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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The ancient Greek philosopher Thales was born in Miletus in degree in nursing Greek Ionia. Aristotle, the major source for essay example Thales's philosophy and graduate degree essay science, identified Thales as the first person to investigate the basic principles, the question of the originating substances of buy research paper online investigating resistance circuit, matter and, therefore, as the founder of the school of natural philosophy. Thales was interested in almost everything, investigating almost all areas of in nursing essay, knowledge, philosophy, history, science, mathematics, engineering, geography, and politics. He proposed theories to explain many of the events of nature, the primary substance, the support of the earth, and the cause of change. Cant Do My Essay The Death Of Socrates? Thales was much involved in the problems of astronomy and provided a number of explanations of cosmological events which traditionally involved supernatural entities. His questioning approach to the understanding of heavenly phenomena was the beginning of Greek astronomy. Thales' hypotheses were new and degree in nursing bold, and in cheap my essay creolization freeing phenomena from godly intervention, he paved the way towards scientific endeavor. He founded the Milesian school of natural philosophy, developed the scientific method, and initiated the first western enlightenment. A number of anecdotes is closely connected to Thales' investigations of the cosmos.
When considered in association with his hypotheses they take on in nursing added meaning and are most enlightening. Thales was highly esteemed in ancient times, and a letter cited by online resistance circuit Diogenes Laertius, and purporting to be from Anaximenes to Pythagoras, advised that all our discourse should begin with a reference to Thales (D.L. II.4). Doubts have always existed about whether Thales wrote anything, but a number of ancient reports credit him with writings. Simplicius (Diels, Dox. p. 475) specifically attributed to Thales authorship of the so-called Nautical Star-guide. Graduate Degree In Nursing? Diogenes Laertius raised doubts about authenticity, but wrote that 'according to others [Thales] wrote nothing but two treatises, one On the Solstice and one On the Equinox ' (D.L. I.23). Lobon of cheap my essay discuss 3 ways in which ha, Argus asserted that the writings of Thales amounted to two hundred lines (D.L. I.34), and Plutarch associated Thales with opinions and accounts expressed in verse (Plutarch, De Pyth. or. 18. 402 E).
Hesychius, recorded that '[Thales] wrote on celestial matters in degree in nursing epic verse, on the equinox, and much else' (DK, 11A2). Essay The Death Of Socrates? Callimachus credited Thales with the sage advice that navigators should navigate by graduate essay Ursa Minor (D.L. I.23), advice which may have been in writing. Diogenes mentions a poet, Choerilus, who declared that '[Thales] was the first to maintain the immortality of the soul' (D.L. Papers Online Cheap? I.24), and in De Anima, Aristotle's words 'from what is graduate degree in nursing recorded about [Thales]', indicate that Aristotle was working from a written source. Diogenes recorded that '[Thales] seems by some accounts to have been the first to study astronomy, the first to buy research investigating resistance in a circuit, predict eclipses of the sun and to fix the solstices; so Eudemus in his History of Astronomy. It was this which gained for him the admiration of in nursing, Xenophanes and Herodotus and the notice of Heraclitus and Democritus' (D.L. I.23). Eudemus who wrote a History of Astronomy, and also on geometry and theology, must be considered as a possible source for the hypotheses of Thales.
The information provided by Diogenes is the sort of material which he would have included in his History of Astronomy, and it is possible that the titles On the Solstice, and On the ethnographic interview Equinox were available to Eudemus. Xenophanes, Herodotus, Heraclitus and Democritus were familiar with the work of essay, Thales, and may have had a work by Thales available to them. Proclus recorded that Thales was followed by a great wealth of geometers, most of whom remain as honoured names. Help Cant Do My The Death Of Socrates? They commence with Mamercus, who was a pupil of Thales, and include Hippias of Elis, Pythagoras, Anaxagoras, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Philippus of Mende, Euclid, and Eudemus, a friend of graduate in nursing, Aristotle, who wrote histories of ethnographic example, arithmetic, of astronomy, and of geometry, and many lesser known names. It is possible that writings of Thales were available to some of these men. Any records which Thales may have kept would have been an in nursing essay advantage in his own work. This is especially true of help cant do my the death of socrates, mathematics, of the graduate in nursing dates and times determined when fixing the solstices, the positions of stars, and in board essays financial transactions. It is difficult to believe that Thales would not have written down the information he had gathered in degree in nursing his travels, particularly the geometry he investigated in Egypt and his measuring of the height of the pyramid, his hypotheses about nature, and the cause of change.
Proclus acknowledged Thales as the discoverer of paper, a number of specific theorems ( A Commentary on the First Book of Euclid's Elements 65. 8-9; 250. 16-17). Graduate Degree? This suggests that Eudemus, Proclus's source had before him the written records of Thales's discoveries. How did Thales 'prove' his theorems if not in written words and sketches? The works On the Solstice, On the Equinox, which were attributed to Thales (D.L. I.23), and the ' Nautical Star-guide , to writing zoo, which Simplicius referred, may have been sources for the History of Astronomy of Eudemus (D.L. I.23).
There is graduate degree essay no direct evidence that any written material of Thales was available to Plato and Aristotle, but there is a surprisingly long list of buy research paper online, early writers who could have known Thales, or had access to degree in nursing essay, his works, and these must be considered as possible sources for buy research online investigating in a Plato, Aristotle, and the philosophers and commentators who followed them. Aristotle's wording, 'Thales says', is assertive wording which suggests a reliable source, perhaps writings of Thales himself. Anaximander and Anaximenes were associates of degree in nursing, Thales, and would have been familiar with his ideas. Both produced written work. Anaximander wrote in a poetical style (Theophr. ap. Interview? Simpl. Phys. fr. 2), and the writing of Anaximenes was simple and unaffected (D.L. II.3).
Other philosophers who were credited with written works, who worked on topics similar to those of Thales, and who may have provided material for later writers, are Heraclitus of Ephesus, Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, Alcmaeon, Hippo of Samos, and Hippias of degree essay, Elis. 3. Thales says Water is the Primary Principle. Aristotle defined wisdom as knowledge of certain principles and causes ( Metaph. 982 a2-3). He commenced his investigation of the wisdom of the philosophers who preceded him, with Thales, the first philosopher, and described Thales as the founder of natural philosophy ( Metaph. 983 b21-22). He recorded: 'Thales says that it is water'. 'it' is the College board ccot essays nature, the graduate in nursing essay arche , the originating principle. For Thales, this nature was a single material substance, water.
Despite the more advanced terminology which Aristotle and Plato had created, Aristotle recorded the doctrines of Thales in terms which were available to College board ccot, Thales in the sixth century B.C.E., Aristotle made a definite statement, and in nursing presented it with confidence. It was only when Aristotle attempted to provide the reasons for the opinions that Thales held, and for papers online cheap the theories that he proposed, that he sometimes displayed caution. Those who believe that Thales inherited his views from Greek or Near-Eastern sources are wrong. Thales was esteemed in his times as an original thinker, and one who broke with tradition and not as one who conveyed existing mythologies. Aristotle unequivocally recorded Thales's hypothesis on the nature of matter, and proffered a number of conjectures based on observation in favour of Thales's declaration ( Metaph. 983 b20-28). His report provided the testimony that Thales supplanted myth in his explanations of the behaviour of natural phenomena. Thales did not derive his thesis from either Greek or non-Greek mythological traditions.
Thales would have been familiar with Homer's acknowledgements of divine progenitors but he never attributed organization or control of the cosmos to the gods. Aristotle recognized the in nursing similarity between Thales's doctrine about water and the ancient legend which associates water with Oceanus and Tethys, but he reported that Thales declared water to be the nature of all things. Aristotle pointed to a similarity to traditional beliefs, not a dependency upon them. Aristotle did not call Thales a theologian in the sense in which he designated 'the old poets' ( Metaph. 1091 b4) and others, such as Pherecydes, as 'mixed theologians' who did not use 'mythical language throughout' ( Metaph. 1091 b9). To Aristotle, the theories of cheap write discuss 3 ways, Thales were so obviously different from all that had gone before that they stood out from earlier explanations. Thales's views were not ancient and primitive. They were new and exciting, and the genesis of scientific conjecture about natural phenomena.
It was the view for which Aristotle acknowledged Thales as the founder of natural philosophy. The problem of the nature of matter, and its transformation into the myriad things of which the universe is made, engaged the natural philosophers, commencing with Thales. For his hypothesis to be credible, it was essential that he could explain how all things could come into being from water, and return ultimately to the originating material. It is inherent in Thales's hypotheses that water had the graduate essay potentiality to change to the myriad things of which the universe is made, the botanical, physiological, meteorological and geological states. In Timaeus, 49B-C, Plato had Timaeus relate a cyclic process. The passage commences with 'that which we now call water ', and describes a theory which was possibly that of Thales. Thales would have recognized evaporation, and have been familiar with traditional views, such as the nutritive capacity of mist and ancient theories about spontaneous generation, phenomena which he may have 'observed', just as Aristotle believed he, himself had ( Hist. An. 569 b1; Gen. An . 762 a9-763 a34), and my essay discuss 3 ways ha about which Diodorus Siculus (I.7.3-5; 1.10.6), Epicurus (ap. Censorinus, D.N.
IV.9), Lucretius ( De Rerum Natura , V.783-808) and Ovid ( Met. I.416-437) wrote. When Aristotle reported Thales's pronouncement that the primary principle is water, he made a precise statement: 'Thales says that it [the nature of things] is water' ( Metaph. 983 b20), but he became tentative when he proposed reasons which might have justified Thales's decision: '[Thales's] supposition may have arisen from observation . . . Essay? ' ( Metaph . 983 b22). It was Aristotle's opinion that Thales may have observed, 'that the nurture of all creatures is moist, and that warmth itself is generated from moisture and lives by it; and that from which all things come to be is their first principle' ( Metaph. 983 b23-25). Then, in the lines 983 b26-27, Aristotle's tone changed towards greater confidence. He declared: 'Besides this, another reason for the supposition would be that the semina of all things have a moist nature . . . ' ( Metaph. 983 b26-27). In continuing the criticism of Thales, Aristotle wrote: 'That from which all things come to be is their first principle' ( Metaph.
983 b25). Simple metallurgy had been practised long before Thales presented his hypotheses, so Thales knew that heat could return metals to a liquid state. Water exhibits sensible changes more obviously than any of the other so-called elements, and can readily be observed in the three states of liquid, vapour and ice. The understanding that water could generate into earth is online citizens basic to Thales's watery thesis. At Miletus it could readily be observed that water had the capacity to thicken into earth. Miletus stood on the Gulf of Lade through which the Maeander river emptied its waters. Within living memory, older Milesians had witnessed the island of essay, Lade increasing in size within the Gulf, and ethnographic example the river banks encroaching into the river to such an extent that at Priene, across the gulf from Miletus the warehouses had to be rebuilt closer to graduate degree in nursing essay, the water's edge. The ruins of the cheap write my essay 3 ways in which ha once prosperous city-port of Miletus are now ten kilometres distant from the coast and the Island of Lade now forms part of a rich agricultural plain. There would have been opportunity to observe other areas where earth generated from degree, water, for example, the deltas of the Halys, the Ister, about which Hesiod wrote ( Theogony , 341), now called the Danube, the Tigris-Euphrates, and almost certainly the pharmacy essay writing Nile.
This coming-into-being of land would have provided substantiation of Thales's doctrine. To Thales water held the potentialities for the nourishment and in nursing generation of the help do my essay entire cosmos. Aetius attributed to Thales the concept that 'even the very fire of the sun and the stars, and graduate degree in nursing essay indeed the ccot cosmos itself is nourished by evaporation of the waters' (Aetius, Placita, I.3). It is not known how Thales explained his watery thesis, but Aristotle believed that the reasons he proposed were probably the in nursing persuasive factors in Thales's considerations. Thales gave no role to the Olympian gods. Belief in generation of earth from water was not proven to be wrong until A.D.
1769 following experiments of Antoine Lavoisier, and spontaneous generation was not disproved until the nineteenth century as a result of the work of College board, Louis Pasteur. Thales proposed answers to a number of questions about the earth: the question of its support; its shape; its size; and the cause of earthquakes; the degree in nursing essay dates of the solstices; the buy research resistance size of the sun and moon. In De Caelo Aristotle wrote: 'This [opinion that the graduate in nursing essay earth rests on water] is the most ancient explanation which has come down to us, and is attributed to Thales of Miletus ( Cael. 294 a28-30). Interview Essay Example? He explained his theory by adding the analogy that the earth is at rest because it is of the nature of wood and similar substances which have the capacity to float on degree in nursing water, although not on air (Cael. 294 a30-b1). In Metaphysics (983 b21) Aristotle stated, quite unequivocally: 'Thales . Cheap Write Creolization Ha? . . Degree In Nursing? declared that the earth rests on water'. Cheap My Essay In Which Creolization Ha? This concept does appear to be at odds with natural expectations, and degree essay Aristotle expressed his difficulty with Thales's theory ( Cael. Board Ccot Essays? 294 a33-294 b6). Perhaps Thales anticipated problems with acceptance because he explained that it floated because of a particular quality, a quality of buoyancy similar to that of wood.
At the busy city-port of Miletus, Thales had unlimited opportunities to observe the arrival and departure of ships with their heavier-than-water cargoes, and recognized an analogy to floating logs. Thales may have envisaged some quality, common to graduate in nursing, ships and earth, a quality of 'floatiness', or buoyancy. It seems that Thales's hypothesis was substantiated by paper investigating in a circuit sound observation and reasoned considerations. Indeed, Seneca reported that Thales had land supported by water and carried along like a boat (Sen. QNat. III.14). Aristotle's lines in Metaphysics indicate his understanding that Thales believed that, because water was the permanent entity, the earth floats on graduate in nursing water. Thales may have reasoned that as a modification of water, earth must be the lighter substance, and floating islands do exist. Herodotus ( The Histories, II.156) was impressed when he saw Chemmis, a floating island, about thirty-eight kilometres north-east of buy research online rights of senior, Naucratis, the graduate degree essay Egyptian trading concession which Thales probably visited. Seneca described floating islands in Lydia: 'There are many light, pumice-like stones of write discuss 3 ways creolization, which islands are composed, namely those which float in Lydia' (Sen.
QNat., III.25. 7-10). Pliny described several floating islands, the most relevant being the Reed Islands, in Lydia ( HN, II.XCVII), and Pliny (the Younger) ( Ep. VIII.XX) described a circular floating island, its buoyancy, and the way it moved. Thales could have visited the near-by Reed Islands. He might have considered such readily visible examples to be models of graduate degree in nursing, his theory, and he could well have claimed that the observation that certain islands had the capacity to float substantiated his hypothesis that water has the capacity to support earth. Again it is understood that Thales did not mention any of the gods who were traditionally associated with the College essays simple bodies; we do not hear of Oceanus or Gaia: we read of water and earth. The idea that Thales would have resurrected the gods is quite contrary to graduate degree essay, the bold, new, non-mythical theories which Thales proposed.
Modern commentators assume that Thales regarded the earth as flat, thin, and circular, but there is no ancient testimony to support that opinion. On the contrary, Aristotle may have attributed knowledge of the do my essay the death sphericity of the earth to Thales, an opinion which was later reported by Aetius (Aet. Graduate? III. 9-10) and followed by Ps.-Plutarch ( Epit. III.10). Help Cant Do My Essay The Death Of Socrates? Aristotle wrote that some think it spherical, others flat and shaped like a drum (Arist. Cael. 293 b33-294 a1), and then attributed belief in a flat earth to Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, and Democritus (Arist. Cael. 294 b14-15). If following chronological order, Aristotle's words, 'some think it spherical', referred to the theory of Thales.
Aristotle then followed with the theory of in nursing essay, Thales's immediate Milesian successor, Anaximander, and pharmacy essay then reported the flat earth view of Anaximenes, the third of the Milesian natural philosophers. There are several good reasons to accept that Thales envisaged the earth as spherical. Aristotle used these arguments to support his own view (Arist. Cael. 297 b25-298 a8). First is the fact that during a solar eclipse, the in nursing shadow caused by the interposition of the interview example earth between the sun and in nursing the moon is always convex; therefore the earth must be spherical. Cant Do My Essay The Death Of Socrates? In other words, if the earth were a flat disk, the in nursing essay shadow cast during an write my essay discuss in which creolization eclipse would be elliptical. Second, Thales, who is degree in nursing acknowledged as an observer of the heavens, would have observed that stars which are visible in a certain locality may not be visible further to cheap write my essay discuss in which, the north or south, a phenomena which could be explained within the understanding of a spherical earth.
Third, from mere observation the earth has the appearance of being curved. Graduate Degree Essay? From observation, it appears that the earth is covered by a dome. When observed from an elevated site, the sky seems to surround the earth, like a dome, to meet the apparently curved horizon. If observed over help essay the death, the seasons, the graduate degree in nursing dome would appear to revolve, with many of the heavenly bodies changing their position in varying degrees, but returning annually to board, a similar place in the heavens. Through his work in graduate degree in nursing essay astronomy Thales would almost certainly have become familiar with the night sky and the motion of the heavenly bodies. There is evidence that he gave advice to navigate by Ursa Minor, and was so involved in observation of the stars that he fell into a well. As a result of cheap write discuss 3 ways in which, observations made over a long period of time, Thales could have realized that the motions of the fixed stars could not be explained within the idea of the observable hemispherical dome. During the degree determination of the size of the rising sun, and again while watching its risings and settings during his work on fixing the solstices, Thales may have realized that much natural phenomena could be explained only within the understanding of the earth as a sphere. From the shore, a ship can be seen to be descending, gradually, below the horizon, with the hull disappearing from view first, to be followed by masts and sails. If one had a companion observing from a higher point, the companion would see the board essays ship for graduate degree essay a long period before it disappeared from view. Aetius recorded the different opinions of the shape of the earth that were held by Thales, Anaximander and ethnographic essay Anaximenes (III.9-10; III.10; and III.10).
Cicero attributed to Thales the essay earliest construction of a solid celestial globe ( Rep. I.XIII.22). Thales's immediate successors proposed theories about the shape of the earth which were quite different from each other, but that is no reason to reject the view that Thales hypothesized a spherical earth. It is not the only occasion on buy research online which Anaximander and Anaximenes failed to follow the theories of Thales. That they did not do so is the main argument in favour of accepting that the scientific method commenced in the Milesian School. There is testimony that Thales knew the earth to be spherical, but no evidence to suggest that he proposed any other shape. Thales's theory about the cause of earthquakes is consistent with his hypothesis that earth floats upon water.
It seems that he applied his floating on water simile to the natural phenomena of earthquakes. Graduate Degree? Aetius recorded that Thales and Democritus found in board water the cause of earthquakes (Aet. III.15), and Seneca attributed to Thales a theory that on the occasions when the earth is said to quake it is fluctuating because of the roughness of graduate degree, oceans ( QNat. III.14; 6.6). Although the theory is wrong, Thales's hypothesis is rational because it provides an explanation which does not invoke hidden entities. It is an advance upon the traditional Homeric view that they resulted from an angry supernatural god, Poseidon, shaking the earth through his rapid striding. The question of whether Thales endowed the gods with a role in his theories is fundamental to his hypotheses. The relevant text from Aristotle reads: 'Thales, too, to buy research paper resistance in a circuit, judge from what is recorded of his views, seems to suppose that the soul is in a sense the graduate cause of help do my the death of socrates, movement, since he says that a stone [magnet, or lodestone] has a soul because it causes movement to iron' ( De An . 405 a20-22); 'Some think that the soul pervades the whole universe, whence perhaps came Thales's view that everything is full of gods' ( De An. 411 a7-8).
In reference to the clause in the first passage 'to judge from what is recorded of his views', Snell convincingly argued that Aristotle had before him the graduate in nursing essay actual sentence recording Thales's views about the lodestone (Snell, 1944, 170). In the ccot second passage the 'some' to whom Aristotle refers are Leucippus, Democritus, Diogenes of Apollonia, Heraclitus, and Alcmaeon, philosophers who were later than Thales. They adopted and adapted the earlier view of Thales that soul was the degree cause of motion, permeating and enlivening the entire cosmos. The order in which Aristotle discussed Thales's hypothesis obscures the issue. The source for Aristotle's report that Thales held all things to be full of gods is unknown, but some presume that it was Plato. Thales is not mentioned in the relevant lines in Plato, but there is a popular misconception that they refer to the belief of pharmacy zoo, Thales. This is wrong. Thales had rejected the old gods. In a passage in Apology (26 C) Socrates identified the heavenly bodies as gods, and pointed out that that was the degree in nursing essay general understanding. In Cratylus (399 D-E) Plato had Socrates explain a relationship between soul as a life-giving force, the capacity to breathe, and the reviving force.
In Timaeus 34B) Plato had Timaeus relate a theory which described soul as pervading the whole universe. Then, in Laws Plato has the Athenian Stranger say: 'Everyone . Paper Online Resistance In A Circuit? . . who has not reached the utmost verge of folly is bound to graduate degree, regard the soul as a god. Concerning all the stars and the moon, and concerning the years and months and all seasons, what other account shall we give than this very same, - namely, that, inasmuch as it has been shown that they are all caused by one or more souls . . . we shall declare these souls to be gods . . .? Is there any man that agrees with this view who will stand hearing it denied that 'all things are full of pharmacy essay writing, gods'? The response is: 'No man is so wrong-headed as that' ( Laws, 899 A-B). Plato had the Athenian Stranger extend his ideas into a theological theory. He used a sleight of degree in nursing essay, hand method to express his own ideas about divine spiritual beings. With the exception of ethnographic essay example, gods in the scheme of things, these passages reflect the beliefs which formed the Thalean hypothesis, but Plato did not have the Athenian Stranger attribute the crucial clause 'all things are full of gods' to Thales. Thales is not mentioned. Aristotle's text not the graduate degree in nursing essay earliest extant testimony. Diogenes preserved a report from Hippias: 'Aristotle and Hippias affirm that, arguing from the magnet and College ccot from amber, [Thales] attributed a soul or life even to essay, inanimate objects' (D.L.
I.24). This early report does not mention godly entities. The later commentators, Cicero ( Nat. D. I.X.25), and buy research papers online cheap of senior Stobaeus ( Ecl. I.1.11) included gods in Thales's theory. However, their views post-date Stoicism and are distorted by graduate degree in nursing theistic doctrines. Plato converted the idea of soul into a theory that 'all things are full of gods', and this may have been Aristotle's source, but the idea of gods is contrary to Thales's materialism. When Thales defined reality, he chose an element, not a god. Example? The motive force was not a supernatural being. Graduate In Nursing Essay? It was a force within the universe itself. Thales never invoked a power that was not present in nature itself, because he believed that he had recognized a force which underpinned the online cheap citizens events of nature.
Thales is essay acclaimed for having predicted an eclipse of the sun which occurred on 28 May 585 B.C.E. The earliest extant account of the eclipse is from online investigating resistance in a circuit, Herodotus: 'On one occasion [the Medes and the Lydians] had an unexpected battle in the dark, an event which occurred after five years of indecisive warfare: the degree essay two armies had already engaged and example the fight was in progress, when day was suddenly turned into night. This change from daylight to darkness had been foretold to the Ionians by graduate in nursing essay Thales of help do my essay the death of socrates, Miletus, who fixed the date for it within the limits of the year in which it did, in fact, take place' (Hdt. I.74). The vital points are: Thales foretold a solar eclipse; it did occur within the degree essay period he specified.
How Thales foretold the eclipse is not known but there is strong opinion that he was able to perform this remarkable feat through knowledge of a cycle known as the Saros, with some attributing his success to use of the Exeligmos cycle. It is not known how Thales was able to predict the Eclipse, if indeed he did, but he could not have predicted the Eclipse by interview using the Saros or the Exeligmos cycles. In addition to Herodotus, the successful prediction of the eclipse was accepted by Eudemus in degree essay his History of Astronomy and acknowledged by a number of other writers of ancient times (Cicero, Pliny, Dercyllides, Clement, Eusebius). This is how Diogenes Laertius recorded the cheap my essay discuss 3 ways creolization ha event: '[Thales] seems by some accounts to have been the first to study astronomy, the first to predict eclipses of the sun, and to essay, fix the help essay of socrates solstices; so Eudemus in his History of Astronomy. Graduate In Nursing? It was this which gained for him the admiration of cant do my essay the death, Xenophanes and Herodotus and the notice of Heraclitus and graduate Democritus' (D.L.
I.23). Diogenes asserted that Herodotus knew of Thales's work, and in naming Xenophanes, Heraclitus, and Democritus, he nominated three of the cheap write my essay discuss in which creolization great pre-Socratics, eminent philosophers who were familiar with the work of Thales. Modern astronomy confirms that the graduate degree eclipse did occur, and was total. According to Herodotus's report, the umbra of the eclipse of Thales must have passed over pharmacy essay writing, the battle field. The un-naturalness of a solar eclipse is eerie and chilling. All becomes hushed and graduate degree there is a strong uncanny sensation of impending disaster, of being within the control of some awful power. In ancient times, the awesome phenomenon must have aroused great fear, anxiety and wonder. The combatants saw the eclipse as disapproval of their warfare, and as a warning. Online Cheap Of Senior? They ceased fighting and a peace agreement was reached between the two kings. It is degree essay not known why Thales turned away from the cheap my essay traditional beliefs which attributed all natural events and man's fortunes and graduate in nursing essay misfortunes to the great family of Olympian gods, but Miletus was the most prosperous of the Ionian cities, and it cannot be doubted that the flourishing merchants believed that their prosperity resulted from their own initiative and help cant do my the death endeavours.
Thales's great philosophical pronouncement that water is the basic principle shows that Thales gave no acknowledgement to in nursing essay, the gods as instigators and pharmacy controllers of phenomena. Thales's hypotheses indicate that he envisaged phenomena as natural events with natural causes and possible of explanation. From his new perspective of observation and reasoning, Thales studied the heavens and degree essay sought explanations of heavenly phenomena. It is widely accepted that Thales acquired information from Near-Eastern sources and gained access to the extensive records which dated from the time of Nabonassar (747 B.C.E.) and which were later used by Ptolemy ( Alm. III.7. H 254). Some commentators have suggested that Thales predicted the solar eclipse of interview, 585 B.C.E. through knowledge of the Saros period, a cycle of 223 lunar months (18 years, 10-11 days plus 0.321124 of a day) after which eclipses both of the sun and in nursing essay moon repeat themselves with very little change, or through knowledge of the buy research paper online investigating Exeligmos cycle which is exactly three times the length of the Saros (Ptolemy, Alm. IV.2. H270). The ancients could not have predicted solar eclipses on the basis of those periodic cycles because eclipses of the sun do not repeat themselves with very little change. The extra 0.321124 of a day means that each recurring solar eclipse will be visible to the west, just under one-third of the circumference of the earth, being a period of time of graduate in nursing, almost 7.7 hours.
This regression to the west could not have been known to the ancient astrologers, a fact which seems not to have been taken into account by the philosophers who attribute Thales's success to buy research paper investigating resistance in a, application of one of those two cycles. The following important fact should be noted. Some commentators and philosophers believe that Thales may have witnessed the graduate degree in nursing essay solar eclipse of 18th May 603 B.C.E. or have had heard of it. Pharmacy Writing? They accepted that he had predicted the solar eclipse of 28 May 585 B.C.E. and reasoned from the astronomical fact of the Saros cycles and the fact that the two solar eclipses had been separated by the period of 18 years, 10 days, and 7.7 hours, and concluded that Thales had been able to predict a solar eclipse based upon the knowledge of that cycle. Two facts discount rebut those claims. First, recent research shows that the solar eclipse of 18th May 603 B.C.E. Graduate Essay? would not have been visible in papers citizens Egypt, nor in degree in nursing essay the Babylonian observation cities where the astronomers watched the heavens for expected and unusual heavenly events. The eclipse of 603 passed over the Persian Gulf, too far to the south for observation (Stephenson, personal communication, March 1999; and interview example Stephenson, Long-term Fluctuations, 165-202). Even if the eclipse of in nursing, 603 had been visible to the Near-Eastern astronomers, it is not possible to recognize a pattern from essay zoo, witnessing one event, or indeed, from witnessing two events. One may suggest a pattern after witnessing three events that are separated by equal periods of time, but the eclipse which preceded that of graduate, 603, and which occurred on 6th May 621, was not visible in Near-Eastern regions.
Consequently, it could not have been recorded by the astrologer/priests who watched for unusual heavenly phenomena, and could not have been seen as forming a pattern. It is quite wrong to say that eclipses repeat themselves with very little change, because each solar eclipse in a particular Saros occurs about 7.7 hours later than in pharmacy essay writing zoo the previous eclipse in the same Saros, and that is about 1 / 3 of the circumference of the earth's circumference. Adding to the difficulty of degree in nursing essay, recognizing a particular cycle is the fact that about forty-two periodic cycles are in progress continuously, and overlapping at any time. Every series in my essay in which ha a periodic cycle lasts about 1,300 years and comprises 73 eclipses. Eclipses which occur in one periodic cycle are unrelated to eclipses in other periodic cycles. The ancient letters prove that the Babylonians and Assyrians knew that lunar eclipses can occur only at full moon, and degree in nursing solar eclipses only at new moon, and interview essay example also that eclipses occur at intervals of five or six months.
However, while lunar eclipses are visible over about half the globe, solar eclipses are visible from only small areas of the earth's surface. Recent opinion is that, as early as 650 B.C.E. the in nursing Assyrian astronomers seem to have recognized the six months-five months period by which they could isolate eclipse possibilities (Steele, Eclipse Prediction, 429). In other recent research Britton has analysed a text known as Text S, which provides considerable detail and fine analysis of lunar phenomena dating from pharmacy essay, Nabonassar in 747 B.C.E. The text points to knowledge of the six-month five month periods. Graduate In Nursing? Britton believes that the Saros cycle was known before 525 B.C.E. (Britton, Scientific Astronomy, 62) but, although the text identifies a particular Saros cycle, and graphically depicts the number of eclipse possibilities, the ancient commentary of Text S does not attest to an actual observation (Britton, An Early Function, 32). There is no evidence that the Saros could have been used for the prediction of interview example, solar eclipses in the sixth century B.C.E., but it remains possible that forthcoming research, and the transliteration of graduate essay, more of the vast stock of ancient tablets will prove that the Babylonians and Assyrians had a greater knowledge of eclipse phenomena than is now known. The Babylonian and Assyrian astronomers knew of the Saros period in help do my of socrates relation to lunar eclipses, and had some success in predicting lunar eclipses but, in the sixth century B.C.E. when Thales lived and worked, neither the Saros nor the Exeligmos cycles could be used to predict solar eclipses. It is testified that Thales knew that the sun is eclipsed when the in nursing moon passes in front of it, the day of cant do my essay of socrates, eclipse - called the thirtieth by some, new moon by others ( The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 3710). Aetius (II.28) recorded: [Thales] says that eclipses of the graduate essay sun take place when the moon passes across it in a direct line, since the moon is earthy in character; and it seems to the eye to College essays, be laid on the disc of the sun'. There is degree a possibility that, through analysis of ancient eclipse records, Thales identified another cycle, the College lunar eclipse-solar eclipse cycle of 23 1 / 2 months, the fact that a solar eclipse is a possibility 23 1 / 2 months after a lunar eclipse.
However, lunar eclipses are not always followed by solar eclipses. Graduate Degree In Nursing Essay? Although the possibility is about 57% it is important to note that the online cheap rights of senior total solar eclipse of 28th May, 585, occurred 23 1 / 2 months after the total lunar eclipse of 4th July, 587. The wording of the essay report of the eclipse by Herodotus: 'Thales . . Board Ccot? . fixed the date for the eclipse within the graduate degree in nursing essay limits of the buy research paper online in a circuit year' is precise, and suggests that Thales's prediction was based upon a definite eclipse theory. A report from Theon of Smyrna ap. Dercyllides states that: 'Eudemus relates in the Astronomy that Thales was the graduate in nursing essay first to discover the eclipse of the sun and papers rights of senior that its period with respect to the solstices is not always constant' (DK, 11 A 17). Diogenes Laertius (I.24) recorded that [Thales] was the first to determine the graduate in nursing essay sun's course from solstice to solstice, and also acknowledged the Astronomy of Eudemus as his source. Solstices are natural phenomena which occur on June 21 or 22, and pharmacy essay writing zoo December 21 or 22, but the determination of the precise date on which they occur is difficult. This is because the sun seems to degree in nursing, 'stand still' for several days because there is no discernible difference in its position in the sky. It is the investigating circuit reason why the precise determination of the solstices was so difficult. It was a problem which engaged the early astronomers, and more than seven centuries later, Ptolemy acknowledged the difficulty ( Alm.
III.1. In Nursing? H203). It is not known how Thales proceeded with his determination, but the testimony of Flavius Philostratus is that: '[Thales] observed the heavenly bodies . . . from online resistance, [Mount] Mycale which was close by his home' (Philostratus, Life of degree in nursing essay, Apollonius , II.V). Pharmacy Writing Zoo? This suggests that Thales observed the rising and setting of the sun for many days at mid-summer and graduate degree in nursing essay mid-winter (and, necessarily, over many years). Mount Mycale, being the highest point in the locality of Miletus, would provide the perfect vantage point from which to make observations. Another method which Thales could have employed was to measure the length of the noon-day sun around mid-summer and mid-winter. Again this would require observations to be made, and records kept over help cant do my of socrates, many days near the in nursing solstice period, and over many years. c. Thales's Discovery of the do my the death Seasons. From Diogenes Laertius we have the report: '[Thales] is said to have discovered the seasons of the graduate degree essay year and divided it into 365 days' (D.L. I.27). Because Thales had determined the solstices, he would have known of the number of days between say, summer solstices, and therefore have known the length of a solar year.
It is consistent with his determination of the solstices that he should be credited with discovering that 365 days comprise a year. It is also a fact that had long been known to board ccot, the Egyptians who set their year by graduate degree in nursing essay the more reliable indicator of the annual rising of the star Sirius in July. Thales may have first gained the knowledge of the length of the ethnographic interview essay year from the Egyptians, and perhaps have attempted to clarify the matter by using a different procedure. Thales certainly did not 'discover' the seasons, but he may have identified the relationship between the solstices, the changing position during the year of the sun in the sky, and associated this with seasonal climatic changes. d. Thales's Determination of the Diameters of the Sun and the Moon. Apuleius wrote that 'Thales in his declining years devised a marvellous calculation about the sun, showing how often the sun measures by its own size the circle which it describes'. (Apul. Florida, 18). Following soon after Apuleius, Cleomedes explained that the calculation could be made by running a water-clock, from which the result was obtained: the diameter of the essay sun is found to be one seven-hundred-and-fiftieth of buy research paper investigating in a circuit, its own orbit (Cleomedes, De Motu circulari corporum caelestium, II.75). The third report is from Diogenes: 'According to some [Thales was] the first to declare the size of the sun to be one seven hundred and twentieth part of the solar circle, and the size of the moon to be the same fraction of the lunar circle' (D.L. I.24). Little credence can be given to the water-clock method for reaching this determination, because there is an inbuilt likelihood of repeated errors over the 24 hour period.
Even Ptolemy, who flourished in the second century A.D., rejected all measurements which were made by means of water-clocks, because of the impossibility of attaining accuracy by such means ( Alm. V.14. H416). In his work in geometry, Thales was engaged in circles and graduate degree in nursing angles, and their characteristics, and he could have arrived at his solution to the problem by applying the geometrical knowledge he had acquired. Ethnographic Essay Example? There is no evidence to support a suggestion that Thales was familiar with measurements by degrees but he could have learnt, from the Babylonians, that a circle is divided into 3600.
The figure of 720, which was given by Diogenes for Thales, is double 360, and this is related to the Babylonian sexagesimal system. To establish the graduate in nursing dates of the solstices, Thales probably made repeated observations of the risings and settings of the sun. From such experiments he could have observed that the angle which was subtended by the elevation of the rising sun is 1/20 and with 3600 in a circle, the ratio of 1:720 is board ccot determined. Of the report from Diogenes Laertius (D.L. I.24) that Thales also determined the orbit of the moon in relation to the size of its diameter, Thales would repeat the method to calculate the orbit of the graduate in nursing essay moon.
Callimachus (D.L. I.22) reported that Thales 'discovered' Ursa Minor. This means only that he recognized the do my essay the death advantages of navigating by Ursa Minor, rather than by Ursa Major, as was the preferred method of the Greeks. Ursa Minor, a constellation of six stars, has a smaller orbit than does the degree essay Great Bear, which means that, as it circles the North Pole, Ursa Minor changes its position in the sky to a lesser degree than does the Great Bear. Thales offered this sage advice to the mariners of Miletus, to help cant do my essay of socrates, whom it should have been of special value because Miletus had developed a maritime trade of economic importance. In Theaetetus (174 A) Plato had Socrates relate a story that Thales was so intent upon watching the stars that he failed to watch where he was walking, and fell into a well. The story is also related by Hippolytus (Diels, Dox. 555), and by Diogenes Laertius (D.L. II.4-5). Irony and jest abound in Plato's writing and degree in nursing he loved to make fun of the pre-Socratics, but he is not likely to have invented the episode, especially as he had Socrates relate the event. Aristotle wrote that viewing the my essay discuss creolization heavens through a tube 'enables one to see further' ( Gen.
An. 780 b19-21), and Pliny ( HN, II.XI) wrote that: 'The sun's radiance makes the fixed stars invisible in daytime, although they are shining as much as in the night, which becomes manifest at a solar eclipse and graduate degree in nursing essay also when the star is reflected in a very deep well'. Thales was renowned and admired for his astronomical studies, and he was credited with the 'discovery' of Ursa Minor (D.L. I.23). If Thales had heard that stars could be viewed to greater advantage from wells, either during day or night, he would surely have made an opportunity to test the do my of socrates theory, and to take advantage of essay, a method that could assist him in his observations. Do My Essay Of Socrates? The possibility that the in nursing essay story was based on fact should not be overlooked. Plato had information which associated Thales with stars, a well, and an accident.
Whether Thales fell into a well, or tripped when he was getting in or out of a well, the papers online cheap rights citizens story grew up around a mishap. The practical skill of land measurement was invented in Egypt because of the necessity frequently to graduate degree in nursing essay, remeasure plots of buy research cheap of senior citizens, land after destructive inundations. The phenomena is well described by Herodotus (II.93-109). Egypt was believed to be the source of much wisdom and reports tell us that many Greeks, including Thales, Pythagoras, Solon, Herodotus, Plato, Democritus, and Euclid, visited that ancient land to see the wonders for themselves. The Egyptians had little to offer in the way of abstract thought. The surveyors were able to measure and to calculate and graduate essay they had outstanding practical skills.
In Egypt Thales would have observed the land surveyors, those who used a knotted cord to make their measurements, and were known as rope-stretchers. Egyptian mathematics had already reached its heights when The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus was written in about 1800 B.C.E. More than a thousand years later, Thales would have watched the surveyors as they went about their work in the same manner, measuring the land with the aid of board essays, a knotted rope which they stretched to measure lengths and to form angles. The development of geometry is preserved in a work of Proclus, A Commentary on the First Book of Euclid's Elements (64.12-65.13). Graduate Degree In Nursing? Proclus provided a remarkable amount of intriguing information, the vital points of which are the following: Geometry originated in pharmacy Egypt where it developed out of necessity; it was adopted by Thales who had visited Egypt, and was introduced into Greece by him. The Commentary of Proclus indicates that he had access to the work of Euclid and also to The History of Geometry which was written by Eudemus of Rhodes, a pupil of Aristotle, but which is no longer extant. His wording makes it clear that he was familiar with the views of those writers who had earlier written about the origin of geometry. Graduate Degree In Nursing Essay? He affirmed the earlier views that the rudiments of geometry developed in Egypt because of the need to re-define the boundaries, just as Herodotus stated.
a. The Theorems Attributed to Thales. Five Euclidean theorems have been explicitly attributed to Thales, and the testimony is that Thales successfully applied two theorems to the solution of practical problems. Thales did not formulate proofs in the formal sense. What Thales did was to put forward certain propositions which, it seems, he could have 'proven' by induction: he observed the buy research papers cheap of senior similar results of his calculations: he showed by repeated experiment that his propositions and theorems were correct, and if none of his calculations resulted in contrary outcomes, he probably felt justified in accepting his results as proof. Thalean 'proof' was often really inductive demonstration. The process Thales used was the method of exhaustion.
This seems to be the graduate in nursing essay evidence from Proclus who declared that Thales 'attacked some problems in a general way and others more empirically'. DEFINITION I.17: A diameter of the circle is a straight line drawn through the centre and terminated in both directions by the circumference of the circle; and such a straight line also bisects the circle (Proclus, 124). PROPOSITION I.5: In isosceles triangles the angles at the base are equal; and if the equal straight lines are produced further, the ethnographic angles under the degree in nursing essay base will be equal (Proclus, 244). It seems that Thales discovered only the first part of this theorem for pharmacy essay Proclus reported: We are indebted to old Thales for the discovery of this and graduate degree essay many other theorems. For he, it is said, was the first to essay zoo, notice and assert that in every isosceles the angles at the base are equal, though in somewhat archaic fashion he called the equal angles similar (Proclus, 250.18-251.2). PROPOSITION I.15: 'If two straight lines cut one another, they make the vertical angles equal to in nursing, one another' (Proclus, 298.12-13). This theorem is positively attributed to Thales. Proof of the theorem dates from the Elements of Euclid (Proclus, 299.2-5). PROPOSITION I.26: 'If two triangles have the two angles equal to two angles respectively, and cheap discuss in which creolization ha one side equal to one side, namely, either the side adjoining the equal angles, or that subtending one of the equal angles, they will also have the remaining sides equal to the remaining sides and the remaining angle equal to the remaining angle' (Proclus, 347.13-16). 'Eudemus in his history of geometry attributes the theorem itself to Thales, saying that the method by which he is reported to have determined the distance of ships at sea shows that he must have used it' (Proclus, 352.12-15). Thales applied this theorem to determine the height of a pyramid. The great pyramid was already over graduate degree in nursing, two thousand years old when Thales visited Gizeh, but its height was not known.
Diogenes recorded that 'Hieronymus informs us that [Thales] measured the height of the pyramids by the shadow they cast, taking the observation at the hour when our shadow is of the same length as ourselves' (D.L. Paper Investigating Resistance In A Circuit? I.27). Pliny ( HN, XXXVI.XVII.82) and graduate degree essay Plutarch ( Conv. sept. sap. 147) also recorded versions of the essays event. Thales was alerted by the similarity of the two triangles, the 'quality of proportionality'. Graduate Degree In Nursing Essay? He introduced the concept of ratio, and recognized its application as a general principle. Thales's accomplishment of measuring the height of the pyramid is a beautiful piece of mathematics. It is considered that the general principle in Euclid I.26 was applied to the ship at sea problem, would have general application to other distant objects or land features which posed difficulties in the calculation of their distances. PROPOSITION III.31: 'The angle in a semicircle is College board ccot essays a right angle'. Essay? Diogenes Laertius (I.27) recorded: 'Pamphila states that, having learnt geometry from the Egyptians, [Thales] was the first to inscribe a right-angled triangle in a circle, whereupon he sacrificed an ox'.
Aristotle was intrigued by essay example the fact that the angle in a semi-circle is in nursing essay always right. In two works, he asked the question: 'Why is the angle in a semicircle always a right angle?' ( An. Post. 94 a27-33; Metaph. 1051 a28). Aristotle described the essay conditions which are necessary if the conclusion is to hold, but did not add anything that assists with this problem. It is testified that it was from Egypt that Thales acquired the rudiments of geometry.
However, the evidence is that the Egyptian skills were in degree essay orientation, measurement, and calculation. Writing Zoo? Thales's unique ability was with the characteristics of lines, angles and circles. He recognized, noticed and essay apprehended certain principles which he probably 'proved' through repeated demonstration. Herodotus recorded 'the general belief of the Greeks' that Thales assisted Croesus in transporting his troops across the Halys river (Hdt. I.75) on my essay discuss 3 ways in which creolization his advance into Capadoccia to engage the great Persian conqueror, Cyrus who threatened from the in nursing east. Herodotus provided a detailed description of the reported crossing which many of the Greeks supposed had been accomplished through Thales's engineering skills and ingenuity (Hdt. I.75). Herodotus had been told that Thales advised Croesus to divide the river into two parts. The story is that Thales directed the digging so that the ethnographic essay river was diverted into two smaller streams, each of which could then be forded. The story from Herodotus describes a formation similar to an oxbow lake. The work could have been undertaken by the men of Croesus's army, and directed by Thales.
With both channels then being fordable, Croesus could lead his army across the Halys. This description complies with 'the general belief of the Greeks' which Herodotus related. However, Herodotus did not accept that story, because he believed that bridges crossed the river at that time (I.74). Essay? Herodotus's misgivings were well founded. Board? There is considerable support for the argument that Croesus and graduate degree essay his army crossed the papers online rights Halys by the bridge which already existed and in nursing travelled by the Royal Road which provided the main access to the East. Herodotus explained that at the Halys there were gates which had to be passed before one crossed the buy research cheap of senior citizens river, which formed the border, with the in nursing post being strongly guarded (Hdt. V.52). The town of essay, Cesnir Kopru, or Tcheshnir Keupreu, is a feasible site for a crossing. Before the industrialization of the area, a mediaeval bridge was observed, underneath which, when the river was low, could be seen not only the remains of its Roman predecessor but the roughly hewn blocks of a much earlier bridge (Garstang, 1959, 2). Any clues that may have helped to provide an answer to the question of whether there were bridges in the time of Croesus are now submerged by graduate degree in nursing essay the hydroelectric plants which have been built in the area.
Herodotus recorded the details that he had obtained, but used his own different understanding of the pharmacy essay writing situation to graduate degree, discount the report. 11. Essay? The Possible Travels of Thales. Establishing whether or not Thales travelled and what countries he visited is important because we may be able to establish what information he could have acquired from other sources. In Epinomis 987 E) Plato made the point that the Greeks took from foreigners what was of value and developed their notions into better ideas. Eudemus, who was one of Aristotle's students, believed that Thales had travelled to Egypt (Eudemus ap. Proclus, 65.7). A number of ancient sources support that opinion, including Pamphila who held that he spent time with the Egyptian priests (D.L.
I.24), Hieronymus from whose report we learn that Thales measured the height of the pyramids by the shadow they cast (D.L. I.27), and Plutarch ( De Is. et Os. 131). Thales gave an explanation for the inundation (D.L. I.37). He may have devised this explanation after witnessing the phenomena, which Herodotus later described (Hdt. II.97).
By 620 B.C.E., and perhaps earlier, Miletus held a trading concession at Naucratis (Hdt. II.178, Strab. 17.1.18) on the Canopic mouth of the Nile, and it is possible that Thales visited Egypt on a trading mission. Graduate Essay? Travel to Egypt would not have been difficult. Homer had Ulysses sailing from Crete to the Nile in five days, and Ernle Bradford recently made a similar journey, proving the trip to be feasible (Bradford, Ulysses Found, 26, and passim). The wealth of Miletus was the result of its success as a trading centre, and there would have been no difficulty in arranging passage on one of the many vessels which traded through of Miletus. Josephus ( Contra Apionem I.2) wrote that Thales was a disciple of the papers rights of senior Egyptians and in nursing the Chaldeans which suggests that he visited the Near-East.
It is thought that Thales visited the Babylonians and Chaldeans and had access to the astrological records which enabled him to predict the solar eclipse of 585 B.C.E. Miletus had founded many colonies around the Mediterranean and especially along the coasts of the Black Sea. Pliny ( HN, V.31.112) gives the number as ninety. The Milesians traded their goods for raw materials, especially iron and ccot timber, and tunny fish. Strabo made mention of 'a sheep-industry', and the yield of 'soft wool' (Strabo, 12.3.13), and Aristophanes mentioned the fine and luxurious Milesian wool ( Lysistrata, 729; Frogs, 543). The Milesian traders had access to the hinterland. The land around the mouth of the degree in nursing Halys was fertile, 'productive of everything . . . and planted with olive trees' (Strabo, 12.3.12-13). Thales was associated with a commercial venture in buy research resistance circuit the production of olive oil in Miletus and Chios, but his interests may have extended beyond those two places.
Olive oil was a basic item in the Mediterranean diet, and was probably a trading commodity of some importance to Milesian commerce. It is likely that Thales was one of the 'great teachers' who, according to Herodotus, visited Croesus in the Lydian capital, Sardis (Hdt. In Nursing Essay? I.30). From Sardis, he could have joined a caravan to make the cheap write my essay in which creolization three-month journey along the well used Royal Road (Hdt. V.53), to visit the observatories in Babylonia, and seek the astronomical knowledge which they had accumulated over centuries of degree, observation of heavenly phenomena. In about pharmacy essay writing, 547 B.C.E. late in his life, Thales travelled into essay, Cappadocia with Croesus, and, according to some belief, devised a scheme by resistance which the army of Croesus was able to cross the River Halys. Milesian merchantmen continually plied the degree Black Sea, and gaining a passage could have been easily arranged.
From any number of ports Thales could have sought information, and from Sinope he may have ventured on the long journey to Babylonia, perhaps travelling along the valley of the Tigris, as Xenophon did in 401-399 B.C.E. In a letter purported to be from Thales to Pherecydes, Thales stated that he and Solon had both visited Crete, and Egypt to confer with the cheap write creolization priests and astronomers, and graduate degree in nursing all over Hellas and Asia (D.L. I.43-44). All that should be gleaned from writing zoo, such reports, is that travel was not exceptional, with many reports affirming the visits of mainly notable people to foreign lands. Alcaeus visited Egypt' (Strabo, 1.2.30), and essay his brother, Antimenidas, served in Judaea in the army of the Babylonian monarch, King Nebuchadrezzar. Sappho went into exile in Sicily, her brother,Charaxus, spent some time in interview Egypt, and a number of friends of Sappho visited Sardis where they lived in Lydian society.
There must have been any number of people who visited foreign lands, about whom we know nothing. Very little about the travels of Thales may be stated with certainty, but it seems probable that he would have sought information from any sources of knowledge and wisdom, particularly the centres of learning in the Near-East. It is accepted that there was ample opportunity for travel. Thales was the founder of a new school of philosophy (Arist. In Nursing Essay? Metaph. 983 b20). His two fellow Milesians who also engaged in the new questioning approach to the understanding of the universe, were Anaximander, his disciple (D.L. Cheap Of Senior? I.13), and Anaximenes, who was the disciple of Anaximander (D.L. II.2).
Anaximander was about ten years younger than Thales, but survived him by only a year, dying in about 545. Graduate Degree In Nursing? Anaximenes was born in 585 and died in about 528. Their lives all overlapped. College Ccot Essays? Through their association they comprised the Milesian School: They all worked on similar problems, the nature of matter and the nature of change, but they each proposed a different material as the primary principle, which indicates that there was no necessity to follow the master's teachings or attribute their discoveries to him. Each proposed a different support for the earth. Thales was held in graduate essay high regard for pharmacy essay writing his wisdom, being acclaimed as the most eminent of the Wise Men of Ancient Greece, but he was not regarded as a god, as Pythagoras was. Anaximander and Anaximenes were free to pursue their own ideas and to express them in writing.
This surely suggests that they engaged in critical discussion of the theories of each other. Degree In Nursing Essay? The Greeks are a sociable people, and their willingness to converse brought rewards in essay example knowledge gained, as Plato remarked ( Epinomis, 987E). Critical discussion implies more than familiarity with other views, and more than mere disagreement with other theories. It is the degree essay adoption, or in this case, the development, of a new style of cheap discuss 3 ways ha, discussion. It is a procedure which encourages questioning, debate, explanation, justification and criticism. There was a unique relationship between the three Milesians and it is highly probable that the critical method developed in the Milesian School under the leadership of Thales. 13.
The Seven Sages of Ancient Greece. The earliest reference to the Seven Sages of Ancient Greece is in graduate degree Plato's Protagoras in which he listed seven names: 'A man's ability to utter such remarks [notable, short and compressed] is to be ascribed to his perfect education. Such men were Thales of buy research cheap rights of senior, Miletus, Pittacus of degree in nursing, Mitylene, Bias of Priene, Solon of essay writing, our city [Athens], Cleobulus of graduate in nursing, Lindus, Myson of Chen, and, last of the ethnographic interview essay traditional seven, Chilon of Sparta. . . . and you can recognize that character in degree in nursing their wisdom by investigating circuit the short memorable sayings that fell from each of them' ( Protagoras, 342 E-343 A). Diogenes recorded that 'Thales was the first to receive the name of Sage in the archonship of Damasias at graduate degree in nursing, Athens, when the term was applied to all the Seven Sages, as Demetrius of Phalerum [born. ca. 350 B.C] mentions in his List of Archons (D.L. I.22). Demetrius cannot have been the help do my of socrates source for Plato, who died when Demetrius was only three years old. Perhaps there was a source common to both Plato and Demetrius, but it is unknown. Damasias was archon in 582/1.
It may be significant that at this time the Pythian Games were re-organized. Graduate Essay? More events were added and, for the first time, they were to be held at intervals of four years, in the third year of the Olympiad, instead of the previous eight-yearly intervals. Whether there is an association between the re-organization of the Pythian Games and the inauguration of the Seven Sages in not known but, as Pausanias indicates, the Seven were selected from all around Greece: 'These [the sages] were: from Ionia, Thales of Miletus and Bias of Priene; of the Aeolians in Lesbos, Pittacus of College ccot essays, Mitylene; of the Dorians in Asia, Cleobulus of Lindus; Solon of degree essay, Athens and Chilon of Sparta; the pharmacy essay seventh sage, according to the list of Plato, the son of Ariston is degree in nursing essay not Periander, the son of Cypselus, but Myson of Chenae, a village on buy research papers cheap rights of senior citizens Mount Oeta' (Paus. Degree? 14.1). The purpose of Damasias may have been aimed at establishing unity between the city-states.
It is difficult to believe that the Seven all assembled at Delphi, although the board ccot dates just allow it. Plato wrote that their notable maxims were featured at Delphi: 'They [the Sages], assembled together and dedicated these [short memorable sayings] as the first-fruits of their lore to Apollo in his Delphic temple, inscribing there those maxims which are on every tongue - Know thyself' and Nothing overmuch ' (Pl. Prt. 343 A-B). Plato regarded wise maxims as the most essential of the criteria for a sage, and associated them with wisdom and with good education, but he has Socrates say: 'Think again of all the ingenious devices in arts or other achievements, such as you might expect in one of graduate degree in nursing essay, practical ability; you might remember Thales of Miletus and papers online of senior Anacharsis the Scythian' ( Respublica , 600 A).
Practical ability was clearly important. Several other lists were compiled: Hippobotus (D.L. I.42); Pittacus (D.L. Degree? I.42); and Diogenes (D.L. I.13. They omitted some names and adding others. In his work On the Sages, Hermippus reckons seventeen, which included most of the names listed by other compilers.
Many commentators state that Thales was named as Sage because of the College essays practical advice he gave to Miletus in particular, and to Ionia in general. The earlier advice was to in nursing, his fellow Milesians. In 560, the thirty-five year old Croesus (Hdt. I.25) succeeded his father Alyattes and continued the efforts begun by his father to subdue the paper investigating resistance in a circuit Milesians, but without success. Diogenes tells us that 'when Croesus sent to Miletus offering terms of alliance, [Thales] frustrated the plan' (D.L. I.25). The second occasion was at an even later date, when the power of in nursing, Cyrus loomed as a threat from the east.
Thales's advice to the Ionian states was to unite in a political alliance, so that their unified strength could be a defence against cant the death, the might of Cyrus. This can hardly have been prior to 550 B.C.E. which is thirty years later than the promulgation of the degree in nursing Seven Sages. Thales was not named as a Sage because of any political advice which is extant. One of the few dates in Thales's life which can be known with certainty is the date of the Eclipse of 585 B.C.E. It brought to a halt the battle being fought between Alyattes and help cant do my the death of socrates the Mede, Cyaxares and, in addition, brought peace to the region after 'five years of indecisive warfare' (Hdt. I.74). Graduate Degree? The Greeks believed that Thales had predicted the Eclipse, and buy research paper investigating in a circuit perhaps even regarded him as being influential in degree in nursing causing the phenomenon to papers cheap, occur. This was reason enough to declare Thales to be a man of great wisdom and to degree in nursing essay, designate him as the write 3 ways in which ha first of the Seven Sages of Ancient Greece. Thales's reputation for wisdom is further enhanced in a story which was related by Aristotle. Graduate In Nursing Essay? ( Politics, 1259 a 6-23).
Somehow, through observation of the heavenly bodies, Thales concluded that there would be a bumper crop of olives. He raised the money to buy research online, put a deposit on the olive presses of Miletus and Chios, so that when the harvest was ready, he was able to let them out at a rate which brought him considerable profit. In this way, Thales answered those who reproached him for his poverty. Graduate Degree In Nursing? As Aristotle points out, the scheme has universal application, being nothing more than a monopoly. There need not have been a bumper harvest for the scheme to have been successful.
It is quite likely that Thales was involved in write my essay in which creolization commercial ventures, possibly the export of graduate in nursing essay, olive oil, and Plutarch reported that Thales was said to have engaged in trade (Plut. Vit. Sol. Ethnographic Essay Example? II.4). Thales is the first person about graduate in nursing, whom we know to investigating resistance circuit, propose explanations of natural phenomena which were materialistic rather than mythological or theological.
His theories were new, bold, exciting, comprehensible, and possible of explanation. Essay? He did not speak in riddles as did Heraclitus, and had no need to invent an undefined non-substance, as Anaximander did. Because he gave no role to mythical beings, Thales's theories could be refuted. Arguments could be put forward in attempts to discredit them. Thales's hypotheses were rational and scientific.
Aristotle acknowledged Thales as the first philosopher, and criticized his hypotheses in a scientific manner.
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A Business Plan Doubles Your Chances for Success, Says a New Survey. The value of writing a business plan is often debated in the entrepreneurial community. For every successful business that was launched with a well-thought-out business plan, it seems you can find an equally successful one that was launched with nothing more than some scribbles on the back of essay, a napkin. In fact, the contrarian approach may be the one you hear most about #8212; i.e., entrepreneurs dismissing a business plan as something they wrote and ethnographic example then stuffed in the bottom of a drawer. Palo Alto Software founder Tim Berry (a contributor here at in nursing Small Business Trends ) recently reported on some new data showing the value of business plans.
Palo Alto did a survey that asked thousands of its Business Plan Pro software users questions about their businesses, goals and business planning. College Board? The responses showed that those who completed business plans were nearly twice as likely to successfully grow their businesses or obtain capital as those who didn#8217;t write a plan. Tim gave this breakdown of the numbers: 2,877 people completed the graduate degree, survey. Of those, 995 had completed a plan. Discuss 3 Ways In Which? 297 of them (36%) secured a loan 280 of them (36%) secured investment capital 499 of them (64%) had grown their business.
1,556 of the 2,877 had not yet completed their plan. 222 of them (18%) secured a loan 219 of them (18%) secured investment capital 501 of them (43%) had grown their business. Degree Essay? Of course, as author of the original Business Plan Pro software program and founder of Palo Alto Software, Tim admits he#8217;s a little biased in favor of business plans. And people who respond to a survey by the company that made their software may be biased in interview essay example, favor of saying good things. So Tim had the University of Oregon Department of Economics assess the validity of the data.
Eason Ding and Tim Hursey wrote a report on the data with the supervision of graduate in nursing essay, Professor Joe Stone. #8220;Results suggest that planning with software is highly correlated with subsequent successes for pharmacy writing a variety of firms,#8221; they wrote. Graduate Degree In Nursing Essay? Regardless of the type of company, the growth stage of the company and pharmacy essay writing zoo the intent for the business plan, Ding and Hursey#8217;s analysis found that writing a business plan correlated with increased success in every one of the business goals included in the study . These were: obtaining a loan, getting investment capital, making a major purchase, recruiting a new team member, thinking more strategically and growing the company. The authors concluded: #8220;Except in a small number of in nursing essay, cases, business planning appeared to be positively correlated with business success as measured by papers online rights our variables. Graduate In Nursing? While our analysis cannot say that completing a business plan will lead to success, it does indicate that the type of entrepreneur who completes a business plan is also more likely to run a successful business.#8221; And if I correctly interpret the last sentence in the quote above, the act of going through the business planning process may make you a better entrepreneur. College Ccot Essays? So there you have it: you#8217;re better off WITH a business plan than without one. In fact, based on the survey, you are twice as likely to grow your business or achieve funding if you have taken the time to write a business plan. In Nursing Essay? That#8217;s interesting, but I#8217;m going to College board ccot have to graduate nitpick your conclusion. The quotes you used say that there#8217;s a correlation between writing a business plan and ethnographic interview essay example being successful. It seems like this data would have tremendous selection bias, so I don#8217;t think there#8217;s any evidence to support the claim that writing a business plan makes you any more likely to essay succeed. It makes perfect sense that the type of person that would write a business plan is more organized, dedicated, intelligent, talented, and/or experienced than someone that doesn#8217;t write a business plan.
This doesn#8217;t mean that writing a business plan improves any of those qualities. Even still, that#8217;s a pretty interesting study. Thanks for cheap 3 ways creolization sharing it. Do you have stats on in nursing, how much they were writing business plans during the so called Dot Com era? No way! You mean that having an cant do my essay the death, actual plan before you start a business is a good idea?
Cmon!I suppose that the in nursing essay, next thing you#8217;ll tell me is buy research online cheap rights citizens, that Palo Alto Software makes the best of the best in business plan software! The Franchise King. nice post i am glad to graduate degree left comment here. Buy Research Paper Online Investigating Resistance Circuit? Taking the time and essay making the effort to pharmacy produce a business plan shows organization, determination and forethought. All of which would tend to preselect toward successful individuals, so I#8217;m not sure if this is the chicken or the egg#8230; A great article with many truisms. having been in degree in nursing, the business of writing strategic plans most of my life I would have to College ccot essays agree wholeheartedly with the conclusions. It never ceases to amaze me how many people will use GPS or Google Maps for a trip somewhere but when it comes to starting a business they think they can do it without any strategy, without any guiding road-map. I am not saying the plan has to be set in concrete, but just like in in nursing essay, sports where you know what the goal of the paper online resistance in a, game is, in business you need to have clear idea of what you want to degree essay accomplish and then how do you wish to writing zoo accomplish that goal. Right on! Business plans are very important to success, not because they set out all the graduate in nursing, solutions to potential problems but because the ethnographic interview essay example, process itself makes you aware of opportunities and challenges. Fore-warned is graduate degree in nursing essay, fore-armed! This is investigating in a circuit, so interesting to me. I just gave a speech about effective business planning.
My premise was that unless you are looking for funding you don#8217;t need the lengthy, detailed, business plan created by the Business Plan Pro software. HOWEVER, you DO need a plan! How can you go anywhere if you don#8217;t know where you are going or how you are going to get there? Business planning is critically important to graduate in nursing essay business success. The 3 key elements in my estimation are: vision, planning, and communication. Biased or objective I am not surprised by the conclusion.
Demings#8217; Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is a proven concept is the field of management and certainly applies to papers rights the process of setting up and developing a small business. Without a plan, how do you know where to focus your efforts? How do you know if you#8217;re on target? If you don#8217;t have a business plan any result you achieve (even a poor one) is good since you don#8217;t have a plan to in nursing essay compare it to. So yes, having a sound business plan is a vital part of setting up a small business.
Not just to convince others that you have thought things through but also for yourself as a baseline reference for your level of success. Cheap Write 3 Ways In Which Creolization? It#8217;s the planning, not the plan that impacts chances of success. Those who take the time to think things through, consider consequences and alternatives, determine the definition of degree, success and the steps necessary to pharmacy essay zoo reach it are significantly more prepared than those who wing it. Ok it does seem an obvious truth. But even more important than the plan and the process of writing the plan I think, is measuring yourself up against how far you are in graduate in nursing, achieving the plan. Setting up systematic ways of measuring progress to the plan, even a plan written on a napkin, will contribute the most to success. Very useful survey, and another proof that business plan is important, whether it#8217;s a one-page or 100-page plan. Biz plan gives you clearer path to help you navigate your business better I consider it like our personal to do list: shop for groceries, pick up kids from school, etc. College Ccot? Also, it#8217;s obvious that bizzes with biz plans will secure loans better lenders want to graduate degree in nursing essay know how you would use their money, and biz plan can do this for you.
Great Post. Entrepreneurs have to essay writing be excellent managers of resources #8212; human, financial, informational, technological, material and graduate degree time. If you are organized, savvy with finances. This research is buy research paper online resistance in a, a classic example of #8220;there are lies, damnable lies, and statistics#8221; (from Twain who got it from someone else). My second book (to be published in December 2010) is titled #8220;Bad Plans Carried Out Violently#8221; and graduate essay promotes the idea that DOING SOMETHING trumps pre-planning almost without exception. I#8217;ve talked with hundreds of successful business owners and asked them four questions: 1) Did you do a business plan before you started your business? 2) If you did, how well did it project what actually happened over paper online resistance 1 yr, 3 yrs and 5 yrs? 3) Do you do ongoing strategic planning you fully update each quarter (this is not the classic January Business Plan or investor doc), to degree in nursing incorporate the College essays, feedback you get as you are doing business in the trenches? 4) If you do ongoing Strategic Planning vs. an annual Business Plan, how much do you find your plan changing over time as a result of doing ongoing dynamic strategic planning? The number of successful business owners who do a business plan before starting their business is statistically insignificant well less than 1%.
The only reason the small minority gave for doing one is because they had to in order to get money from graduate degree essay a bank or investor (almost no one does one just for themselves). That should tell you something about the essay writing zoo, classic #8220;pre-planning#8221; Business Plan we#8217;re all taught is so important. Almost no one who is successful does one, yet we continue to pound the idea that it#8217;s necessary. Of those very few that did do a Business Plan before starting, virtually none of them say their Business Plan projected accurately what actually happened in the next 12 months, or 3yr or 5 yrs. To the contrary most said their Business Plan was wildly off from what actually happened in the real world. So most biz owners don#8217;t do one, and those that do find they don#8217;t reflect reality, yet we continue with the Business Plan mantra. Very few biz owners do ongoing quarterly Strategic Plans, but of degree in nursing, those that do, they are unanimous in saying that the reason they do is because business, just like life, changes so much and so rapidly, that a once a year Business Plan is useless, and cant essay the death that the purpose of the classic Business Plan is graduate degree, simply to buy research cheap rights citizens get a loan. Otherwise it has no value in their business. The conclusion is that successful business owners don#8217;t do a classic Business Plan unless they are forced to graduate in nursing by a bank or investor, and that they never look at cant do my essay of socrates it after that. So it clearly has value for getting a loan, but not for graduate degree essay running a business. The proper planning analogy (which is chapter one in ethnographic example, my book) planning is a rudder on a ship.
The rudder is a necessary but VERY small part of ship and is absolutely useless without movement. You do not steer a ship with a rudder, you steer it with movement the same thing is true for a business. And the faster you move the ship, the less rudder (planning) it takes to affect a right or left turn. In Nursing Essay? Stop planning and get moving! #8220;Committed Movement in a Purposeful Direction#8221; and pharmacy essay writing zoo #8220;Implement Now. Perfect as You Go.#8221; two concepts from my book are much more instructive to success than pre-planning. Knowing the end goal is extremely important knowing beforehand the path for how you will get there is essay, fortune-telling. See the board ccot essays, new book from 37Signals.com called #8220;Rework#8221; for others affirming this as well. Hi Chuck, I agree entirely. To summarise the reason most businesses have a problem with planning is that they see it as an event when in in nursing, fact its a process.
Sometimes, even the buy research paper investigating in a circuit, task of writing a business plan can be daunting. At the same time, it#8217;s important to get something on paper. That#8217;s why I created a Back of the graduate degree in nursing essay, Napkin business plan exercise http://myshingle.com/2010/06/articles/ideas-tips/back-of-the-napkin-business-plan/ to get down vision as well as specific tasks to accomplish. My thanks to Rieva for an excellent summary of my earlier post, and thanks to pharmacy essay all of you whose comments point out essay that what really matters is the example, planning, the planning process, the essay, live plan that is reviewed and revised regularly according to plan vs. actual results. That becomes management, steering the business.
The formal plan isn#8217;t the point; the papers online cheap, first plan is just the first step towards planning as steering and management. Ironically, a lot of people who would agree with the above criticize the business plan per-se, without realizing that you can#8217;t have planning process or management or steering without the in nursing, plan as the first step. Let#8217;s not throw out ethnographic business planning just because some people stop at the end of a single plan, without following up. Good business practices don#8217;t become bad just because a few people misuse or exaggerate. Good points, Tim. The problem is that the Business Plan is almost universally seen as 1) a very thorough, thick, and detailed documentation of what is supposed to happen, and 2) a static document that you might review once in a while but rarely change more than once a year. The problem with #1 is that complexity breeds paralysis the essay, better we capture everything we think might happen going forward in great detail, the write my essay 3 ways creolization ha, more likely the weight of all that detail is going to keep us from understanding the plan itself. Simplicity breeds movement; once we got our business owners to stop doing a business plan and start doing a simple two-page strategic plan that captured the graduate degree in nursing, few things that really need to be done, we found they started using it because it was easily grasped and easily managed.
Perhaps most importantly (from my perspective admittedly) is College board, that at graduate in nursing every turn when business owners ask what#8217;s the most important thing they should do to become successful, they are told #8220;do a business plan#8221;, and the examples they are given of what that means are always complex and full of #8220;thud factor#8221; (they make a loud noise when dropped on a table). Visit the SBA site or many other small biz sites and they all tell you to board do a complex business plan first. Where are the people telling business owners to do a very simple one or two page strategic plan for graduate essay how they will sell something, and papers online citizens get moving. Why aren#8217;t we focused on in nursing essay, giving them very simple processes for doing that instead? There is of socrates, much more compelling evidence that Speed of Execution creates success than does business planning, but we still tell people to sit around and graduate essay think about things. It could be in fact, that the buy research online investigating in a circuit, reason the degree essay, study found people who finished their business plan to be more successful was simply because they have a higher Speed of Execution and get moving on cheap my essay in which ha, everything they do, not just their plan.
If we put planning in graduate, its proper context as a SUPPORT MECHANISM for movement, it#8217;s a tremendous tool. But I almost never see it shared that way. It#8217;a always some kind of essay, magic bullet do a Business Plan as if writing what you think might happen someday actually makes it happen. Movement is the gift, and planning is its faithful servant. We have these two things backwards. We worship and serve the servant and have forgotten the graduate degree, gift (concept borrowed from ccot essays Einstein). A business plan helps, that is for sure but needs to be well done otherwise is useless. Degree? Then, it has to contain real market figures if you want to get some fundings from it. You need also to be able to see outside it when starting your business as things change and you need to online investigating in a be able not to only stick to degree it. As a CPA and financial consultant, there is online resistance, no doubt in my mind that a business plan serves as a plan, guide, feasibility study, road map, etc. It is graduate degree essay, imperative to buy research papers of senior citizens communicating your company plan to key stakeholders investors, bankers, managers, although the most used section is the financial section as these stakeholders want to degree know if the business will make profit and cashflow.
In the past 30 years, I have found it necessary to buy research cheap rights of senior take the financial snapshot portion of the business plan and turn it into a dynamic real-time cashflow management system that is linked to historical financials and future forecasts. It then becomes the degree essay, CEOs day to investigating in a day financial management system, focused on both financial managing the business as proactively analyzing #8220;what if#8221; business decisions. In Nursing? The book #8220;Drive Your Business to cant do my essay Financial Success#8221; is a quick read for graduate essay small business CEOs, owners, etc. that teaches both financial concepts and cant the death of socrates a real-time cashflow management system. We are a non-profit lender and one of the first criteria for obtaining funding with us is a business plan. If you are going to ask someone to graduate invest in you and your business a well thought out business plan is essential. Cant Do My Essay Of Socrates? A good business plan should serve as a guide and reference tool, something you review and refer back to often to gauge where you have been, thought you would be and your current position. Graduate Degree Essay? I know there are many people who start and board essays run successful businesses with no formal business plan and this is not meant to detract from their success in anyway.
Even successful businesses very often need to borrow money from a lender to degree essay reach their next goal and if you do, you are going to help essay need to present a business plan as part of the application process. Graduate In Nursing Essay? It helps convey to the lender that you are serious, organized, prepared and a good risk. All good qualities in lenders eyes! Lenders ask for business plans because they don#8217;t usually know how to discuss 3 ways in which creolization ha assess the likelihood of success from real world metrics/experience, etc. But that doesn#8217;t make them a good idea, just a necessary one when dealing with a lender. But lenders should stop asking for them because they don#8217;t have any correlation with success. Here#8217;s something to degree in nursing think about regarding whether business plans are a good way to start a business.
1) Not a single Fortune 500 was started with a business plan not one. 2) And as we research it, I#8217;m willing to bet that not a single Fortune 5000 (or maybe no more than a handful) were started with a business plan, either. 3) After asking thousands of business owners around the buy research paper online resistance in a, world about degree essay them, only 3-6% do one if they don#8217;t need a loan. And to date, we have yet to find a single one of these businesses that worked out anywhere close to papers cheap rights of senior citizens what was in the plan. Yet we keep trying. But there are MUCH better predictors of success that lenders could use if they understood what makes people successful and what doesn#8217;t. Having a business plan or not having one when you start is not one of them. Graduate Degree Essay? I agree with those that see the true value of a business plan as a process. Help Cant Do My Of Socrates? You can come up with brilliant ideas, but the real key to success is in degree in nursing essay, pre-planning and organization. Papers Online Rights Of Senior Citizens? The most important use of the graduate, business plan, other than financing, is in the planning process. It forces you to realistically assess the who, what, when, where, why, how and how much for essay planning and implemention of your enterprise.
It allows you to plan for asset acquisition, location, business parameters, manning levels, cash flow projections, ad nauseum. Once the business is running, you enter the observation and degree essay tweaking arena wherein you make adjustments based on results. Interview Essay Example? At that point the in nursing essay, plan is board ccot essays, not as strategically important, but there have to be controls and a means to analyze progress and implement adjustments. My thanks to Rieva for an excellent summary of my earlier post, and thanks to graduate all of you whose comments point out write my essay discuss 3 ways in which creolization ha that what really matters is the planning, the planning process, the live plan that is reviewed and revised regularly according to plan vs. actual results. That becomes management, steering the business. The formal plan isn’t the graduate degree, point; the first plan is just the first step towards planning as steering and management. Ironically, a lot of people who would agree with the above criticize the help do my, business plan per-se, without realizing that you can’t have planning process or management or steering without the plan as the first step. Let’s not throw out business planning just because some people stop at the end of a single plan, without following up.
Good business practices don’t become bad just because a few people misuse or exaggerate. It makes perfect sense that the type of person that would write a business plan is more organized, dedicated, intelligent, talented, and/or experienced than someone that doesn’t write a business plan. This doesn’t mean that writing a business plan improves any of those qualities. The dot com era makes it double trouble. Degree? It’s the planning, not the plan that impacts chances of success. Those who take the time to think things through, consider consequences and alternatives, determine the definition of success and cant essay the steps necessary to reach it are significantly more prepared than those who wing it. Very useful survey, and another proof that business plan is important, whether it’s a one-page or 100-page plan. Degree In Nursing? Nice#8230; Hi Rieva, useful insights here and I linked you back as one of the more useful sources of help cant of socrates, statistics on business plan success.
However I wanted to add that there are a fair amount of graduate degree essay, success factors which make or break achieving the business plan#8217;s objective, namely founder#8217;s performance in the credit interviews and the existence or lack thereof of supporting documents. Have a look maybe at buy research paper online investigating circuit this article we wrote, it latches onto essay the ideas stated in your article and might be useful to your readers: Regards much continued success for everyone#8217;s projects! Pingback: Tweets that mention A Business Plan Doubles Your Chances for ethnographic interview essay Success, Says a New Survey | Small Business Trends -- Topsy.com. Pingback: Best Blogs for Women | Web Business Woman. Pingback: Is Resistance to Planning About Fear of Mistakes? | Business in General. Pingback: The March Group Shares: A Business Plan Can Double Your Success | tmg test blog.
Pingback: How to Make a Living in graduate essay, the Web Industry | Design City. Pingback: The Value of a Business Plan Towson University’s Outreach Blog. Pingback: Not IF#8230;but WHEN #124; Extraordinary Business | Extraordinary Small Business Consutling | Operations Strategy | Aepiphanni. Essays? Pingback: Not IF#8230;but WHEN #124; Extraordinary Business | Extraordinary Small Business Consutling | Operations Strategy | Aepiphanni. Job Growth Among Small Businesses Continues to Stagnate, Wages Continue to Climb Slowly. Spotlight: Milk Eggs Startup Provides an graduate in nursing essay, Online Farmers Market in Los Angeles. Founded in 2003, Small Business Trends is an award-winning online publication for small business owners, entrepreneurs and buy research online in a circuit the people who interact with them. Degree? It is one of the most popular independent small business publications on the web.
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Charles Dickens' Classic 'Night Walks' In the essay Night Walks (Chapter 13 of The Uncommercial Traveller, 1861), Charles Dickens relies on personification and a number of striking analogies to convey the essay experience of walking London's streets after midnight. This haunting essay, says Joyce Carol Oates, seems to hint at more than its words reveal: [Dickens] associates his terrible night restlessness with what he calls houselessness: under a compulsion to walk and walk and walk in 3 ways creolization the darkness and pattering rain. (No one has captured the romance of desolation, the ecstasy of near-madness, more forcibly than Dickens, so wrongly interpreted as a dispenser of popular, softhearted tales.) -- Ontario Review ?(? 1999) He takes you to Newgate, Westminster and Covent Garden Market, among many other places, all in the dark of night. After you've read this essay, compare it to one by Virginia Woolf on a similar topic, Street Haunting: A London Adventure. 1 Some years ago, a temporary inability to sleep, referable to graduate degree in nursing essay a distressing impression, caused me to walk about the streets all night, for ccot essays a series of several nights. The disorder might have taken a long time to conquer, if it had been faintly experimented on in bed; but, it was soon defeated by the brisk treatment of getting up directly after lying down, and going out, and coming home tired at sunrise. 2 In the course of those nights, I finished my education in degree essay a fair amateur experience of buy research online cheap rights citizens, houselessness. My principal object being to graduate essay get through the night, the pursuit of it brought me into sympathetic relations with people who have no other object every night in the year.
3 The month was March, and the weather damp, cloudy, and cold. Buy Research Paper Resistance In A! The sun not rising before half-past five, the in nursing essay night perspective looked sufficiently long at half-past twelve: which was about my time for confronting it. 4 The restlessness of a great city, and help do my essay of socrates the way in which it tumbles and graduate degree essay tosses before it can get to sleep, formed one of the first entertainments offered to the contemplation of ethnographic essay, us houseless people. It lasted about two hours. We lost a great deal of companionship when the late public-houses turned their lamps out, and when the potmen thrust the last brawling drunkards into the street; but stray vehicles and stray people were left us, after that. If we were very lucky, a policeman#96;s rattle sprang and graduate degree in nursing a fray turned up; but, in general, surprisingly little of this diversion was provided. Except in the Haymarket, which is the do my of socrates worst kept part of London, and about Kent-street in the Borough, and along a portion of the line of the Old Kent-road, the peace was seldom violently broken. But, it was always the case that London, as if in imitation of individual citizens belonging to graduate in nursing it, had expiring fits and starts of cheap my essay ha, restlessness. After all seemed quiet, if one cab rattled by, half-a-dozen would surely follow; and Houselessness even observed that intoxicated people appeared to be magnetically attracted towards each other; so that we knew when we saw one drunken object staggering against the shutters of a shop, that another drunken object would stagger up before five minutes were out, to graduate degree in nursing fraternise or fight with it. When we made a divergence from the regular species of drunkard, the thin-armed, puff-faced, leaden-lipped gin-drinker, and writing zoo encountered a rarer specimen of a more decent appearance, fifty to one but that specimen was dressed in soiled mourning. As the street experience in the night, so the street experience in the day; the common folk who come unexpectedly into essay, a little property, come unexpectedly into a deal of liquor.
5 At length these flickering sparks would die away, worn out--the last veritable sparks of waking life trailed from some late pieman or hot-potato man--and London would sink to rest. And then the yearning of the houseless mind would be for any sign of in which creolization ha, company, any lighted place, any movement, anything suggestive of any one being up--nay, even so much as awake, for the houseless eye looked out for lights in graduate in nursing essay windows. 6 Walking the streets under the pattering rain, Houselessness would walk and walk and buy research cheap rights of senior walk, seeing nothing but the interminable tangle of in nursing essay, streets, save at a corner, here and there, two policemen in cant essay the death conversation, or the sergeant or inspector looking after his men. Now and then in the night--but rarely--Houselessness would become aware of a furtive head peering out of a doorway a few yards before him, and, coming up with the head, would find a man standing bolt upright to in nursing essay keep within the investigating circuit doorway#96;s shadow, and evidently intent upon no particular service to society. Essay! Under a kind of fascination, and in a ghostly silence suitable to the time, Houselessness and this gentleman would eye one another from head to essay of socrates foot, and so, without exchange of speech, part, mutually suspicious. Drip, drip, drip, from ledge and coping, splash from pipes and water-spouts, and degree in nursing by-and-by the houseless shadow would fall upon the stones that pave the cheap write my essay discuss 3 ways in which way to Waterloo-bridge; it being in the houseless mind to have a halfpenny worth of degree, excuse for saying Good-night to the toll-keeper, and writing catching a glimpse of his fire. A good fire and a good great-coat and a good woollen neck-shawl, were comfortable things to see in conjunction with the toll-keeper; also his brisk wakefulness was excellent company when he rattled the change of essay, halfpence down upon that metal table of help do my essay, his, like a man who defied the night, with all its sorrowful thoughts, and didn't care for the coming of dawn.
There was need of degree in nursing, encouragement on the threshold of the bridge, for the bridge was dreary. The chopped-up murdered man, had not been lowered with a rope over the parapet when those nights were; he was alive, and cheap 3 ways creolization slept then quietly enough most likely, and undisturbed by any dream of where he was to degree come. But the river had an awful look, the buildings on the banks were muffled in College board ccot essays black shrouds, and the reflected lights seemed to originate deep in the water, as if the spectres of suicides were holding them to show where they went down. The wild moon and clouds were as restless as an evil conscience in degree a tumbled bed, and the very shadow of the immensity of London seemed to lie oppressively upon the river. 7 Between the bridge and the two great theatres, there was but the distance of a few hundred paces, so the help essay the death of socrates theatres came next. Grim and black within, at graduate in nursing night, those great dry Wells, and lonesome to imagine, with the cheap discuss in which creolization ha rows of degree in nursing essay, faces faded out, the lights extinguished, and pharmacy essay the seats all empty. One would think that nothing in them knew itself at such a time but Yorick#96;s skull. In one of my night walks, as the church steeples were shaking the March winds and rain with the strokes of Four, I passed the outer boundary of one of these great deserts, and entered it. In Nursing Essay! With a dim lantern in my hand, I groped my well-known way to the stage and looked over the orchestra--which was like a great grave dug for a time of pestilence--into the void beyond.
A dismal cavern of an immense aspect, with the chandelier gone dead like everything else, and nothing visible through mist and fog and cheap write my essay in which space, but tiers of winding-sheets. The ground at my feet where, when last there, I had seen the peasantry of Naples dancing among the vines, reckless of the burning mountain which threatened to overwhelm them, was now in possession of a strong serpent of engine-hose, watchfully lying in wait for the serpent Fire, and ready to in nursing essay fly at it if it showed its forked tongue. A ghost of a watchman, carrying a faint corpse candle, haunted the buy research paper investigating in a distant upper gallery and flitted away. Retiring within the proscenium, and holding my light above my head towards the rolled-up curtain--green no more, but black as ebony--my sight lost itself in a gloomy vault, showing faint indications in degree essay it of a shipwreck of canvas and cordage. Methought I felt much as a diver might, at the bottom of the pharmacy essay writing sea. 8 In those small hours when there was no movement in graduate degree essay the streets, it afforded matter for reflection to online rights citizens take Newgate in the way, and, touching its rough stone, to think of the prisoners in their sleep, and then to glance in at the lodge over the spiked wicket, and see the fire and light of the watching turnkeys, on the white wall. Not an inappropriate time either, to linger by that wicked little Debtors#96; Door--shutting tighter than any other door one ever saw--which has been Death#96;s Door to so many. In the days of the uttering of forged one-pound notes by people tempted up from the graduate degree country, how many hundreds of wretched creatures of both sexes--many quite innocent--swung out of essay writing, a pitiless and inconsistent world, with the tower of yonder Christian church of Saint Sepulchre monstrously before their eyes! Is there any haunting of the graduate degree in nursing Bank Parlour, by the remorseful souls of buy research online circuit, old directors, in the nights of these later days, I wonder, or is essay, it as quiet as this degenerate Aceldama of an Old Bailey? 9 To walk on to the help essay of socrates Bank, lamenting the good old times and bemoaning the present evil period, would be an easy next step, so I would take it, and would make my houseless circuit of the Bank, and give a thought to graduate degree in nursing the treasure within; likewise to the guard of soldiers passing the ccot night there, and nodding over the fire.
Next, I went to Billingsgate, in some hope of market-people, but it proving as yet too early, crossed London-bridge and got down by graduate in nursing essay the water-side on help do my the death of socrates, the Surrey shore among the buildings of the great brewery. Graduate Degree Essay! There was plenty going on at the brewery; and the reek, and the smell of grains, and the rattling of the plump dray horses at their mangers, were capital company. Quite refreshed by having mingled with this good society, I made a new start with a new heart, setting the old King#96;s Bench prison before me for my next object, and online circuit resolving, when I should come to the wall, to think of poor Horace Kinch, and the Dry Rot in men. 10 A very curious disease the Dry Rot in men, and difficult to detect the beginning of. It had carried Horace Kinch inside the wall of the old King#96;s Bench prison, and it had carried him out with his feet foremost. He was a likely man to degree look at, in the prime of life, well to do, as clever as he needed to be, and popular among many friends. He was suitably married, and had healthy and pretty children. But, like some fair-looking houses or fair-looking ships, he took the Dry Rot. The first strong external revelation of the Dry Rot in men, is buy research online resistance circuit, a tendency to lurk and graduate essay lounge; to be at street-corners without intelligible reason; to be going anywhere when met; to cant be about graduate essay many places rather than at any; to online cheap do nothing tangible, but to have an intention of performing a variety of graduate in nursing, intangible duties to-morrow or the day after. Paper Online Resistance Circuit! When this manifestation of the in nursing essay disease is ethnographic example, observed, the observer will usually connect it with a vague impression once formed or received, that the patient was living a little too hard. He will scarcely have had leisure to turn it over in his mind and form the terrible suspicion Dry Rot, when he will notice a change for the worse in the patient#96;s appearance: a certain slovenliness and degree in nursing deterioration, which is not poverty, nor dirt, nor intoxication, nor ill-health, but simply Dry Rot.
To this, succeeds a smell as of strong waters, in the morning; to that, a looseness respecting money; to that, a stronger smell as of strong waters, at all times; to that, a looseness respecting everything; to that, a trembling of the limbs, somnolency, misery, and crumbling to pieces. As it is in wood, so it is in men. Dry Rot advances at a compound usury quite incalculable. A plank is found infected with it, and the whole structure is devoted. Thus it had been with the unhappy Horace Kinch, lately buried by a small subscription. Those who knew him had not nigh done saying, So well off, so comfortably established, with such hope before him and yet, it is feared, with a slight touch of Dry Rot! when lo! the buy research investigating resistance in a man was all Dry Rot and dust.
11 From the dead wall associated on those houseless nights with this too common story, I chose next to wander by Bethlehem Hospital; partly, because it lay on my road round to Westminster; partly, because I had a night fancy in my head which could be best pursued within sight of graduate, its walls and buy research papers online rights dome. And the fancy was this: Are not the sane and the insane equal at night as the degree essay sane lie a dreaming? Are not all of us outside this hospital, who dream, more or less in of senior the condition of those inside it, every night of our lives? Are we not nightly persuaded, as they daily are, that we associate preposterously with kings and degree essay queens, emperors and empresses, and notabilities of all sorts? Do we not nightly jumble events and personages and times and places, as these do daily? Are we not sometimes troubled by our own sleeping inconsistencies, and do we not vexedly try to account for them or excuse them, just as these do sometimes in respect of their waking delusions? Said an afflicted man to me, when I was last in a hospital like this, Sir, I can frequently fly.
I was half ashamed to reflect that so could I by ethnographic interview essay night. Said a woman to me on the same occasion, Queen Victoria frequently comes to dine with me, and her Majesty and I dine off peaches and maccaroni in our night-gowns, and his Royal Highness the Prince Consort does us the honour to make a third on horseback in a Field-Marshal#96;s uniform. Degree In Nursing Essay! Could I refrain from reddening with consciousness when I remembered the amazing royal parties I myself had given (at night), the unaccountable viands I had put on table, and my extraordinary manner of conducting myself on those distinguished occasions? I wonder that the great master who knew everything, when he called Sleep the death of each day's life, did not call Dreams the essays insanity of each day#96;s sanity. 12 By this time I had left the Hospital behind me, and in nursing essay was again setting towards the river; and in a short breathing space I was on Westminster-bridge, regaling my houseless eyes with the external walls of the British Parliament--the perfection of a stupendous institution, I know, and the admiration of all surrounding nations and succeeding ages, I do not doubt, but perhaps a little the better now and then for being pricked up to its work. Turning off into Old Palace-yard, the Courts of Law kept me company for a quarter of an hour; hinting in low whispers what numbers of people they were keeping awake, and help cant do my essay the death of socrates how intensely wretched and horrible they were rendering the small hours to unfortunate suitors. Graduate Degree In Nursing! Westminster Abbey was fine gloomy society for another quarter of an hour; suggesting a wonderful procession of its dead among the dark arches and pillars, each century more amazed by the century following it than by all the centuries going before. And indeed in those houseless night walks--which even included cemeteries where watchmen went round among the graves at stated times, and moved the tell-tale handle of an index which recorded that they had touched it at buy research papers online rights citizens such an essay, hour--it was a solemn consideration what enormous hosts of dead belong to one old great city, and how, if they were raised while the living slept, there would not be the space of a pin#96;s point in board ccot essays all the streets and ways for the living to come out into. Not only that, but the vast armies of dead would overflow the degree in nursing essay hills and valleys beyond the city, and would stretch away all round it, God knows how far.
13 When a church clock strikes, on pharmacy essay writing zoo, houseless ears in graduate degree in nursing essay the dead of the night, it may be at first mistaken for company and hailed as such. But, as the spreading circles of vibration, which you may perceive at such a time with great clearness, go opening out, for help cant essay the death of socrates ever and ever afterwards widening perhaps (as the philosopher has suggested) in eternal space, the degree essay mistake is rectified and the sense of paper in a circuit, loneliness is profounder. Once--it was after leaving the Abbey and turning my face north--I came to the great steps of St. Martin#96;s church as the clock was striking Three. Graduate In Nursing Essay! Suddenly, a thing that in a moment more I should have trodden upon buy research online investigating resistance without seeing, rose up at my feet with a cry of loneliness and houselessness, struck out of it by the bell, the like of which I never heard. We then stood face to graduate degree in nursing essay face looking at one another, frightened by one another.
The creature was like a beetle-browed hair-lipped youth of twenty, and it had a loose bundle of rags on, which it held together with one of its hands. It shivered from head to foot, and interview essay example its teeth chattered, and as it stared at me--persecutor, devil, ghost, whatever it thought me--it made with its whining mouth as if it were snapping at me, like a worried dog. Intending to give this ugly object money, I put out in nursing essay, my hand to College board ccot essays stay it for it recoiled as it whined and snapped and laid my hand upon its shoulder. Instantly, it twisted out of its garment, like the young man in the New Testament, and graduate in nursing left me standing alone with its rags in my hands. 14 Covent-garden Market, when it was market morning, was wonderful company. The great waggons of cabbages, with growers' men and boys lying asleep under them, and with sharp dogs from market-garden neighbourhoods looking after the pharmacy whole, were as good as a party. But one of the worst night sights I know in London, is to be found in the children who prowl about this place; who sleep in the baskets, fight for the offal, dart at any object they think they can lay their thieving hands on, dive under the carts and barrows, dodge the constables, and are perpetually making a blunt pattering on the pavement of the Piazza with the rain of their naked feet. A painful and unnatural result comes of the comparison one is forced to institute between the growth of corruption as displayed in the so much improved and cared for fruits of the earth, and the growth of corruption as displayed in in nursing essay these all uncared for (except inasmuch as ever-hunted) savages.
15 There was early coffee to be got about Covent-garden Market, and that was more company--warm company, too, which was better. Toast of a very substantial quality, was likewise procurable: though the towzled-headed man who made it, in an inner chamber within the coffee-room, hadn#96;t got his coat on yet, and cheap my essay 3 ways creolization was so heavy with sleep that in degree in nursing essay every interval of toast and coffee he went off anew behind the partition into complicated cross-roads of board ccot, choke and snore, and lost his way directly. Degree! Into one of these establishments (among the earliest) near Bow-street, there came one morning as I sat over my houseless cup, pondering where to go next, a man in a high and buy research papers cheap rights citizens long snuff-coloured coat, and shoes, and, to the best of my belief, nothing else but a hat, who took out of his hat a large cold meat pudding; a meat pudding so large that it was a very tight fit, and brought the lining of the hat out with it. Graduate Degree! This mysterious man was known by his pudding, for on his entering, the pharmacy man of sleep brought him a pint of hot tea, a small loaf, and a large knife and fork and plate. Left to himself in his box, he stood the pudding on graduate in nursing essay, the bare table, and, instead of cutting it, stabbed it, overhand, with the knife, like a mortal enemy; then took the knife out, wiped it on in a, his sleeve, tore the pudding asunder with his fingers, and graduate degree in nursing essay ate it all up. The remembrance of this man with the write discuss 3 ways in which pudding remains with me as the remembrance of the most spectral person my houselessness encountered. Twice only was I in that establishment, and graduate essay twice I saw him stalk in (as I should say, just out of College ccot, bed, and graduate in nursing presently going back to bed), take out his pudding, stab his pudding, wipe the dagger, and eat his pudding all up. He was a man whose figure promised cadaverousness, but who had an essay zoo, excessively red face, though shaped like a horse's. On the second occasion of essay, my seeing him, he said huskily to the man of sleep, Am I red to-night?
You are, he uncompromisingly answered. My mother, said the spectre, was a red-faced woman that liked drink, and I looked at her hard when she laid in her coffin, and I took the complexion. Somehow, the pudding seemed an unwholesome pudding after that, and help essay of socrates I put myself in its way no more. 16 When there was no market, or when I wanted variety, a railway terminus with the morning mails coming in, was remunerative company. Degree! But like most of the company to be had in this world, it lasted only a very short time. Interview Essay! The station lamps would burst out in nursing, ablaze, the ccot porters would emerge from places of concealment, the in nursing cabs and trucks would rattle to their places (the post-office carts were already in theirs), and, finally, the bell would strike up, and the train would come banging in. But there were few passengers and little luggage, and everything scuttled away with the greatest expedition. Buy Research Paper In A! The locomotive post-offices, with their great nets--as if they had been dragging the country for bodies--would fly open as to their doors, and would disgorge a smell of lamp, an essay, exhausted clerk, a guard in a red coat, and do my the death their bags of letters; the engine would blow and heave and perspire, like an engine wiping its forehead and saying what a run it had had; and within ten minutes the lamps were out, and I was houseless and alone again. 17 But now, there were driven cattle on the high road near, wanting (as cattle always do) to turn into graduate in nursing essay, the midst of stone walls, and squeeze themselves through six inches' width of iron railing, and getting their heads down (also as cattle always do) for tossing-purchase at quite imaginary dogs, and giving themselves and every devoted creature associated with them a most extraordinary amount of unnecessary trouble. Now, too, the conscious gas began to grow pale with the knowledge that daylight was coming, and straggling workpeople were already in the streets, and, as waking life had become extinguished with the last pieman#96;s sparks, so it began to be rekindled with the fires of the first street-corner breakfast-sellers.
And so by faster and faster degrees, until the last degrees were very fast, the day came, and College board essays I was tired and could sleep. And it is not, as I used to think, going home at such times, the degree in nursing essay least wonderful thing in London, that in ethnographic example the real desert region of the night, the houseless wanderer is alone there. I knew well enough where to find Vice and Misfortune of all kinds, if I had chosen; but they were put out of sight, and my houselessness had many miles upon miles of graduate essay, streets in which it could, and did, have its own solitary way.
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Essay: Evolution and Charles Darwin. I. Graduate Degree In Nursing Essay! Evolution is the most important concept in all of cheap write 3 ways in which ha biology. Graduate In Nursing Essay! None of biology makes sense except in the context of evolution. Just why is evolution so important to biologists? A few examples’ A. Taxonomy: Evolution makes sense of the ethnographic interview example, similarities and differences and graduate in nursing, provides a rational explanation for the distribution of taxa. It also supplies explanations for the sometimes wild exceptions we see (eg cacti and euphorbs, which look so similar but are clearly only ethnographic essay example very distantly related to each other. The explanation is convergent evolution). B. Molecular biology: Comparison of DNA and protein sequences only makes sense in light of evolution.
C. Medicine: Our understanding of graduate essay infectious organisms and our tactics to combat them are entirely based upon understanding of evolution. II. No idea comes from thin air. The historical perspective helps to understand where the concepts behind evolutionary theory came from. Here are some of the basic historical issues.
A. The typical view of the nature of species at the beginning of the nineteenth century is often described as the Doctrine of Fixed Species. Papers Online Citizens! This concept had its primary roots in Greek philosophy: Aristotle’s Scala Naturae (The ‘Great Chain of degree in nursing Being’) and Plato’s essentialism. B. During the eighteenth century, Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) developed the basis for ccot essays our nested, hierarchical classification system, or Taxonomy. Graduate Degree In Nursing! This system is also a ‘natural’ system, meaning that, regardless of the characters of organisms chosen as the basis for the classification, species almost always end up classified in the same pattern, an oddity which didn’t escape early 19th century naturalists, and which led to all kinds of evolutionary thinking. C. The geologic discipline of stratigraphy was developed during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Though this accomplishment was shared by many geologists throughout Europe, the name most commonly associated with developing the concept of stratigraphy is online cheap rights citizens, William Smith (1769-1839), who was an engineer engaged in building canals all over England. D. Degree! George Cuvier (eventually Baron George Cuvier) (1769-1832) was a scientist of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His specialty was vertebrate anatomy. He developed the important technique of comparative anatomy, which is based upon the understanding that the parts of an College board essays animal aren’t just unrelated bits stuck together’they reflect the life style and type of the animal, and are thus all related to each other. Because of his expertise in anatomy, Cuvier was the graduate in nursing essay, obvious person to ask to examine strange remains found during reconstruction after a major Paris fire. These remains turned out to belong to extinct organisms, and led to the development of the field of study we call Paleontology.
Cuvier was the first to reconstruct dinosaurs. Cuvier is also remembered for coming up with the concept of Catastrophism, as an attempt to reconcile his religious beliefs with the pharmacy essay writing zoo, evidence he discovered as a scientist. E. Charles Lyell (1797-1875), a British geologist, developed the concept of Uniformitarianism. This theory of graduate degree geology is often summarized by the catch phrase, ‘The present is the key to the past.’ The meaning of papers online of senior this phrase is graduate degree essay, that, if you can understand how geological features are being shaped and formed today, you can look at the formations from ccot, a long time ago and assume that they were created in the same way. In other words, the graduate in nursing essay, forces acting upon and shaping the Earth today are the same as the pharmacy essay zoo, forces that acted upon and shaped the Earth in graduate in nursing, the past.
Uniformitarianism is a central tenet of modern geology. III. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and ethnographic interview example, the Origin of Species. A. Graduate! Who was Charles Darwin? 1. Darwin was born in the first century of the nineteenth century to buy research papers of senior citizens, a wealthy family. He began an education in medicine (the ‘family trade’) but actually completed his degree in theology.
His hobby was natural history. He collected beetles, went on graduate degree in nursing essay, geological field trips and became very friendly with the write my essay discuss in which creolization ha, natural history faculty at his universities. 2. After completing his degree, Darwin went along on a mapping expedition to South America, on a ship called the USS Beagle. During the five-year trip, he collected tons (literally) of graduate degree in nursing specimens of animals, plants and fossils, which he shipped back to England for later analysis. 3. Upon returning to England, he officially became a naturalist. Almost all of his specimens were sent to experts for analysis.
He kept the barnacles for himself, setting out to become an expert in barnacles. It was the write 3 ways ha, analyses that were returned to him from his experts that started him thinking along revolutionary pathways. 4. He began writing in journals which he called his ‘transformation notebooks.’ This is where he worked out the specifics of his theory (which he called ‘descent with modification. He never liked the name ‘evolution’ for his theory, because this term was already used for the development of an embryo from a fertilized egg, a process strictly controlled and predictable, which Darwin’s theory says is not true for the history of life’s diversity. 5. Darwin read Thomas Malthus’s Essay on Populations. Graduate Degree Essay! Malthus (1766-1834) was an economist who wrote that people always tend to over-reproduce, but that the resources they depend upon don’t reproduce fast enough to continue to College ccot essays, provide for the extended population. Degree Essay! Thus, he said, if it weren’t for things that control population size (like war, plague, and other pleasant things), there would never be enough resources to go around. Thus, in help do my the death of socrates, order for humans to continue to survive, some have to die. 6. In Nursing Essay! Darwin’s theory was completely developed by 1840, though he didn’t publish it until 1858, for several reasons. 7. One reason he finally published in 1858 (and then published Origin of cheap rights citizens Species in 1859) was that he discovered that another man, Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913), had independently discovered and was about to graduate in nursing essay, publish exactly the same theory Darwin had been working on for 20 years. B. What exactly is the theory of evolution?
Darwin’s theory has two novel concepts. 1. Darwin saw a clear pattern of common descent among the species of life. Examining the expert analyses of all of the cheap write my essay in which creolization, specimens from the Beagle expedition, it was clear to Darwin that the various forms of life were all descended from one, or many from a very few, common ancestral species. Additional evidence since Darwin’s time provides very powerful support for the idea of a single ancestral species for all life on Earth. 2. The mechanism Darwin figured out by which species could change from one thing into something different was natural selection. Graduate In Nursing! He’d spent virtually all of his life in the country, and was very aware of how radically artificial selection by plant and animal breeders could alter organisms. He saw environmental competition as providing the selective pressure in nature. Natural selection was partially derived from Malthus’s ideas.
Here’s the reasoning: a. Observation: All living things tend to over-reproduce. b. Observation: Resources are finite. c. Conclusion: There will be competition over resources, and not all members of any generation can survive. d. Help Cant Do My The Death Of Socrates! Observation: There is variation in all species’a more profound statement than you might think. e. Observation: Variations in species can influence who can and who can’t get enough resources to graduate degree in nursing essay, survive and reproduce. f. Observation: Many aspects of variation are heritable, meaning that they are passed from parents to offspring.
g. Conclusion: Each new generation will tend to be more like the successful parents and less like the unsuccessful parents. Given enough time (meaning enough generations), these changes can produce brand new species, especially if the environmental pressure is strong. IV. What is the evidence in investigating, support of the graduate degree, theory of evolution? This question could take weeks to answer. Observations of a wide variety of phenomena demonstrate evolutionary action and consequences.
Here are some examples: A. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Citizens! Artificial selection among plants and graduate degree in nursing, animals, as described above. B. Adaptive radiation, which Darwin saw abundantly demonstrated among the species he observed and collected while on the Beagle. Adaptive radiation is the phenomenon in which a single species splinters into cheap citizens many daughter species. This phenomenon is very commonly observed among species living on off-shore islands like the graduate degree in nursing essay, Galapagos Islands to the west of cheap 3 ways in which ha South America. C. The fossil record abundantly demonstrates evolutionary change. Transitional sequences show, for instance, the graduate degree essay, emergence of mammals from reptiles in the Permian Period, and the emergence of Cetaceans from paper online investigating in a, terrestrial mammals in the early Cenozoic Era.
D. Graduate Degree In Nursing Essay! Biogeography (the distribution of species geographically) abundantly supports evolution, specifically island biogeography, which shows us that the resident species of islands are always derived from the College ccot, species on graduate degree in nursing, the adjacent mainland. E. Signatures of History are abundant in buy research rights citizens, virtually all species. Graduate Degree In Nursing Essay! These are physical or behavioral features which clearly show that the online cheap, modern species is descended from a species that lived a different kind of life cycle. F. Molecular sequencing is an area of degree essay evidence that Darwin could never have predicted. Our modern biotechnology allows us to compare DNA and papers online cheap of senior, protein sequences among living organisms. These comparisons clearly show the degree of relationship among different species’greater distance equates to greater molecular differences.
Molecular sequencing has provided a superb method of directly testing the predictions of evolutionary theory. V. What is the modern status of Darwin’s theory of evolution? A. All of the basic concepts have remained sound, and have survived extensive challenge and testing. There was a great deal of evidence in support of Darwin’s theory when he published it, and it has gained in graduate degree in nursing essay, acceptability and supportive evidence for nearly 150 years. B. Do we agree with Darwin’s original theory on all points? Of course not. 150 years of gathering and examining evidence has led to some greater understandings than were possible in my essay discuss in which creolization ha, Darwin’s time. 1. One of the areas in which our available information is much greater is in the fossil record. We have many times more fossil evidence than Darwin did, and degree in nursing essay, some things have become more clear with the greater abundance of physical evidence of extinct species. This greater knowledge has called one of Darwin’s suggestions into question. Darwin felt that, to online resistance, a large extent, new species arose from degree in nursing, old species by the gradual accumulation of tiny changes, a pattern of change that has come to be called ‘Darwinian gradualism.’ If this were the typical pattern of my essay 3 ways in which creolization ha new species production, we would predict that the fossil record would contain a very high percentage of transitional forms.
In reality, though there are many transitional fossils, they don’t occur in essay, nearly the abundance predicted by gradualism. Niles Eldredge and essay writing, Stephen Jay Gould proposed an alternative view, which has come to be called ‘punctuated equilibrium.’ They suggest that most species remain in in nursing, stasis for cant do my the death long periods of time, and that when new species arise, they do so relatively rapidly (geologically speaking). 2. One of Darwin’s major problems was that, though his theory required that characteristics be passed from generation to generation, no one knew how that happened. There was no science of genetics in Darwin’s day’genetics is a twentieth century science. Darwin suggested a method of degree essay heredity which involved the production of what he called ‘gemules’ by various parts of the body, but it was incorrect.
So this was an aspect of evolution that he could never explain satisfactorily. In the year 1900, the help cant essay of socrates, science of genetics was ‘born.’ Initially, Darwinists and Mendelists (geneticists, named after Gregor Mendel, who discovered the concepts of genetics) were opposed to each other. Darwinists said that traits were inherited from generation to generation, but those traits had to be able to change (otherwise no evolutionary change could happen). Mendelists said genetic traits didn’t change, they just got rearranged and recombined. Growing understanding of in nursing essay mutation, which does change genes, allowed the two battling factions of biologists to come to writing zoo, an agreement. This modern version of evolution, including a mature understanding of genetics, is called Neodarwinism, or The New Synthesis. It is our modern theory of evolution’Darwin, only better.
VI. Some have greatly misused Darwin’s ideas, particularly the concept of graduate in nursing essay natural selection, to support their own notions of how humans should interact with each other. The theory of evolution is a theory about how the diversity of living things has come to be; it has nothing to do with human social systems, and should never be applied in these ways. A. Interview Essay Example! Social Darwinism is not actually ‘Darwinism’ of degree in nursing any kind. My Essay Discuss Ha! Charles Darwin himself was not a social Darwinist.
It is from social Darwinists that we get the phrase, ‘survival of the fittest.’ This is an oversimplified expression of natural selection, or at least of natural selection as the social Darwinists saw it. Social Darwinists thought that they could apply this concept to in nursing essay, human social interactions. Thus, in human interactions, the paper investigating resistance circuit, guy who could win was clearly innately superior. In war, the victory would go to the superior nationality. In Nursing! In business, the guy who could come out on top, no matter the strategies used, was obviously superior to the one who ended up on the bottom. Evolutionary theory has nothing to essay, do with this sort of thing; this is just human politics and human philosophy at work, and graduate degree essay, trying to give itself legitimacy by dressing up in the trappings of pharmacy science. B. Eugenics was a specific expression of early twentieth century social Darwinism.
The word literally translates as ‘good origins.’ The eugenics movement was based upon the idea that, as scientists finally understood both genetics and evolution, they could take control of the evolutionary future of the human species. Unfortunately, actual understanding of the complexities and realities of genetics and evolution was not really available. It still isn’t available today. The primary concern of most eugenicists was the ‘problem’ of ‘feeblemindedness,’ which was felt to be at the root of all kinds of degree in nursing social ills. Terms like ‘feebleminded,’ ‘moron,’ and ‘idiot’ were not originally used as insults. They were technical terms given to particular ranges on the I.Q. ‘bell curve.’ The feebleminded were those in cheap write 3 ways in which, the segment one standard deviation below 100’those who were of ‘substandard’ I.Q., but who could function in the world’hold down jobs, marry, have children. The supposition was that these folks would have way too many kids’a lot more than folks at the other end of the I.Q. scale, and would thus drag the graduate degree in nursing essay, whole human species down with their ‘stupid’ genes. So the eugenicists advocated doing something about cheap my essay in which creolization, limiting the degree, reproduction going on in this segment of the population. In the U.S. the preferred approach was sterilization. In Nazi Germ. Search our thousands of essays:
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