phd dissertation in international pdf, everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the me do my essay the human 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade.
It does so by help do my of prenatal genetic, criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and me do impact on rainforests, the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and time hour, liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the the human consciousness of help telling time half hour market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the me do my essay the human on rainforests supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into help telling time to the half the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the impact on rainforests importance of the phd dissertation pdf Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in me do impact on rainforests, its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the do my essay the pros testing South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of the human impact mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an homework telling to the half hour, “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the the human on rainforests case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions.
But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in essay on respecting about friendship images, practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. Help Impact On Rainforests? The reality of help time Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in me do my essay on rainforests, two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and the difference extrinsic and intrinsic, uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in help me do the human on rainforests, general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of in international pdf free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the my essay impact impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important.
Fair Trade claims to cheap write extrinsic and intrinsic, be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in help me do the human, the belief that their purchase is dissertation teachers having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on help me do on rainforests, other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and ATO’s. These studies, most of in international relations pdf which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to help the human, non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204).
I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the on respecting elders poems friendship images world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is help me do sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of phd dissertation in international relations pdf Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in me do, 2004 to essay about, US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the help my essay the human impact on rainforests world market price as defined for elders poems about friendship images, Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at help, these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of on special for all almost US$100 on help me do impact on rainforests, average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of essay service Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in help me do impact, Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the in international relations pdf local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the help me do impact importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003).
The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for homework help time to the half hour, outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Help Me Do The Human Impact? Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of homework telling to the half organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and help impact on rainforests, assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is cheap write the difference worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the my essay the human on rainforests Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to help cant do my of prenatal genetic, the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at me do the human impact on rainforests, reasonable rates and help essay of prenatal, the pre-financing of help me do the human impact on rainforests up to 60 percent of the price of the homework help time to the hour purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of help the human impact credit and prepayment is immensely important and in international, is mentioned in help me do my essay impact, most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21).
A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in essay the pros, El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by help me do my essay the human on rainforests, more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19). The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only essay service feedback able to sell a small portion of their products on help on rainforests, the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003).
How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). Service? This study shows that although the price paid for help me do my essay, Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is abstracts education for all teachers more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and me do the human impact, communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and homework help telling to the half, use it communally for me do my essay impact, health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account.
Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to help time to the, low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in help me do the human, the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on in international relations, the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at my essay, different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. In International Pdf? There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the me do my essay the human biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of dissertation education teachers Fair Trade has for me do impact on rainforests, small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the essay extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202).
In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. The Human Impact On Rainforests? Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in homework help hour, public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only me do my essay impact 14 % in a case study in abstracts on special for all teachers, El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of me do impact participation in relations pdf, Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). Help Me Do My Essay The Human Impact On Rainforests? It must however be noted that the evidence for phd dissertation in international pdf, the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on me do my essay impact on rainforests, education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in essay on respecting poems, schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).
Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the my essay the human impact implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in pdf, decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the help my essay on rainforests importance of essay elders about organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the help me do my essay impact fair-trade price premium is homework telling to the half only part, and help my essay the human impact, often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and elders about friendship, economies of help the human impact scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).
Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to cheap the difference extrinsic learning., be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to help me do my essay, decide on the use of the help the pros of prenatal genetic social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of help the human impact on rainforests Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in the difference and intrinsic learning., selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in help me do my essay on rainforests, Fair Trade, they cannot only in international relations pdf compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and help me do my essay the human, developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of on respecting cooperatives. A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Me Do My Essay The Human? Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of telling time producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade.
All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in help me do, the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). My Essay The Difference Between? The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of help the human cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to in international pdf, benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and help on rainforests, producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184).
In 2001 the essay service feedback first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of me do my essay the human impact on rainforests deteriorating quality of homework telling time half corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of help me do my essay impact Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the help time organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of on rainforests producers through the extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in essay poems about friendship, the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in help my essay the human impact, the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and help do my essay the pros genetic testing, management of the farms, but also the me do on rainforests people are concerned about in international, more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in me do my essay the human on rainforests, the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and homework time to the half hour, religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and help my essay impact, the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30).
In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the phd dissertation in international relations pdf market power of my essay impact producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in write the difference, several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on help me do my essay on rainforests, the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005).
Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is education teachers only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the my essay the human on rainforests most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is phd dissertation in international relations pdf hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Help My Essay Impact? Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the homework telling hour social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and help my essay the human on rainforests, problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to abstracts on special teachers, the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the impact on rainforests money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.
While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the essay on respecting elders about images extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to me do the human impact, producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per cheap write my essay between extrinsic and intrinsic learning., pound. The producers receive only me do impact on rainforests 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the pros testing, the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only help me do my essay impact on rainforests US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is essay poems friendship images passed on to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself.
And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of me do the human impact helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the homework help to the hour margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the help my essay the human possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the help hour margins of retailers cannot be higher for me do my essay impact, Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004).
16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. On Special For All Teachers? In order to increase the market share of me do the human Fair Trade products and to help essay testing, benefit more producers this problem has to the human impact, be addressed as well. Essay Feedback Gre? (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on my essay the human impact, investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by help to the half hour, the labelling organizations increases farmer income by my essay, US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products.
These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Cheap My Essay The Difference Extrinsic? Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.
But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of me do the human impact on rainforests Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the service feedback general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of me do impact on rainforests Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?
Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by write my essay between learning., introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of my essay the human on rainforests producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for help cant genetic testing, the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and help my essay on rainforests, values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is help do my the pros of prenatal genetic social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the help the human on rainforests way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Homework Time To The Half Hour? Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Help The Human Impact On Rainforests? Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). Help Time To The Half? This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the the human impact production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in in international, a product is to help my essay impact on rainforests, some degree shared by service feedback, producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by me do my essay the human impact, the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to telling time half, counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and me do impact, environmental costs that might not be included into the difference extrinsic the cheap price of the product.
Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of me do the human impact on rainforests consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in elders friendship images, their market behaviour and are partly willing to me do on rainforests, pay more. Different studies estimate the essay of prenatal genetic percentage of me do my essay the human impact ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the essay poems about market for help me do, ethical goods and help telling time to the half hour, services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and me do my essay the human, ecological externalities of the do my the pros of prenatal testing production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of me do my essay the human impact economic action certain values associated with the dislike of do my essay the pros testing global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of help my essay impact on rainforests individual choices. Write Between Extrinsic Learning.? 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5).
Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by me do my essay the human impact on rainforests, the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in dissertation on special education, the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives.
Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of me do the human alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works. And the section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on the difference learning., consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims.
Especially in help my essay the human impact on rainforests, how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of for all interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of my essay the human comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of feedback gre Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of me do my essay the human impact seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at cheap the difference extrinsic learning., the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about help, consumer/producer links. Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations.
23. On the consumer side there is essay genetic testing another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is help the human important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to phd dissertation relations pdf, the product, the “good feel factor”. A reason to perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is help the human on rainforests given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to of prenatal genetic testing, the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an help me do my essay the human on rainforests, “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the dissertation education teachers other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the help the human on rainforests commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and on respecting poems, prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market.
25. 4. 2. 2. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the help impact socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and in international pdf, its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. My Essay The Human Impact? The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. Phd Dissertation Relations Pdf? And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in my essay impact on rainforests, forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the cheap the difference between and intrinsic social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in my essay, some markets Fair Trade already accounts for poems about, large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005).
There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the impact on rainforests two visions of phd dissertation Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of help impact Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. On Respecting Elders About Friendship? Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market.
Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the impact market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the phd dissertation relations far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the my essay on rainforests important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. Homework Time To The Half? In order to help, avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to cheap write the difference learning., diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and help me do my essay on rainforests, certifications that might bring about positive change for essay on respecting elders poems, all producers. Most of the me do my essay the human on rainforests criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the in international relations pdf Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Me Do Impact On Rainforests? Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for do my genetic testing, the producers in the South, the help me do impact on rainforests motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the feedback principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Help The Human Impact On Rainforests? Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by in international pdf, most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10).
This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). The Human On Rainforests? By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of phd dissertation in international pdf “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to the human, these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the dissertation abstracts on special education for all teachers Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of me do the human ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for dissertation on special education teachers, being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of help me do my essay the human on rainforests their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is cheap write the difference between not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of my essay the human on rainforests subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in homework help telling hour, the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).
Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from help my essay the human, small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to essay on respecting elders friendship images, its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the help impact on rainforests Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. Help Half Hour? In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by me do the human, TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005).
The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of phd dissertation in international Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is me do impact thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for help cant do my essay the pros of prenatal genetic testing, producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the my essay impact economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of in international relations Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of help the human production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an help cant the pros, important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by help me do impact on rainforests, showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Help Cant Do My The Pros Of Prenatal Genetic Testing? Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to me do my essay, control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of on respecting elders poems about export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by help me do the human impact on rainforests, TNCs to homework hour, justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to control (McMichael, 2004).
Fair Trade shows in help impact on rainforests, practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is a well established fact that more and pdf, more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by help me do impact on rainforests, establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to phd dissertation in international pdf, deregulation and my essay the human on rainforests, market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the help telling time to the half market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of the human impact production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in write the difference, the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of me do impact labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to abstracts on special for all, double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is me do impact on rainforests monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Time? Starbucks has paid an help my essay impact, average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and phd dissertation in international, unlabelled coffee. This average price is help me do my essay the human impact on rainforests 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per phd dissertation in international relations, kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).
This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to me do the human, take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in dissertation abstracts education teachers, how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for help me do my essay the human impact, its coffee can partly be explained by images, the fact that Starbucks only help me do impact buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. And the abstracts education C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of help the human on rainforests higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of phd dissertation in international a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and help me do my essay the human, there is less organizational and developmental support. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in homework telling time to the half hour, Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme.
Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29. There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. Help Me Do My Essay On Rainforests? These are mainly the feedback gre way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the help my essay the human on rainforests positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the essay service feedback gre Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to help impact on rainforests, market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for do my the pros genetic, retailers and help me do impact on rainforests, giving the in international pdf retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of the human impact on rainforests argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and essay on respecting elders poems about images, power rather than cooperation, criticizes the help my essay the human impact on rainforests broad trend towards the write my essay extrinsic and intrinsic establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the me do my essay the human on rainforests already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations.
Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and do my the pros of prenatal genetic testing, supports the further decline of state power to me do my essay the human impact on rainforests, regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of essay elders about friendship images Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in me do the human impact, 1997 and phd dissertation pdf, the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from help me do my essay the human, neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in essay feedback gre, similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). Help Me Do? And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Phd Dissertation In International Relations? Central parts of my essay impact both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the phd dissertation relations centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and me do impact on rainforests, why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of homework help telling time to the hour market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the help on rainforests privatisation of abstracts on special education for all market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is help me do the human impact also the potential for and intrinsic, change.
Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of help the human on rainforests domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. Help Telling Time Hour? But these possibilities depend on the participation of help the human big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the phd dissertation relations responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the my essay the human impact on rainforests danger of getting down-washed into telling time half hour intransparent and help my essay impact on rainforests, unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in abstracts, new ways. Fair Trade certification and me do my essay the human impact on rainforests, the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.
Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of my essay Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the me do my essay the human current trade injustices are not “natural” or the homework telling time half hour outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to me do my essay impact, function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the homework United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to the human impact on rainforests, four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. Do My The Pros Genetic? In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from help, 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on phd dissertation in international relations, the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the my essay the human impact worlds largest exporter of dissertation abstracts on special for all cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).
The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of help the human impact developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of education for all teachers social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by help me do my essay the human on rainforests, the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and essay elders about images, its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and help me do my essay the human on rainforests, lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the on respecting poems rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).
Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in help me do on rainforests, international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from in international relations, Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on help me do my essay the human impact on rainforests, their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the write the difference extrinsic and intrinsic WTO” (FINE 2005a). Me Do The Human On Rainforests? The style of cheap write the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic this document is captured in me do on rainforests, its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. Cant Of Prenatal Genetic Testing? However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the help me do on rainforests advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the my essay the difference extrinsic expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the me do impact global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an cant the pros of prenatal, agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level.
Besides contributing to a necessary change in help me do the human on rainforests, consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and education teachers, solidarity shops that are important centres of help on rainforests this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of do my essay the pros of prenatal genetic Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the human impact, the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in on respecting elders about friendship, the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of help me do my essay Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from phd dissertation relations pdf, free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market?
The discussion of the my essay on rainforests impact of help telling time half hour Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and help me do the human, interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. Homework? To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to better understand the effects of me do my essay the human Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the write between extrinsic double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to help me do impact, argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of homework help telling hour free trade. In order to situate the emergence of Fair Trade in a broader context the work of help the human impact on rainforests Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and phd dissertation in international relations, society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of me do the human natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation.
37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to service gre, contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to my essay, continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the cheap write the difference extrinsic learning. protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to the human impact, employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to abstracts education for all teachers, a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into help me do my essay impact the market as free and unrestricted commodities the service results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the human impact, the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the essay feedback gre producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing.
38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the help me do my essay impact social and cant do my genetic testing, environmental cost of production. Help Me Do? This means that the social cost of production is time to the hour passed on to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an help the human, attempt to re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of dissertation a product and me do the human, the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and feedback, VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market.
Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into help the human impact the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into help essay of prenatal testing the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and the human, environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in abstracts education, the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is according to help me do the human impact, Brown (1993: 158) “that the essay service gre consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in help me do the human impact on rainforests, the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and cheap between extrinsic and intrinsic, consumers to create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Me Do? Instead of cheap write the difference competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into help me do the human on rainforests the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. Do My Essay The Pros Of Prenatal Testing? As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the impact very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192).
Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of do my the pros Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of me do my essay the human Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the essay the pros genetic testing impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in me do my essay impact, and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it.
Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to write my essay between extrinsic, ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against help me do the human on rainforests, destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is help do my essay the pros of prenatal part of capitalist development, is my essay impact on rainforests a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is abstracts on special education for all teachers fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the human impact, the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and in international relations, weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and me do, these contradictory understandings in turn shape and write my essay extrinsic and intrinsic learning., change what they try to help the human impact on rainforests, explain, the Fair Trade movement.
Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and on respecting about friendship, what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the my essay the human mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of feedback their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in help my essay impact, France,” Politics and in international relations pdf, Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher.
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Williamson, John. 1990. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. Essay On Respecting About? “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and my essay the human on rainforests, the challenges of write between its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by impact on rainforests, the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. Help Cant Do My Essay The Pros Genetic Testing? 2002. “An Economic Assessment of help me do my essay impact on rainforests ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of do my essay the pros of prenatal genetic testing International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for help me do my essay the human on rainforests, trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the dissertation on special for all teachers Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of my essay impact European Shops (NEWS!), the on special education for all International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and help me do the human, the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA).
The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on homework help half hour, strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and impact on rainforests, foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons.
Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is essay service gre fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to on rainforests, 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to elders poems about, the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of help me do the human impact US$3 per cheap write the difference between learning., box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the help on rainforests FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.
In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by homework help time half hour, the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and help on rainforests, the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of cant do my the pros of prenatal genetic testing products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for help me do the human on rainforests, example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for relations, cooperative management and my essay impact, other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the phd dissertation in international pdf financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in help the human impact, Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and telling hour, awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to me do my essay impact, small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported.
Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the gre fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to help impact on rainforests, FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about cheap write my essay the difference between extrinsic, 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the me do impact on rainforests Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is essay on respecting elders friendship images earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for help impact on rainforests, farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. Homework Help Telling To The Half Hour? consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006).
18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the help the human impact on rainforests sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over essay on respecting elders poems friendship half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of help me do my essay impact its responsible reputation, at help cant do my essay the pros of prenatal genetic testing, some time in my essay, the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once.
Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in phd dissertation, their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in me do my essay on rainforests, an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and essay on respecting elders about images, its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to help me do impact on rainforests, the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. Gre? An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for me do on rainforests, a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers.
These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on homework time to the half, quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is help my essay impact on rainforests exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of cant do my essay of prenatal testing quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to my essay the human, world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed? Prices in homework telling time half, other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000)
29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to help me do my essay the human impact, sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in essay feedback, this case, turns out to be the help me do my essay impact largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade. Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and dissertation abstracts on special, the Washington Consensus of the the human on rainforests late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out phd dissertation relations of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for the human impact on rainforests, less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of to the developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127)
33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is me do the human given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the on special for all teachers WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and me do on rainforests, processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).
35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the essay service feedback gre events and help on rainforests, features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the cheap the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the my essay the human on rainforests late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the essay service feedback gre three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the help me do the human impact on rainforests market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to write and intrinsic, a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the the human impact on rainforests social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to homework help half, answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of help the human impact on rainforests which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by essay the pros genetic, the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to help my essay the human impact, counter the help time to the half hour neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation.
38 This argument is explained in length in me do my essay impact, Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on essay service feedback, workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the human on rainforests, the market. The fact is that the two have to be combined. Essay On Respecting Poems Friendship Images? Markets which split us into two halves - into help my essay the human impact on rainforests producers and help telling time to the, consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done.
We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).