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essay on leverage Folks who do systems analysis have a great belief in “leverage points.” These are places within a complex system (a corporation, an economy, a living body, a city, an write english legal systems ecosystem) where a small shift in one thing can produce big changes in everything. This idea is not unique to systems analysis — it’s embedded in legend. The silver bullet, the trimtab, the camp counselor miracle cure, the secret passage, the magic password, the single hero who turns the tide of history. The nearly effortless way to cut through or leap over huge obstacles.

We not only want to believe that there are leverage points, we want to know where they are and how to get our hands on them. Leverage points are points of power. The systems analysis community has a lot of lore about write my essay legal systems essay leverage points. Camp. Those of us who were trained by the great Jay Forrester at cheap write my essay essay MIT have all absorbed one of his favorite stories. Online Services. “People know intuitively where leverage points are,” he says. “Time after time I’ve done an analysis of a company, and cheap write essay I’ve figured out a leverage point — in inventory policy, maybe, or in the relationship between sales force and productive force, or in personnel policy. Then I’ve gone to the company and discovered that there’s already a lot of attention to that point. Everyone is trying very hard to push it IN THE WRONG DIRECTION!” The classic example of that backward intuition was my own introduction to systems analysis, the world model. Asked by the Club of college essay Rome to show how major global problems — poverty and cheap write my essay systems hunger, environmental destruction, resource depletion, urban deterioration, unemployment — are related and how they might be solved, Forrester made a computer model and came out with a clear leverage point 1 : Growth. Not only population growth, but economic growth.

Growth has costs as well as benefits, and we typically don’t count the costs — among which are poverty and papers hunger, environmental destruction, etc. — the whole list of problems we are trying to solve with growth! What is needed is write my essay legal essay, much slower growth, much different kinds of growth, and in some cases no growth or negative growth. The world’s leaders are correctly fixated on economic growth as the answer to virtually all problems, but they’re pushing with all their might in the wrong direction. Another of essay counselor Forrester’s classics was his urban dynamics study, published in 1969, which demonstrated that subsidized low-income housing is a leverage point. Cheap My Essay English Systems. 2 The less of term it there is, the better off the city is — even the cheap write essay low-income folks in the city. This model came out at a time when national policy dictated massive low-income housing projects, and Forrester was derided. Now those projects are being torn down in city after city. Counterintuitive. That’s Forrester’s word to describe complex systems.

Leverage points are not intuitive. Or if they are, we intuitively use them backward, systematically worsening whatever problems we are trying to solve. The systems analysts I know have come up with no quick or easy formulas for finding leverage points. Essay Exam. When we study a system, we usually learn where leverage points are. But a new system we’ve never encountered? Well, our counterintuitions aren’t that well developed. Give us a few months or years and we’ll figure it out. And we know from bitter experience that, because of counterintuitiveness, when we do discover the system’s leverage points, hardly anybody will believe us. Very frustrating, especially for those of us who yearn not just to understand complex systems, but to make the write world work better.

So one day I was sitting in a meeting about how to make the world work better — actually it was a meeting about how the new global trade regime, NAFTA and GATT and the World Trade Organization, is likely to make the world work worse. The more I listened, the online cheap their powers for bad more I began to simmer inside. Legal. “This is a HUGE NEW SYSTEM people are inventing!” I said to myself. “They haven’t the SLIGHTEST IDEA how this complex structure will behave,” myself said back to me. “It’s almost certainly an example of cranking the system in the wrong direction — it’s aimed at Exam Test-Taking Tips growth, growth at any price!! And the control measures these nice, liberal folks are talking about to combat it — small parameter adjustments, weak negative feedback loops — are PUNY. ” Suddenly, without quite knowing what was happening, I got up, marched to the flip chart, tossed over to write systems a clean page, and wrote: (in increasing order of essay and teamwork quotes teams effectiveness) 9. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). 8. Regulating negative feedback loops. 7. Driving positive feedback loops. 6. Material flows and nodes of material intersection. 5. Information flows. 4. The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints). 3. The distribution of power over the rules of the system.

2. The goals of the cheap my essay legal systems system. 1. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, power structure, rules, its culture — arises. Everyone in the meeting blinked in surprise, including me. “That’s brilliant!” someone breathed. “Huh?” said someone else. I realized that I had a lot of explaining to do. I also had a lot of thinking to do. As with most of the stuff that come to me in boil-over mode, this list was not exactly tightly reasoned. Camp Counselor. As I began to share it with others, especially systems analysts who had their own lists and activists who wanted to put the list to my essay english immediate use, questions and comments came back that caused me to rethink, add and delete items, change the order, add caveats. In a minute I’ll go through the list I ended up with, explain the jargon, give examples and exceptions. The reason for this introduction is to place the list in a context of humility and to leave room for essay cheap, evolution.

What bubbled up in me that day was distilled from cheap english systems, decades of rigorous analysis of many different kinds of systems done by many smart people. But complex systems are, well, complex. It’s dangerous to generalize about them. What you are about to read is editing 50s diner, a work in progress. It’s not a recipe for finding leverage points. Rather it’s an invitation to think more broadly about system change. Here, in the light of a cooler dawn, is a revised list: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 12. Write English Essay. Constants, parameters, numbers (such as subsidies, taxes, standards).

11. Exam. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to cheap write my essay english legal their flows. 10. Papers And Essays. The structure of material stocks and flows (such as transport networks, population age structures). 9. The lengths of cheap write my essay legal systems essay delays, relative to the rate of system change.

8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to Actions of Homeland Security implemented post 9/11 custom essay the impacts they are trying to correct against. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and cheap legal does not have access to information). 5. On Leadership Quotes Sports. The rules of the system (such as incentives, punishments, constraints). 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. 3. The goals of the system.

2. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises. 1. The power to transcend paradigms. To explain parameters, stocks, delays, flows, feedback, and so forth, I need to start with a basic diagram. The “state of the system” is whatever standing stock is of importance — amount of cheap my essay english legal water behind the dam, amount of harvestable wood in the forest, number of people in the population, amount of money in the bank, whatever. System states are usually physical stocks, but they could be nonmaterial ones as well — self-confidence, degree of Test-Taking Tips trust in public officials, perceived safety of a neighborhood. There are usually inflows that increase the stock and outflows that decrease it. Deposits increase the money in the bank; withdrawals decrease it. River inflow and rain raise the water behind the dam; evaporation and discharge through the spillway lower it. Births and cheap legal systems immigrations increase the population, deaths and emigrations reduce it. Political corruption decreases trust in public officials; experience of a well-functioning government increases it.

Insofar as this part of the system consists of physical stocks and online editing services flows — and systems essay they are the bedrock of any system — it obeys laws of conservation and accumulation. You can understand its dynamics readily, if you can understand a bathtub with some water in it (the state of the system) and an inflowing faucet and outflowing drain. If the inflow rate is higher than the outflow rate, the stock gradually rises. If the outflow rate is college camp counselor, higher than the cheap write english legal systems essay inflow, the stock gradually goes down. The sluggish response of the water level to what could be sudden twists in the input and output valves is typical — it takes time for flows to accumulate, just as it takes time for water to fill up or drain out of the tub. The rest of the diagram is the Essay Exam Tips information that causes the flows to change, which then cause the write my essay legal stock to change. If you’re about to take a bath, you have a desired water level in mind. You plug the drain, turn on the faucet and watch until the water rises to your chosen level (until the discrepancy between the desired and the actual state of the system is zero). Then you turn the order online their powers for bad water off.

If you start to get in cheap english legal systems, the bath and discover that you’ve underestimated your volume and are about to produce an term papers overflow, you can open the drain for awhile, until the water goes down to your desired level. Those are two negative feedback loops, or correcting loops, one controlling the inflow, one controlling the outflow, either or both of write systems essay which you can use to bring the the Department of Homeland Security custom water level to your goal. Notice that the goal and the feedback connections are not visible in the system. If you were an cheap my essay legal extraterrestrial trying to figure out why the tub fills and essay their for bad empties, it would take awhile to figure out that there’s an invisible goal and a discrepancy-measuring process going on in the head of the creature manipulating the faucets. But if you watched long enough, you could figure that out. Very simple so far.

Now let’s take into account that you have two taps, a hot and a cold, and write my essay english legal that you’re also adjusting for another system state — temperature. Suppose the hot inflow is connected to a boiler way down in the basement, four floors below, so it doesn’t respond quickly. And you’re making faces at yourself in custom and essays by langston, the mirror and not paying close attention to the water level. And, of course, the inflow pipe is connected to a reservoir somewhere, which is connected to the whole planetary hydrological cycle. The system begins to get complex, and realistic, and interesting. Mentally change the bathtub into your checking account. Write checks, make deposits, add a faucet that keeps dribbling in a little interest and cheap my essay systems a special drain that sucks your balance even drier if it ever goes dry. Attach your account to a thousand others and Actions the Department of Homeland Security 9/11 custom essay writing let the bank create loans as a function of your combined and fluctuating deposits, link a thousand of those banks into a federal reserve system — and cheap english legal systems you begin to see how simple stocks and flows, plumbed together, make up systems way too complex to figure out. That’s why leverage points are not intuitive. And that’s enough systems theory to Test-Taking Tips proceed to the list.

12. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). “Parameters” in cheap my essay english systems essay, systems jargon means the numbers that determine how much of a discrepancy turns which faucet how fast. Maybe the faucet turns hard, so it takes awhile to get the water flowing or to turn it off. Maybe the drain is essay on leadership and teamwork quotes sports, blocked and can allow only a small flow, no matter how open it is.

Maybe the faucet can deliver with the write english systems force of the Department Security implemented essay a fire hose. These considerations are a matter of numbers, some of which are physically locked in and unchangeable, but most of which are popular intervention points. Consider the national debt. It’s a negative bathtub, a money hole. The rate at which it sinks is called the cheap my essay legal annual deficit. Tax income makes it rise, government expenditures make it fall. Congress and the president spend most of editing services 50s diner their time arguing about the cheap english many, many parameters that open and close tax faucets and spending drains. Term Papers And Essays By Langston. Since those faucets and drains are connected to us, the voters, these are politically charged parameters. But, despite all the fireworks, and no matter which party is in charge, the money hole has been sinking for years now, just at different rates.

To adjust the dirtiness of the write english essay air we breathe, the government sets parameters called ambient air quality standards. To assure some standing stock of forest (or some flow of money to logging companies) it sets allowed annual cuts. Corporations adjust parameters such as wage rates and product prices, with an eye on the level in their profit bathtub — the Test-Taking Tips bottom line. The amount of land we set aside for conservation. The minimum wage. How much we spend on AIDS research or Stealth bombers. The service charge the bank extracts from your account. Cheap Write Legal Essay. All these are parameters, adjustments to faucets. So, by the way, is firing people and getting new ones, including politicians. Putting different hands on and teamwork quotes sports teams, the faucets may change the rate at which the faucets turn, but if they’re the same old faucets, plumbed into cheap english, the same old system, turned according to the same old information and goals and rules, the college counselor system isn’t going to legal systems change much. Essay. Electing Bill Clinton was definitely different from electing George Bush, but not all that different, given that every president is plugged into write legal, the same political system. (Changing the way money flows in that system would make much more of a difference — but I’m getting ahead of essay quotes myself on this list.)

Parameters are dead last on my list of my essay essay powerful interventions. Actions The Department Security Implemented Post Writing. Diddling with the details, arranging the deck chairs on the Titanic. Probably 90, no 95, no 99 percent of our attention goes to parameters, but there’s not a lot of cheap write leverage in them. Not that parameters aren’t important — they can be, especially in online essay editing services 50s diner, the short term and to legal systems essay the individual who’s standing directly in the flow. People care deeply about parameters and fight fierce battles over the Department implemented post essay writing, them. Write My Essay Systems Essay. But they RARELY CHANGE BEHAVIOR. If the system is chronically stagnant, parameter changes rarely kick-start it. If it’s wildly variable, they don’t usually stabilize it.

If it’s growing out of control, they don’t brake it. Whatever cap we put on campaign contributions, it doesn’t clean up politics. The Feds fiddling with the interest rate haven’t made business cycles go away. (We always forget that during upturns, and are shocked, shocked by order essay online for bad, the downturns.) After decades of the strictest air pollution standards in the world, Los Angeles air is less dirty, but it isn’t clean. Spending more on police doesn’t make crime go away. Since I’m about to cheap write legal essay get into some examples where parameters ARE leverage points, let me stick in a big caveat here. Parameters become leverage points when they go into ranges that kick off one of the items higher on this list. Interest rates, for essay counselor, example, or birth rates, control the gains around positive feedback loops. System goals are parameters that can make big differences. English Essay. Sometimes a system gets onto a chaotic edge, where the college camp counselor tiniest change in a number can drive it from order to what appears to be wild disorder. These critical numbers are not nearly as common as people seem to think they are.

Most systems have evolved or are designed to stay far out of systems essay critical parameter ranges. Mostly, the numbers are not worth the sweat put into them. Here’s a story a friend sent me over the Internet to makes that point: 3. When I became a landlord, I spent a lot of time and energy trying to figure out online cheap their, what would be a “fair” rent to charge. I tried to consider all the variables, including the relative incomes of my tenants, my own income and cash flow needs, which expenses were for upkeep and which were capital expenses, the cheap my essay legal systems essay equity versus the essay camp interest portion of the mortgage payments, how much my labor on the house was worth, etc.

I got absolutely nowhere. Finally I went to someone who specializes in giving money advice. She said: “You’re acting as though there is a fine line at which the rent is fair, and at any point above that point the tenant is being screwed and at any point below that you are being screwed. In fact there is a large grey area in which both you and the tenant are getting a good, or at least a fair, deal. Stop worrying and cheap my essay english systems get on with your life.” 11. The sizes of buffers and other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. Consider a huge bathtub with slow in order cheap using their powers for bad, and outflows. Now think about a small one with very fast flows.

That’s the difference between a lake and cheap write english legal a river. Online Essay Editing 50s Diner. You hear about catastrophic river floods much more often than catastrophic lake floods, because stocks that are big, relative to their flows, are more stable than small ones. In chemistry and cheap my essay english essay other fields, a big, stabilizing stock is known as a buffer. The stabilizing power of buffers is why you keep money in the bank rather than living from the flow of change through your pocket. It’s why stores hold inventory instead of calling for new stock just as customers carry the old stock out the door. It’s why we need to maintain more than the minimum breeding population of an endangered species. Soils in Actions the Department of Homeland Security 9/11 custom essay writing, the eastern U.S. are more sensitive to english systems acid rain than soils in the west, because they haven’t got big buffers of calcium to neutralize acid. You can often stabilize a system by increasing the Essay Exam Test-Taking Tips capacity of a buffer.

4 But if a buffer is too big, the system gets inflexible. It reacts too slowly. And big buffers of some sorts, such as water reservoirs or inventories, cost a lot to build or maintain. Businesses invented just-in-time inventories, because occasional vulnerability to cheap write english legal essay fluctuations or screw-ups is Actions the Department of Homeland Security implemented post 9/11 essay, cheaper (for them, anyway) than certain, constant inventory costs — and because small-to-vanishing inventories allow more flexible response to shifting demand. There’s leverage, sometimes magical, in changing the size of systems essay buffers. But buffers are usually physical entities, not easy to change. Custom Term Papers And Essays By Langston. The acid absorption capacity of eastern soils is write my essay english, not a leverage point for alleviating acid rain damage. The storage capacity of a dam is literally cast in concrete. So I haven’t put buffers very high on the list of leverage points.

10. Essay Test-Taking Tips. The structure of material stocks and flows and cheap legal systems essay nodes of intersection (such as transport networks, population age structures, flow of nitrogen through soil). The plumbing structure, the Essay Exam stocks and flows and their physical arrangement, can have an cheap my essay english legal systems enormous effect on how the system operates. When the Hungarian road system was laid out so all traffic from one side of the nation to the other has to pass through central Budapest, that determined a lot about air pollution and commuting delays that are not easily fixed by pollution control devices, traffic lights, or speed limits. The only way to fix a system that is laid out cheap their powers, wrong is to rebuild it, if you can. Amory Lovins does wonders of energy conservation by straightening out bent pipes and enlarging too-small ones. If we let him do energy retrofits on all the buildings of the nation,we could shut down at least half of our electric power plants. But often physical rebuilding is the slowest and most expensive kind of change to make in a system.

Some stock-and-flow structures are just plain unchangeable. The baby-boom swell in the U.S. population first caused pressure on write english, the elementary school system, then high schools, then colleges, then jobs and custom and essays by langston housing, and now we’re looking forward to supporting its retirement. Cheap Write My Essay English Legal Systems Essay. Not much we can do about it, because five-year-olds become six-year-olds, and sixty-four-year-olds become sixty-five-year-olds predictably and unstoppably. The same can be said for the lifetime of destructive CFC molecules in counselor, the ozone layer, for the rate at which contaminants get washed out of aquifers, for the fact that an inefficient car fleet takes 10-20 years to turn over. Physical structure is crucial in a system, but rarely a leverage point, because changing it is rarely quick or simple. Cheap My Essay English Legal Essay. The leverage point is in proper design in the first place. After the structure is built, the leverage is in understanding its limitations and papers bottlenecks, using it with maximum efficiency, and refraining from fluctuations or expansions that strain its capacity. 9. The lengths of delays, relative to cheap write english essay the rate of the Department Security essay system changes. Remember that bathtub on the fourth floor I mentioned, with the water heater in the basement?

I actually experienced one of cheap write my essay english legal those once, in an old hotel in London. It wasn’t even a bathtub, it was a shower — no buffering capacity. Camp Counselor. The water temperature took at cheap write english systems least a minute to respond to the Department of Homeland Security implemented 9/11 custom essay writing my faucet twists. Guess what my shower was like. Right, oscillations from hot to cold and back to hot, punctuated with expletives. Delays in cheap english legal systems essay, feedback loops are critical determinants of system behavior. They are common causes of online essay services 50s diner oscillations. If you’re trying to adjust a system state to your goal, but you only cheap my essay legal systems essay receive delayed information about what the system state is, you will overshoot and undershoot. Same if your information is timely, but your response isn’t.

For example, it takes several years to build an electric power plant, and then that plant lasts, say, thirty years. Those delays make it impossible to build exactly the right number of plants to supply a rapidly changing demand. Even with immense effort at forecasting, almost every electricity industry in the world experiences long oscillations between overcapacity and undercapacity. A system just can’t respond to short-term changes when it has long-term delays. Papers By Langston. That’s why a massive central-planning system, such as the cheap my essay english legal systems essay Soviet Union or General Motors, necessarily functions poorly.

Because we know they’re important, we systems folks see delays wherever we look. The delay between the time when a pollutant is dumped on the land and when it trickles down to the groundwater. The delay between the birth of a child and the time when that child is ready to have a child. Online Editing. The delay between the first successful test of cheap write english systems essay a new technology and the time when that technology is installed throughout the college essay economy. The time it takes for a price to my essay adjust to a supply-demand imbalance. A delay in a feedback process is critical RELATIVE TO RATES OF CHANGE (growth, fluctuation, decay) IN THE STOCKS THAT THE FEEDBACK LOOP IS TRYING TO CONTROL. Essay Using Their Powers For Bad. Delays that are too short cause overreaction, “chasing your tail,” oscillations amplified by the jumpiness of the response. Delays that are too long cause damped, sustained, or exploding oscillations, depending on how much too long.

At the extreme they cause chaos. Overlong delays in a system with a threshold, a danger point, a range past which irreversible damage can occur, cause overshoot and collapse. I would list delay length as a high leverage point, except for my essay legal, the fact that delays are not often easily changeable. Things take as long as they take. You can’t do a lot about the construction time of Essay a major piece of capital, or the cheap write english legal essay maturation time of a child, or the Actions the Department of Homeland Security implemented 9/11 essay growth rate of cheap write my essay english essay a forest. It’s usually easier to SLOW DOWN THE CHANGE RATE, so that inevitable feedback delays won’t cause so much trouble.

That’s why growth rates are higher up on the leverage-point list than delay times. And that’s why slowing economic growth is a greater leverage point in Forrester’s world model than faster technological development or freer market prices. Those are attempts to speed up the rate of adjustment. But the world’s physical capital plant, its factories and boilers, the concrete manifestations of its working technologies, can only change so fast, even in online editing, the face of new prices or new ideas — and prices and my essay english systems essay ideas don’t change instantly either, not through a whole global culture. There’s more leverage in slowing the system down so technologies and prices can keep up with it, than there is in wishing the delays away. But if there is a delay in your system that can be changed, changing it can have big effects. Watch out! Be sure you change it in the right direction! (For example, the great push to reduce information and money transfer delays in financial markets is just asking for wild gyrations)

8. The Department Of Homeland Post Custom Writing. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. Now we’re beginning to move from the physical part of the write english essay system to the information and control parts, where more leverage can be found. Negative feedback loops are ubiquitous in systems. Nature evolves them and humans invent them as controls to keep important system states within safe bounds. A thermostat loop is the classic example. Using Powers. Its purpose is to keep the system state called “room temperature” fairly constant at a desired level.

Any negative feedback loop needs a goal (the thermostat setting), a monitoring and signaling device to detect excursions from the goal (the thermostat), and a response mechanism (the furnace and/or air conditioner, fans, heat pipes, fuel, etc.). A complex system usually has numerous negative feedback loops it can bring into play, so it can self-correct under different conditions and impacts. Some of those loops may be inactive much of the time — like the legal essay emergency cooling system in a nuclear power plant, or your ability to term and essays sweat or shiver to maintain your body temperature — but their presence is critical to the long-term welfare of the system. One of the big mistakes we make is to strip away these “emergency” response mechanisms because they aren’t often used and they appear to be costly. In the short term we see no effect from doing this. In the long term, we drastically narrow the range of conditions over cheap write my essay systems essay, which the system can survive. One of the essay teams most heartbreaking ways we do this is in encroaching on write legal essay, the habitats of editing 50s diner endangered species. Another is in encroaching on our own time for rest, recreation, socialization, and meditation. The “strength” of a negative loop — its ability to keep its appointed stock at or near its goal — depends on the combination of all its parameters and cheap write my essay systems essay links — the accuracy and rapidity of monitoring, the quickness and power of response, the directness and size of corrective flows.

Sometimes there are leverage points here. Take markets, for example, the negative feedback systems that are all but worshipped by economists — and they can indeed be marvels of self-correction, as prices vary to moderate supply and demand and keep them in balance. The more the price — the central piece of information signaling both producers and consumers — is kept clear, unambiguous, timely, and essay online cheap powers for bad truthful, the my essay essay more smoothly markets will operate. Prices that reflect full costs will tell consumers how much they can actually afford and will reward efficient producers. Companies and governments are fatally attracted to the price leverage point, of custom term papers and essays course, all of them determinedly pushing it in my essay english essay, the wrong direction with subsidies, fixes, externalities, taxes, and Actions of Homeland implemented post other forms of confusion. These folks are trying to weaken the feedback power of market signals by twisting information in their favor. The REAL leverage here is to keep them from doing it. Hence the necessity of anti-trust laws, truth-in-advertising laws, attempts to internalize costs (such as pollution taxes), the removal of cheap my essay legal systems perverse subsidies, and other ways of leveling market playing fields. None of which get far these days, because of the weakening of another set of negative feedback loops — those of democracy. This great system was invented to put self-correcting feedback between the people and their government.

The people, informed about what their elected representatives do, respond by college, voting those representatives in or out of cheap write my essay systems office. The process depends upon the free, full, unbiased flow of information back and forth between electorate and leaders. Billions of dollars are spent to limit and bias and essay on leadership quotes dominate that flow. Give the people who want to distort market price signals the power to cheap write my essay systems essay pay off government leaders, get the Essay Exam Test-Taking Tips channels of cheap english legal communication to essay counselor be self-interested corporate partners themselves, and none of the necessary negative feedbacks work well. Both market and democracy erode. The strength of a negative feedback loop is important RELATIVE TO THE IMPACT IT IS DESIGNED TO CORRECT. If the impact increases in strength, the cheap feedbacks have to be strengthened too.

A thermostat system may work fine on a cold winter day — but open all the essay on leadership quotes sports teams windows and its corrective power will fail. Cheap My Essay Systems. Democracy worked better before the advent of the brainwashing power of centralized mass communications. Essay On Leadership Teams. Traditional controls on fishing were sufficient until radar spotting and drift nets and other technologies made it possible for a few actors to wipe out the fish. The power of big industry calls for the power of big government to hold it in check; a global economy makes necessary a global government and global regulations. Here are some examples of strengthening negative feedback controls to improve a system’s self-correcting abilities: preventive medicine, exercise, and good nutrition to cheap write english essay bolster the Essay Test-Taking body’s ability to fight disease, integrated pest management to encourage natural predators of crop pests, the Freedom of Information Act to reduce government secrecy, monitoring systems to report on my essay systems, environmental damage, protection for whistleblowers, impact fees, pollution taxes, and on leadership quotes performance bonds to recapture the cheap write systems essay externalized public costs of private benefits. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. A negative feedback loop is Exam Test-Taking, self-correcting; a positive feedback loop is self-reinforcing. The more it works, the more it gains power to work some more. My Essay English Systems. The more people catch the flu, the essay on leadership and teamwork quotes more they infect other people. The more babies are born, the more people grow up to have babies.

The more money you have in the bank, the more interest you earn, the more money you have in the bank. The more the soil erodes, the less vegetation it can support, the fewer roots and legal essay leaves to soften rain and runoff, the online cheap using more soil erodes. Write English Systems Essay. The more high-energy neutrons in custom and essays, the critical mass, the more they knock into write english essay, nuclei and generate more. Positive feedback loops are sources of growth, explosion, erosion, and Exam Tips collapse in systems. A system with an unchecked positive loop ultimately will destroy itself.

That’s why there are so few of my essay legal essay them. Usually a negative loop will kick in sooner or later. The epidemic will run out of infectable people — or people will take increasingly strong steps to avoid being infected. The death rate will rise to equal the on leadership teams birth rate — or people will see the consequences of unchecked population growth and cheap write have fewer babies. The soil will erode away to bedrock, and after a million years the bedrock will crumble into college essay, new soil — or people will stop overgrazing, put up checkdams, plant trees, and stop the erosion.

In all those examples, the first outcome is what will happen if the positive loop runs its course, the second is what will happen if there’s an intervention to legal systems essay reduce its self-multiplying power. Reducing the Essay Exam Test-Taking gain around a positive loop — slowing the growth — is cheap legal systems essay, usually a more powerful leverage point in systems than strengthening negative loops, and much preferable to letting the positive loop run. Population and economic growth rates in the world model are leverage points, because slowing them gives the many negative loops, through technology and markets and other forms of adaptation, all of custom and essays by langston which have limits and delays, time to function. It’s the same as slowing the car when you’re driving too fast, rather than calling for more responsive brakes or technical advances in steering. Another example: there are many positive feedback loops in society that reward the winners of a competition with the cheap english essay resources to win even bigger next time. Systems folks call them “success to the successful” loops. Rich people collect interest; poor people pay it. Rich people pay accountants and the Department of Homeland Security implemented post 9/11 custom lean on politicians to reduce their taxes; poor people can’t. Rich people give their kids inheritances and good educations; poor kids lose out.

Anti-poverty programs are weak negative loops that try to counter these strong positive ones. It would be much more effective to weaken the positive loops. That’s what progressive income tax, inheritance tax, and universal high-quality public education programs are meant to do. (If rich people can buy government and weaken, rather than strengthen those of measures, the government, instead of balancing “success to the successful” loops, becomes just another instrument to reinforce them!) The most interesting behavior that rapidly turning positive loops can trigger is chaos. This wild, unpredictable, unreplicable, and yet bounded behavior happens when a system starts changing much, much faster than its negative loops can react to it. For example, if you keep raising the capital growth rate in the world model, eventually you get to a point where one tiny increase more will shift the economy from cheap write english legal systems essay, exponential growth to oscillation. Another nudge upward gives the oscillation a double beat. And just the tiniest further nudge sends it into chaos. I don’t expect the and teamwork quotes teams world economy to turn chaotic any time soon (not for cheap my essay english legal, that reason, anyway).

That behavior occurs only in unrealistic parameter ranges, equivalent to doubling the size of the economy within a year. Real-world systems can turn chaotic, however, if something in them can grow or decline very fast. Fast-replicating bacteria or insect populations, very infectious epidemics, wild speculative bubbles in money systems, neutron fluxes in the guts of nuclear power plants. These systems are hard to control, and control must involve slowing down the Essay Exam Test-Taking Tips positive feedbacks. In more ordinary systems, look for leverage points around birth rates, interest rates, erosion rates, “success to the successful” loops, any place where the more you have of something, the more you have the possibility of write systems having more. 6. The structure of custom information flows (who does and cheap english legal systems does not have access to Exam information).

There was this subdivision of identical houses, the story goes, except that for write my essay english legal systems, some reason the electric meter in some of the college counselor houses was installed in the basement and in others it was installed in my essay essay, the front hall, where the residents could see it constantly, going round faster or slower as they used more or less electricity. With no other change, with identical prices, electricity consumption was 30 percent lower in the houses where the meter was in custom term papers by langston, the front hall. We systems-heads love that story because it’s an example of a high leverage point in the information structure of the system. It’s not a parameter adjustment, not a strengthening or weakening of an existing loop. It’s a NEW LOOP, delivering feedback to a place where it wasn’t going before. A more recent example is the Toxic Release Inventory — the U.S. Cheap English Legal Systems Essay. government’s requirement, instituted in 1986, that every factory releasing hazardous air pollutants report those emissions publicly every year. Suddenly every community could find out precisely what was coming out of the camp smokestacks in town. There was no law against those emissions, no fines, no determination of “safe” levels, just information. But by 1990 emissions dropped 40 percent. They’ve continued to go down since, not so much because of citizen outrage as because of corporate shame.

One chemical company that found itself on the Top Ten Polluters list reduced its emissions by 90 percent, just to “get off that list.” Missing feedback is one of the write my essay essay most common causes of term system malfunction. Adding or restoring information can be a powerful intervention, usually much easier and cheaper than rebuilding physical infrastructure. The tragedy of the commons that is crashing the world’s commercial fisheries occurs because there is write systems essay, no feedback from the state of the fish population to the decision to Essay invest in systems, fishing vessels. (Contrary to economic opinion, the price of fish doesn’t provide that feedback. Essay Exam Test-Taking. As the fish get more scarce and hence more expensive, it becomes all the more profitable to go out and catch them. Cheap My Essay Systems. That’s a perverse feedback, a positive loop that leads to collapse.)

It’s important that the missing feedback be restored to the right place and in compelling form. To take another tragedy of the Actions of Homeland Security implemented post 9/11 custom commons, it’s not enough to inform all the users of an aquifer that the groundwater level is dropping. That could initiate a race to the bottom. It would be more effective to set a water price that rises steeply as the pumping rate begins to exceed the recharge rate. Compelling feedback. Suppose taxpayers got to specify on their return forms what government services their tax payments must be spent on. (Radical democracy!) Suppose any town or company that puts a water intake pipe in a river had to put it immediately DOWNSTREAM from its own outflow pipe. Suppose any public or private official who made the decision to invest in a nuclear power plant got the cheap write english legal essay waste from essay quotes sports, that plant stored on his/her lawn. Write My Essay English. Suppose (this is an old one) the politicians who declare war were required to essay on leadership and teamwork spend that war in the front lines. There is a systematic tendency on the part of human beings to avoid accountability for english legal, their own decisions. Exam Test-Taking Tips. That’s why there are so many missing feedback loops — and why this kind of cheap write my essay leverage point is so often popular with the counselor masses, unpopular with the powers that be, and write effective, if you can get the powers that be to permit it to happen (or go around them and make it happen anyway). 5. The rules of the essay editing services 50s diner system (incentives, punishments, constraints).

The rules of the system define its scope, its boundaries, its degrees of freedom. Thou shalt not kill. Cheap My Essay English. Everyone has the essay sports teams right of free speech. Contracts are to cheap write my essay english be honored. The president serves four-year terms and cannot serve more than two of them. Nine people on Essay Exam Tips, a team, you have to cheap my essay english legal touch every base, three strikes and essay services 50s diner you’re out. Cheap Write Systems. If you get caught robbing a bank, you go to jail. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the USSR and opened information flows ( glasnost ) and editing 50s diner changed the economic rules ( perestroika ), and look what happened. Constitutions are the strongest examples of social rules. Physical laws such as the second law of thermodynamics are absolute rules, whether we understand them or not or like them or not. Laws, punishments, incentives, and informal social agreements are progressively weaker rules.

To demonstrate the power of rules, I like to ask my students to imagine different ones for a college. Suppose the english legal essay students graded the essay online teachers, or each other. Suppose there were no degrees: you come to write english legal essay college when you want to learn something, and you leave when you’ve learned it. Essay Services. Suppose tenure were awarded to english legal professors according to their ability to custom term papers and essays solve real-world problems, rather than to publish academic papers. Suppose a class got graded as a group, instead of as individuals. As we try to imagine restructured rules like that and what our behavior would be under them, we come to understand the english power of essay online their powers rules. They are high leverage points. Power over the rules is real power. That’s why lobbyists congregate when Congress writes laws, and why the Supreme Court, which interprets and delineates the Constitution — the rules for writing the rules — has even more power than Congress.

If you want to understand the deepest malfunctions of systems, pay attention to the rules, and to who has power over them. That’s why my systems intuition was sending off alarm bells as the new world trade system was explained to me. Cheap Write My Essay Legal Systems. It is a system with rules designed by corporations, run by corporations, for the benefit of corporations. Its rules exclude almost any feedback from any other sector of society. Most of its meetings are closed even to essay on leadership the press (no information flow, no feedback). Cheap My Essay Legal Systems. It forces nations into positive loops “racing to the bottom,” competing with each other to weaken environmental and social safeguards in order to attract corporate investment. It’s a recipe for unleashing “success to the successful” loops, until they generate enormous accumulations of power and custom term papers by langston huge centralized planning systems that will destroy themselves, just as the Soviet Union destroyed itself, and for similar systemic reasons. 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure.

The most stunning thing living systems and some social systems can do is to change themselves utterly by creating whole new structures and behaviors. In biological systems that power is called evolution. In human economies it’s called technical advance or social revolution. In systems lingo it’s called self-organization. Self-organization means changing any aspect of a system lower on this list — adding completely new physical structures, such as brains or wings or computers — adding new negative or positive loops, or new rules. The ability to self-organize is the strongest form of system resilience. A system that can evolve can survive almost any change, by changing itself. The human immune system has the power to develop new responses to cheap systems (some kinds of ) insults it has never before encountered. The human brain can take in new information and pop out completely new thoughts. The power of self-organization seems so wondrous that we tend to regard it as mysterious, miraculous, manna from Essay Test-Taking, heaven. Economists often model technology as literal manna — coming from nowhere, costing nothing, increasing the productivity of an economy by some steady percent each year.

For centuries people have regarded the write my essay english legal systems essay spectacular variety of nature with the same awe. Custom Papers And Essays. Only a divine creator could bring forth such a creation. Further investigation of self-organizing systems reveals that the divine creator, if there is one, does not have to produce evolutionary miracles. Write English Essay. He, she, or it just has to write marvelously clever RULES FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION. These rules basically govern how, where, and what the system can add onto or subtract from itself under what conditions. As hundreds of self-organizing computer models have demonstrated, complex and delightful patterns can evolve from quite simple evolutionary algorithms. (That need not mean that real-world algorithms are simple, only that they can be.) The genetic code within the DNA that is the basis of all biological evolution contains just four different letters, combined into words of three letters each. That pattern, and the rules for replicating and essay editing 50s diner rearranging it, has been constant for something like three billion years, during which it has spewed out an write my essay english unimaginable variety of failed and successful self-evolved creatures. Self-organization is basically a matter of an editing services 50s diner evolutionary raw material — a highly variable stock of information from which to select possible patterns — and write my essay legal systems essay a means for experimentation, for selecting and testing new patterns. Custom Term Papers. For biological evolution the raw material is write my essay legal, DNA, one source of variety is spontaneous mutation, and the testing mechanism is something like punctuated Darwinian selection. For technology the raw material is the body of understanding science has accumulated and stored in libraries and in the brains of its practitioners. The source of variety is human creativity (whatever THAT is) and the selection mechanism can be whatever the market will reward, or whatever governments and foundations will fund, or whatever meets human needs.

When you understand the power of system self-organization, you begin to understand why biologists worship biodiversity even more than economists worship technology. The wildly varied stock of DNA, evolved and accumulated over billions of years, is the source of evolutionary potential, just as science libraries and labs and universities where scientists are trained are the source of technological potential. Allowing species to on leadership and teamwork quotes teams go extinct is a systems crime, just as randomly eliminating all copies of cheap english systems essay particular science journals, or particular kinds of of Homeland Security post custom essay writing scientists, would be. The same could be said of human cultures, of write my essay english legal course, which are the store of behavioral repertoires, accumulated over not billions, but hundreds of thousands of years. They are a stock out of Actions the Department implemented 9/11 custom writing which social evolution can arise. Unfortunately, people appreciate the my essay legal precious evolutionary potential of cultures even less than they understand the preciousness of on leadership and teamwork quotes teams every genetic variation in the world’s ground squirrels. I guess that’s because one aspect of almost every culture is the belief in the utter superiority of that culture. Insistence on a single culture shuts down learning. Cuts back resilience. Write Legal Essay. Any system, biological, economic, or social, that gets so encrusted that it cannot self-evolve, a system that systematically scorns experimentation and wipes out the on leadership and teamwork quotes sports teams raw material of innovation, is doomed over the long term on this highly variable planet. The intervention point here is obvious, but unpopular.

Encouraging variability and experimentation and diversity means “losing control.” Let a thousand flowers bloom and write systems ANYTHING could happen! Who wants that? Let’s play it safe and essay on leadership and teamwork sports teams push this leverage point in the wrong direction by wiping out biological, cultural, social, and market diversity! Right there, the diversity-destroying consequence of the cheap write my essay systems push for control, that demonstrates why the goal of a system is a leverage point superior to the self-organizing ability of a system. If the goal is to bring more and more of the world under the control of one particular central planning system (the empire of Genghis Khan, the world of Islam, the People’s Republic of Actions the Department of Homeland Security 9/11 essay writing China, Wal-Mart, Disney, whatever), then everything further down the list, physical stocks and flows, feedback loops, information flows, even self-organizing behavior, will be twisted to conform to my essay english systems that goal.

That’s why I can’t get into arguments about whether genetic engineering is essay editing, a “good” or a “bad” thing. Cheap Write Legal Essay. Like all technologies, it depends upon who is wielding it, with what goal. The only and teamwork sports thing one can say is that if corporations wield it for the purpose of generating marketable products, that is write english legal systems essay, a very different goal, a different selection mechanism, a different direction for evolution than anything the planet has seen so far. As my little single-loop examples have shown, most negative feedback loops within systems have their own goals — to keep the essay on leadership and teamwork sports bathwater at the right level, to keep the room temperature comfortable, to keep inventories stocked at sufficient levels, to keep enough water behind the dam. Cheap My Essay Legal Systems Essay. Those goals are important leverage points for pieces of systems, and most people realize that. If you want the room warmer, you know the thermostat setting is the place to intervene. Essay Online Cheap Their Powers. But there are larger, less obvious, higher-leverage goals, those of the cheap write my essay essay entire system. Even people within systems don’t often recognize what whole-system goal they are serving. To make profits, most corporations would say, but that’s just a rule, a necessary condition to stay in college camp counselor, the game.

What is the point of the game? To grow, to increase market share, to bring the world (customers, suppliers, regulators) more and more under the control of the corporation, so that its operations becomes ever more shielded from uncertainty. John Kenneth Galbraith recognized that corporate goal — to engulf everything — long ago. 5 It’s the goal of a cancer too. Actually it’s the goal of every living population — and only a bad one when it isn’t balanced by essay, higher-level negative feedback loops that never let an Essay Exam upstart power-loop-driven entity control the world.

The goal of keeping the market competitive has to trump the goal of each corporation to eliminate its competitors (and brainwash its customers and write my essay swallow its suppliers), just as in ecosystems, the essay on leadership quotes teams goal of keeping populations in balance and evolving has to trump the goal of each population to write legal reproduce without limit. I said awhile back that changing the players in essay editing 50s diner, the system is a low-level intervention, as long as the players fit into the same old system. The exception to that rule is at cheap legal the top, where a single player can have the power to change the system’s goal. I have watched in wonder as — only custom and essays very occasionally — a new leader in an organization, from cheap english legal systems essay, Dartmouth College to Nazi Germany, comes in, enunciates a new goal, and swings hundreds or thousands or millions of perfectly intelligent, rational people off in papers and essays by langston, a new direction. That’s what Ronald Reagan did, and we watched it happen. Not long before he came to office, a president could say “Ask not what government can do for you, ask what you can do for cheap legal essay, the government,” and no one even laughed. Reagan said over and over, the goal is not to get the order cheap using their for bad people to help the government and not to get government to help the people, but to get government off our backs. One can argue, and I would, that larger system changes and the rise of corporate power over government let him get away with that. But the thoroughness with which the my essay legal systems essay public discourse in online essay editing services, the U.S. and even the world has been changed since Reagan is testimony to the high leverage of articulating, meaning, repeating, standing up for, insisting upon new system goals. 2. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises.

Another of Jay Forrester’s famous systems sayings goes: it doesn’t matter how the tax law of a country is written. There is a shared idea in write legal, the minds of the society about what a “fair” distribution of the tax load is. Whatever the cheap their powers rules say, by fair means or foul, by complications, cheating, exemptions or deductions, by cheap my essay english legal systems essay, constant sniping at the rules, actual tax payments will push right up against the accepted idea of “fairness.” The shared idea in the minds of society, the great big unstated assumptions — unstated because unnecessary to state; everyone already knows them — constitute that society’s paradigm, or deepest set of beliefs about on leadership quotes sports teams how the world works. There is a difference between nouns and verbs. Money measures something real and has real meaning (therefore people who are paid less are literally worth less). My Essay. Growth is good. Nature is a stock of resources to be converted to human purposes. Evolution stopped with the emergence of Essay Exam Homo sapiens . One can “own” land.

Those are just a few of the paradigmatic assumptions of our current culture, all of which have utterly dumfounded other cultures, who thought them not the least bit obvious. Paradigms are the sources of systems. From them, from shared social agreements about the nature of reality, come system goals and information flows, feedbacks, stocks, flows and english systems everything else about systems. No one has ever said that better than Ralph Waldo Emerson: Every nation and every man instantly surround themselves with a material apparatus which exactly corresponds to college … their state of thought. Observe how every truth and every error, each a thought of some man’s mind, clothes itself with societies, houses, cities, language, ceremonies, newspapers. Observe the ideas of the present day … see how timber, brick, lime, and stone have flown into convenient shape, obedient to the master idea reigning in the minds of many persons….

It follows, of course, that the least enlargement of ideas … would cause the most striking changes of external things. 6. The ancient Egyptians built pyramids because they believed in an afterlife. Write My Essay. We build skyscrapers, because we believe that space in downtown cities is enormously valuable. (Except for blighted spaces, often near the skyscrapers, which we believe are worthless.) Whether it was Copernicus and Kepler showing that the term papers and essays earth is not the center of the universe, or Einstein hypothesizing that matter and write my essay essay energy are interchangeable, or Adam Smith postulating that the selfish actions of Actions Security implemented post custom writing individual players in markets wonderfully accumulate to the common good, people who have managed to intervene in systems at the level of paradigm have hit a leverage point that totally transforms systems. You could say paradigms are harder to change than anything else about a system, and therefore this item should be lowest on the list, not second-to-highest. But there’s nothing physical or expensive or even slow in the process of write my essay paradigm change. In a single individual it can happen in a millisecond. All it takes is a click in online essay editing services, the mind, a falling of cheap my essay legal systems scales from eyes, a new way of seeing. Whole societies are another matter — they resist challenges to their paradigm harder than they resist anything else.

So how do you change paradigms? Thomas Kuhn, who wrote the seminal book about the great paradigm shifts of science, 7 has a lot to say about that. In a nutshell, you keep pointing at the anomalies and failures in the old paradigm, you keep coming yourself, and loudly and with assurance from the new one, you insert people with the new paradigm in places of public visibility and power. You don’t waste time with reactionaries; rather you work with active change agents and with the vast middle ground of people who are open-minded. Systems folks would say you change paradigms by modeling a system, which takes you outside the system and forces you to Exam Test-Taking see it whole. We say that because our own paradigms have been changed that way. 1. The power to transcend paradigms. There is cheap english legal systems, yet one leverage point that is even higher than changing a paradigm. That is to keep oneself unattached in the arena of paradigms, to stay flexible, to essay sports teams realize that NO paradigm is “true,” that every one, including the one that sweetly shapes your own worldview, is a tremendously limited understanding of an immense and amazing universe that is far beyond human comprehension.

It is to “get” at a gut level the my essay systems essay paradigm that there are paradigms, and to see that that itself is a paradigm, and to regard that whole realization as devastatingly funny. It is to let go into Not Knowing, into what the college Buddhists call enlightenment. People who cling to paradigms (which means just about all of us) take one look at the spacious possibility that everything they think is write my essay legal systems, guaranteed to be nonsense and Actions of Homeland Security implemented post writing pedal rapidly in the opposite write legal essay, direction. Exam Test-Taking. Surely there is no power, no control, no understanding, not even a reason for cheap write my essay english legal essay, being, much less acting, in the notion or experience that there is and essays by langston, no certainty in write systems essay, any worldview. But, in fact, everyone who has managed to entertain that idea, for a moment or for a lifetime, has found it to be the basis for radical empowerment. If no paradigm is right, you can choose whatever one will help to achieve your purpose. If you have no idea where to by langston get a purpose, you can listen to the universe (or put in the name of your favorite deity here) and do his, her, its will, which is probably a lot better informed than your will. It is in cheap write english systems essay, this space of mastery over paradigms that people throw off addictions, live in constant joy, bring down empires, get locked up or burned at the stake or crucified or shot, and have impacts that last for millennia. Back from the sublime to the ridiculous, from enlightenment to caveats.

There is on leadership sports teams, so much that has to be said to qualify this list. It is tentative and its order is slithery. There are exceptions to cheap write english legal systems essay every item that can move it up or down the order of leverage. Having had the list percolating in my subconscious for years has not transformed me into a Superwoman. The higher the leverage point, the more the system will resist changing it — that’s why societies have to rub out college essay, truly enlightened beings. Magical leverage points are not easily accessible, even if we know where they are and which direction to push on them. Cheap Legal Systems Essay. There are no cheap tickets to mastery.

You have to order essay powers for bad work hard at cheap write my essay english legal essay it, whether that means rigorously analyzing a system or rigorously casting off your own paradigms and throwing yourself into the humility of Not Knowing. In the end, it seems that mastery has less to term and essays do with pushing leverage points than it does with strategically, profoundly, madly letting go. J.W. Forrester, World Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1971 J.W. Forrester, Urban Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1969. Thanks to David Holmstrom of Santiago, Chile.

For an example, see Dennis Meadows’s model of cheap my essay legal commodity price fluctuations: D.L. Meadows, Dynamics of Commodity Production Cycles , Portland OR, 1970. John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State , 1967. Actions The Department 9/11. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “War,” (lecture delivered in Boston, March, 1838). Reprinted in write english systems, Emerson’s Complete Works , vol.

XI, Boston, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1887, p. 177. Essay Sports Teams. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of write legal systems Scientific Revolutions , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1962. About The Donella Meadows Project. The mission of the Donella Meadows Project is to preserve Donella (Dana) H. Meadows’s legacy as an on leadership sports inspiring leader, scholar, writer, and teacher; to manage the intellectual property rights related to cheap english legal essay Dana’s published work; to provide and maintain a comprehensive and easily accessible archive of her work online, including articles, columns, and letters; to develop new resources and programs that apply her ideas to current issues and make them available to Essay Exam an ever-larger network of cheap english legal students, practitioners, and leaders in social change. Read More. DMI will be producing an E-newsletter with news from the college essay counselor organization, updates on the work of our fellows, and more. Sign up here if you'd like to hear about what we're working on. About The Donella Meadows Project. The Donella Meadows Project, a project of the cheap english legal systems Academy for Systems Change, 2 Beaver Meadow Road, Norwich, Vermont 05055 | 802-649-7250 | Contact Us. The Academy for Systems Change site is a Catalyst Webworks production.

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