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Quick Guide Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment. With the use of service screening mammograms, more and more breast cancers are being detected at an early and curable stage. Mammograms and breast examinations are the most important screening tests for buy research cheap slave religion research breast cancer. Mammograms can identify many tumors that are too small to be felt by the patient; up to essay writing service, 90% of breast cancers can be found by mammography. Research Papers On Hematology! Guidelines for essay service mammography. Experts are not in full agreement about when a woman should begin having mammograms. The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends a first mammogram for of christmas all women by age 40, and annual mammograms for writing our benefits women 40 and older. The U.S.

Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against help owl rexall, routine mammography for women before 50 years of age. However, women at high risk for breast cancer may need to begin having mammograms earlier in life, and may undergo screening recommended for their individual situation. What are the biological causes of service our benefits breast cancer? Breast cancer cells, like all cancers, initially develop because of defects in homework owl rexall the genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of a single cell. The human body is composed of trillions of writing cells. Inside the inner core (nucleus) of each cell is our DNA, located on chromosomes. Every human cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes. On The! Each set is inherited from one parent. Essay! DNA exists as long, spiraled strands on these chromosomes. Different segments along the DNA strands contain information for various genes. Genes are blueprints that provide genetic instructions for the growth, development, and behavior of research every cell.

Most genes carry instructions for the types and the amount of proteins, enzymes, and other substances produced by the cells. Genes also govern the sizes and the shapes of the writing, organs by controlling the rate of division of the cells within these organs. (During cell division, a cell makes a duplicate copy of its chromosomes and then divides into two cells.) Some genes restrict cell division and limit tissue growth. Defects on an essay festival of christmas the DNA strands can lead to gene coding errors, which in essay writing turn can cause diseases. When genes that normally restrict cell growth and divisions are absent or defective, the papers online cheap unknown lab, affected cells can divide and multiply without restraint. The cells that divide and multiply without restraint enlarge (forming a tumor) and can also invade adjacent tissues and organs. Writing! Sometimes these cells can further break away and migrate to distant parts of the essay on how a pumpkin, body in a process called metastasis.

The ability to multiply without restraint, the tendency to invade other organs, and essay writing service our benefits the ability to metastasize to other parts of the body are the key characteristics of cancers -- characteristics that are due to DNA defects. The cancer-causing DNA defects can be acquired at birth (inherited) or may develop during adult life. The inherited DNA defects are present in essay every cell of the body. On the other hand, DNA defects that develop during adult life are confined to the descendants (products of essay writing our benefits cell divisions) of the single affected cell. Generally, inherited DNA defects have a greater tendency to safety in laboratory essay, cause cancers and cancers that occur earlier in life than DNA defects that develop during adult life. Research has shown that 5% to essay service our benefits, 10% of breast cancers are associated with mutations (defects) in two genes known as breast cancer-associated (BRCA) genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Online Cheap Slave Paper! These genes function to prevent abnormal cell growth that could lead to cancer. Every cell in the body has two BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, one inherited from each parent. A woman who has received one defective BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene from service, one parent and a healthy gene from the other is online cheap research, called a carrier of the defective BRCA gene. Even though only one healthy BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene is our benefits, needed to help prevent cancerous growth of cells, the one remaining healthy BRCA gene is vulnerable to damage during adult life by environmental factors such as toxins, radiation, and other chemicals such as free radicals.

Therefore, women bearing a defective BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene are at an increased risk of developing breast and safety essay ovarian cancers. Women carrying defective BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes also tend to develop these cancers earlier in life. Other rare genetic mutations are also associated with an increased risk for the development of breast cancer, including mutations of the tumor suppressor gene p53, the PTEN gene, and the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutation) gene. Since inherited DNA defects account for only 5% to 10% of breast cancers, the service, majority of breast cancers are due to DNA damage that develops during adult life. Environmental factors that can cause DNA damage include free radicals, chemicals, radiation, and certain toxins. But even among individuals without inherited cancer-causing DNA defects, their vulnerability to DNA damage, their ability to repair DNA damage, and their ability to buy research online cheap, destroy cells with DNA damage, are likely to be genetically inherited. This is probably why the risk of cancer is higher among first-degree relatives of breast cancer patients, even among families that do not carry the defective BRCA1 and writing service BRCA2 tumor-suppressing genes. Some of the safety in laboratory, errors in the normal control mechanisms allow the accumulation of writing service our benefits additional errors in other parts of the system. These errors may lead to gene silencing of critical control genes or the over buy research papers online cheap slave religion, activity of other growth-stimulating genes by writing our benefits, activation of promoter sites adjacent to these otherwise normal genes. Other substances such as estrogen (a female hormone) and certain fatty acids may also increase the essay on how to carve a pumpkin, risk of breast cancer by stimulating the growth and division of cells of the writing service, breast tissue.

What are the risk factors for developing breast cancer? The most significant risk factors for breast cancer are gender and age . Men can develop breast cancer, but women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer than men. The risk of breast cancer also increases with age. Breast cancer is on hematology, 400 times more common in women who are 50 years old as compared to those who are 20 years old. Another important risk factor is having first-degree relatives (mother, sister, or daughter) with breast cancer or male relatives with prostate cancer. The risk is especially higher if both the mother and sister have had breast cancers, if the cancers in first-degree relatives occurred early in life (before age 50), or if the cancers in these relatives were found in both breasts.

Having a male relative with breast cancer and having both relatives with breast and ovarian cancers also increase a woman#39;s risk of developing breast cancer. Essay Writing Our Benefits! Families with multiple members with other cancers may have a genetic defect leading to in laboratory, a higher risk of breast cancer. Women who have inherited defective BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, and other DNA repair genes have an increased risk of developing breast cancer, sometimes at early ages, as discussed previously. But even in the absence of essay writing our benefits one of the known predisposing genetic defects, a strong family history may signify an increased risk because of safety in laboratory essay genetic or environmental factors that are specific to essay writing service, that particular family. For example, increased risk in essay on how to carve families could be due to essay our benefits, exposure to similar environmental toxins in help some cases. A woman with a history of breast cancer can develop a recurrence of the essay writing service, same breast cancer years later if the cancer cells had already spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body or if cancer cells were not all eliminated during treatment. A woman with previous breast cancer also has a three- to fourfold greater chance of developing another breast cancer in the opposite breast. In women who have been treated for breast cancer with breast conservation therapy (BCT), recurrence of cancer within the treated breast may also occur.

Even though most women with fibrocystic breasts and its related breast symptoms do not have increased risk of developing breast cancer, the lumpy texture and density of the breasts may hamper early cancer detection by breast examination or by mammography. Sometimes, women with fibrocystic breast changes have to undergo breast biopsies (obtaining small tissue samples from the breast for examination under a microscope) to make certain that palpable lumps are not cancerous. On How A Pumpkin! Breast biopsies sometimes may reveal abnormal, though not yet cancerous, cell changes (called atypical hyperplasia). Essay Our Benefits! Women with atypical hyperplasia of the breast tissue have about a four- to five-fold enhanced likelihood of developing breast cancer. Some other benign cell changes in breast tissue are also associated with a slight increase (one and process essay to carve a half to essay writing our benefits, two times normal) in process essay on how to carve risk. These are termed hyperplasia of breast tissue without atypia, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenoma with complex features, and solitary papilloma. The common benign breast tumor known as a fibroadenoma, unless it has unusual features under the essay writing, microscope, does not confer an increased cancer risk. Breast cancer risks can be additive. Papers! For example, women who have first-degree relatives with breast cancer and who also have atypical hyperplasia of the breast tissue have a much higher risk of developing breast cancer than women without these risk factors. Women with a history of radiation therapy to the chest area as treatment for another cancer (such as Hodgkin#39;s disease or non-Hodgkin#39;s lymphoma) have a significantly increased risk for breast cancer, particularly if the radiation treatment was received at a young age. Women who started their menstrual periods before age 12, those who have late menopause (after age 55), and those who had their first pregnancy after age 30, or who have never had children have a mildly increased risk of developing breast cancer (less than two times the normal risk).

Early onset of menses, late arrival of writing service our benefits menopause, and safety in laboratory essay late or no pregnancies are all factors that increase a woman#39;s lifetime level of estrogen exposure. The use of hormone therapy (HT) after menopause, particularly estrogens and essay writing progesterone combined, leads to an increase in in laboratory essay risk for development of breast cancer in women who are taking HT or who have recently used HT. This risk appears to return to normal if a woman has not used hormone therapy for 5 years or more. Similarly, some studies show birth control pills cause a small increased risk of breast cancer, but this risk also returns to essay service, normal after 10 years of nonuse. The decision whether to essay, use hormone therapy or birth control pills involves weighing the risks versus the benefits and should be individualized after consulting one#39;s doctor. Dietary factors such as high-fat diets and alcohol consumption have also been implicated as factors that increase the risk for breast cancer. Despite rumors to the contrary, caffeine intake, antiperspirant use, bras, breast implants, miscarriages or abortions, and stress do not appear to increase the risk of breast cancer. It is essay service, important to remember that 75% of women who develop breast cancer have no risk factors other than age. Thus, screening and homework help owl rexall early detection are important to every woman regardless of the presence of essay writing our benefits risk factors. The consumption of alcohol is associated with an an essay on the festival increased risk of essay our benefits developing breast cancer, and buy research papers online cheap this risk increases with the amount of alcohol consumed.

Compared with nondrinkers, women who consume one alcoholic drink a day have a very small increase in risk. However, those who have two to five drinks daily have about one and a half times the essay service, risk of women who drink no alcohol. Quick Guide Breast Cancer Diagnosis and research Treatment. What is the importance of early breast cancer detection? The various types of cancers behave differently, with distinct rates of growth and patterns of spreading (metastasis) to other areas of the body. Some cancers are favorable and essay writing treatable, while others are highly aggressive. Compared to other cancers, breast cancer is on process to carve a pumpkin the more treatable end of the spectrum if diagnosed early. Essay Writing Our Benefits! It is considered a favorable cancer because it can be detected early by breast examination or by buy research determining unknown lab, mammography.

Pancreatic cancer, for example, is on the lethal end of the spectrum of cancers. Pancreatic cancer is often difficult to detect until it is very far advanced. Writing Our Benefits! Studies have clearly shown that the to carve, smaller the size of the breast cancer when detected, the better the chance of a surgical cure and long-term survival. The likelihood of service our benefits a cure is also higher if the cancer is removed before it has spread to research papers, lymph nodes and essay writing other organs such as the lungs, liver, bones, and brain. Currently, mammography and breast examinations serve as the foundation for screening for breast cancer. It is extremely important for a woman to to carve, have regular breast examinations as well as mammograms to detect early breast cancer. What are the advantages and limitations of mammography? Mammography is an X-ray examination of the breast that has the ability to detect a cancer in the breast when it is quite small, long before it may be felt by breast examination. Approximately 85% to 90% of essay writing service our benefits all breast cancers are detectable by research on hematology, mammography. Our Benefits! Early detection by mammography has reduced the mortality rate from breast cancer by 20% to 30% in women over 50 years of of christmas age. However, some 10% to essay service, 15% of breast cancers are not visible on mammography but can be felt on physical examination of the breast.

Therefore, a normal mammogram does not exclude the possibility of breast cancer. In Laboratory Essay! Breast examination by a health-care professional by service, palpation and visual inspection is also important. During a routine physical checkup, a doctor can conduct an examination of the breast. How frequently should women undergo mammography and breast examinations? The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends a baseline mammogram for all women by age 40 and annual mammograms for women 40 and older for as long as they are in good health. In women with lumpy breasts or breast symptoms, and also in women with a high risk of buy research online slave developing breast cancer, sometimes a baseline mammogram at 35 years of age is writing, recommended. This recommendation is somewhat controversial, and there are other viewpoints. However, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine mammography screening for women before 50 years of age and suggests that screening end at research 74 years of age.

The USPSTF recommendations are in opposition to other existing breast cancer screening guidelines from organizations such as the writing our benefits, American Cancer Society as described above. The USPSTF guidelines also recommend a screening interval of 2 years and suggest that women 40 to 49 years old who are at high risk for breast cancer consult with their doctor regarding the time to begin regular screening mammography. It is important for women who are concerned about when to begin mammography to process essay on how, discuss the situation with their health-care professional. He or she can help their patient make an informed decision about essay our benefits breast cancer screening that is appropriate for their individual situation. An Essay On The Festival Of Christmas! Mammograms and young women. There is a special issue regarding mammograms in young women. Since young women have dense glandular breast tissue, routine mammograms have difficulty seeing through the dense breast tissue. Therefore mammograms may not be able to detect cancer in the breast because the dense breast tissue around the cancer obscures it. However, this problem can be partly offset by the use of special breast ultrasound, which is now an extremely important additional imaging technique used to supplement mammography in difficult cases. Ultrasound can make visible a lump hidden within dense breast tissue.

It may also detect lumps and early breast cancers when mammograms fail to identify a problem. Ultrasound can also help doctors locate specific areas in the breast for biopsy (obtain small samples of tissue to study under a microscope). Sometimes doctors also suggest the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening (see below) in younger women with dense breast tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. Recent research has shown that MRI scanning may be a useful screening tool for breast cancer in service certain high-risk populations. In 2004, a team of Dutch researchers published a study of over 1,900 women at on hematology high risk for breast cancer in the New England Journal of Medicine . These women underwent breast cancer screening that included physical exams every 6 months along with yearly mammograms and MRI scans of the breasts. Essay! While conventional mammography did detect many cancers at an early stage, some tumors were identified by MRI that were not detected by mammography. Overall, MRI led to buy research determining unknown in microbiology lab, the identification of 32 tumors, of essay writing which 22 were not seen on the corresponding mammogram. Likewise, some tumors appeared on mammograms that were not visible on the MRI scan. Online Cheap Slave Religion Research! Mammography detected a total of 18 tumors, of which eight were not identified by MRI. The routine use of essay our benefits MRI, however, has many limitations.

While it enabled the detection of some tumors in high-risk women, it also detected more noncancerous lesions (false-positives), which lead to many more follow-up examinations and homework online potentially unnecessary surgeries. In fact, MRI led to twice as many unnecessary examinations and three times as many unneeded surgical biopsies of the breast than screening by mammography alone. MRI is also approximately 10 times more costly (average cost $1,000 to $1,500) than mammography. Because of these limitations, experts believe that screening with MRI is impractical for women who do not have an elevated risk of developing breast cancer. However, its benefits appear to outweigh its limitations in certain high-risk populations. The American Cancer Society recommends that women at high risk for breast cancer (greater than 20% lifetime risk) should get an MRI and writing service our benefits a mammogram every year. Women at moderately increased risk (15% to homework online owl rexall, 20% lifetime risk) should talk with their doctors about the our benefits, benefits and limitations of adding MRI screening. Women at high risk for papers cheap slave developing breast cancer include those who. have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, indicative of a strong inherited risk of breast cancer; have a first-degree relative with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation but have not been tested for the mutation; received chest radiation -- to treat Hodgkin#39;s disease or other cancers, for example -- between 10 and 30 years of age; or have Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, or Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, or have first-degree relatives with one of these syndromes.

Women with significant risk factors may want to discuss their screening program with their physician to better determine whether MRI may be useful in their own case. It is important to note that MRI should not be considered a substitute for regular mammography, and mammography is the only screening tool for which a reduction in mortality (death rate) from breast cancer has been proven. Breast self-examination and breast examinations by a doctor. Both the American Cancer Society and the USPSTF do not call for regular self-examination of the breasts in their guidelines. The ACS states that breast self-exam is optional, while the USPSTF states that doctors should not teach women to do breast self-examination. Writing! The ACS further recommends a clinical breast exam (CBE) by a health-care professional about every 3 years for women in their 20s and 30s and every year for women 40 years of age and over. Quick Guide Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment.

What is the risk of radiation with repeated mammography screening over the years? With modern mammography equipment, the amount of radiation exposure is extremely small. Although there is no level of buy research papers online cheap determining in microbiology lab radiation without some theoretical risk, there is no evidence of increased breast cancer risks from mammography performed in the recommended manner. Furthermore, the benefits of early detection far outweigh these theoretical concerns. How helpful are BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic tests in identifying women at risk? In special circumstances, genetic tests can be very helpful both in identifying exceptionally high-risk patients and reducing the level of concern for essay others. Papers! We also now know that the presence of writing one of these genetic defects does not cause cancer in homework every patient. Before genetic tests are conducted, individuals being tested must have thorough counseling. A clear understanding of the writing, limitations of the homework help owl rexall, tests and the problems they may pose must precede the testing. Essay! The patient must know the meaning of the buy research papers slave paper, possible results, whichever way they may turn out, before testing. They should also have settled on a plan for each possible outcome of the test results.

Often, the best way to evaluate a potential genetic risk is to test a relative who has already been diagnosed with breast cancer. If the relative#39;s genetic testing (which must cover a large number of possible mutations) proves negative, then there is essay service, no need to perform genetic testing on the concerned individual. But the concerned individual should still undergo close monitoring with breast examinations and mammograms. An Essay! If the test is positive on essay the relative, then that specific mutation is the essay on how to carve a pumpkin, only one that needs to be checked in the concerned individual and the other family members. What is the link between estrogen and breast cancer? Estrogen is a female hormone that is produced by the ovaries.

During the essay our benefits, reproductive years, a woman#39;s body is exposed to high levels of estrogen. To Carve! After menopause, the production of service our benefits estrogen by the ovaries decreases. Estrogen is sometimes prescribed to treat some of the problems often associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, night sweats, sleeplessness, and vaginal dryness. Estrogen has the additional benefit of online slave religion paper prevention of bone thinning (osteoporosis). However, results from a large clinical trial of postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy (HT) released in 2002 showed that the overall risks of estrogen plus progestin therapy outweighed the benefits of our benefits hormone therapy. Combined hormone therapy with estrogen and progestin was shown to increase the homework, risk of heart disease, stroke, and blood clots. Essay Writing Our Benefits! High levels of estrogen over long periods also increase the risk of developing breast and an essay on the uterine cancer. Estrogen stimulates the cells of the breast and the uterine lining to grow and divide.

Breast cells that are actively dividing are believed to have a greater chance of writing our benefits DNA damage as well as a higher number of cells that already have DNA damage. A higher number of cells with DNA damage elevate the risk of cancer development. Women who have an buy research paper early onset of their menstrual period (or menses) and late menopause are more likely to essay, develop breast cancer than women with late menses onset and early menopause. This difference is believed to be attributable to an essay of christmas, the longer period of estrogen exposure in the first group. What are breast cancer prevention treatments? Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and its effect of estrogen on breast cell growth. A selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) is a chemical that is designed to act like estrogen in certain tissue such as the bones and not like estrogen in other tissue such as the breast. The use of SERMs takes advantage of the benefits of estrogen while trying to avoid the risks associated with estrogen. Two SERMs, tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and service our benefits raloxifene (Evista), have been used as preventive treatment. The advantages and disadvantages of an essay festival each are discussed in more detail below. Tamoxifen is the essay writing, first SERM to receive approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of homework breast cancer.

Some breast cancer cells are estrogen sensitive, meaning they possess so-called estrogen receptors and need estrogen to grow and divide. Writing Service Our Benefits! But estrogen has to safety essay, bind to the receptors of these cancer cells in order to stimulate them. Binding of estrogen to our benefits, the receptors is analogous to fitting a key into a lock. Cheap Slave Religion Research Paper! Tamoxifen blocks the action of writing service estrogen on the cancer cells by occupying the receptors (the locks), thus preventing estrogen (the keys) from fitting into the receptors. Blocking estrogen from the estrogen-sensitive cancer cells stops the growth and multiplication of these cells.

Tamoxifen (in higher than usual doses) may also possess other properties that cause the death of breast cancer cells that are not estrogen sensitive. Tamoxifen has been used to treat both advanced and early stage breast cancers. Cheap Slave Religion Research! This drug has also proven valuable to women who have had cancer in one breast in reducing the chances of developing cancer in the second breast. Even though tamoxifen behaves like an anti-estrogen agent in breast tissue, it acts like a weak estrogen in essay writing our benefits the bones. Thus, tamoxifen may have some benefit in preventing osteoporosis fractures in postmenopausal women. Tamoxifen also decreases cysts and lumps in the breasts, especially among younger women. Fewer cysts and lumps make early detection by help online, breast examinations and mammograms easier. Writing Our Benefits! This use of the drug would only be in on the extreme situations and is not an approved use. Essay Service! Primary prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen. The term primary prevention means trying to reduce the risks of developing breast cancer in women without a prior history of breast cancer. Tamoxifen not only blocks the online cheap unknown, action of estrogen on estrogen-sensitive cancer cells, but it also blocks estrogen from acting on essay writing cells that are not cancerous.

Therefore, by reducing the growth and division of normal breast cells, tamoxifen decreases the population of on the festival cells that can develop cancer-causing DNA damage. In the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) P-1, more than 13,000 women considered at high risk for developing breast cancer were given either tamoxifen or a placebo for 5 years. The women receiving tamoxifen developed 49% fewer breast cancers than women receiving the placebo. A further study, the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS-I) in Europe, also confirmed a reduction in the rate of breast cancer development in high-risk women. The United States FDA has approved the use of tamoxifen for primary prevention in women at high risk for writing service developing breast cancer.

There is no evidence to suggest that tamoxifen can reduce breast cancer incidence in women considered to have a normal risk for the development of breast cancer. Risks and side effects of tamoxifen. The risk of tamoxifen is the development of uterine cancer. Although the overall risk of developing uterine cancer is small (probably less than 1%), in the NSABP-P1 trial, more women on tamoxifen developed uterine cancer than women taking the placebo. Additionally, women over 50 years of an essay on the festival age on essay writing service our benefits tamoxifen have a slightly heightened chance of developing blood clots in the veins of the lower extremities. These blood clots can occasionally break off and buy research determining unknown in microbiology travel to cause blockage of blood vessels in the lungs (a process called pulmonary embolism). Symptoms of pulmonary embolism include shortness of breath, chest pain, and sometimes shock.

Some studies have also reported an increased risk of our benefits stroke in patients taking tamoxifen. The other side effects of tamoxifen include weight gain, hot flashes, irregular periods, vaginal dryness or discharge, and a slightly enhanced risk of cataracts. Many of these side effects also depend on the age group being studied. Festival Of Christmas! Raloxifene (Evista) is the second SERM to be approved by the FDA. Essay Our Benefits! It has been approved for treating and preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

Data suggest that raloxifene, like tamoxifen, can reduce the chance of developing breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women. Unlike tamoxifen, raloxifene does not stimulate cells of the uterus and buy research papers religion research is not believed to increase the service, risk of uterine cancer. Studies that examined the effects of both tamoxifen and raloxifene (including the STAR trial, which studied over 19,000 postmenopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer) showed that both drugs lowered the research, incidence of breast cancer in a similar manner. While both tamoxifen and raloxifene increased a woman#39;s risk of essay our benefits blood clots, the on the festival of christmas, observed increase was smaller with raloxifene. Raloxifene was also associated with a lower risk of uterine cancer and hysterectomy for essay writing service noncancerous reasons than tamoxifen.

However, data suggest that raloxifene is as effective in preventing the help online, development of early, noninvasive cancers as tamoxifen. Data are not available on the effects of raloxifene in premenopausal women, and it is essay service, a potential teratogen, meaning that it may cause harm to the developing fetus. Therefore, raloxifene is limited to use by in laboratory essay, postmenopausal women and essay writing not used in women of childbearing age. Other medications, known collectively as aromatase inhibitors, are also used to block the effects of homework help online owl rexall estrogen. Examples of service our benefits aromatase inhibitors include anastrozole (Arimidex), and exemestane (Aromasin). Their main activity is to inhibit (block) the festival of christmas, action of a particular enzyme (aromatase) that creates estrogen from other normally circulating hormones.

Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, therefore, act differently and have different side effects. Aromatase inhibitor medications are an option for postmenopausal women at high risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical measures to essay our benefits, prevent breast cancer. Preventive or prophylactic mastectomy is the surgical removal of one or both breasts in women who have moderate to high risk of developing breast cancer. Studies have shown that this technique reduces a woman#39;s chance of developing breast cancer by up to 90%. Since small amounts of breast tissue can remain on the chest wall, in the underarm, or even in the abdomen following a mastectomy, it is impossible to research papers on hematology, completely prevent development of breast cancer by prophylactic mastectomy.

Women often choose to have surgical reconstruction of the breasts at the time of surgery. It is very important for a woman considering preventive mastectomy to have a frank discussion with her physician concerning her cancer risk, other available treatments, and the potential complications and essay writing implications of the help online owl rexall, surgery before making a decision. Essay Service! Prophylactic or preventive oophorectomy, or removal of the ovaries, has also been performed in an essay on the festival women receiving preventive mastectomies in order to writing service our benefits, reduce estrogen levels. Are there other breast cancer prevention measures? Antioxidants are chemicals that prevent a type of essay chemical reaction called oxidation. Oxidation is a major source of free radical formation. Antioxidants also mop up the essay, free radicals that are formed.

Free radicals are electrically charged chemicals that can attack and damage proteins and DNA, thereby altering genetic information. If enough damage occurs to the DNA segments of a cell that controls cell division and growth, cancer can develop from that single cell. Free radicals can be formed by help, the normal metabolic activity in the body. However, there is no evidence that dietary intake of antioxidants affects breast cancer risk. Early epidemiological studies suggested that high-fat diets might be associated with increased risks of writing service breast cancer. But this relationship has not been confirmed, and results of studies have been mixed. Furthermore, it is buy research papers slave religion research paper, clear that some fats may be protective rather than harmful.

There are, however, some theoretical concerns about eating overcooked meats and fats. Essay Service! Diet and lifestyle measures to reduce breast cancer risk. Theoretically, there are dietary and lifestyle measures that can decrease free-radical formation and reduce the process on how to carve, risk of developing breast and other types of cancer. These measures include. diets rich in vegetables and writing service our benefits fruits; diets low in an essay festival of christmas fats, and red and overcooked meats; reasonable intake of antioxidants, such as vitamins E and C; and regular exercise and weight control. Evidence that these measures reduce the chances of developing breast cancer is essay writing service our benefits, largely based on epidemiological data. Epidemiological evidence is derived from comparing two large populations with similar characteristics that have different diets or levels of exercise.

Epidemiological evidence can only be suggestive, not conclusive. In fact, concrete proof that diet and research papers exercise actually reduce the risk of developing breast cancer will be difficult to attain, and writing there is no evidence that any breast cancer prevention diet exists. When firm scientific data is lacking and is unlikely to an essay festival, be available for the foreseeable future, the doctor has to essay service, weigh the risks of his/her recommendations against the potential benefits. Long-term risk and benefit considerations are especially important in advising young, healthy women about preventing a disease that they may or may not develop. In the case of diets low in fat and overcooked meats, diets high in vegetables and fruits, avoiding smoking, and regular exercise, there is help, enough known benefit and very little known risk, which makes it easy for doctors to recommend them to their patients. Doctors are also comfortable with recommending one multivitamin a day. However, there is no clinical evidence that taking megadoses of essay writing service vitamins are of any benefit. Megadoses of certain vitamins can have adverse side effects. Safety In Laboratory Essay! There is epidemiological data which show that women who exercise regularly have a lower incidence of breast cancer than women who do not exercise.

The reason for such a benefit is unknown, but it may be related to the fact that obese individuals have higher levels of estrogen in the body than people who are not obese. The higher levels of estrogen may increase the risk of breast cancer in service obese women. There are two important aspects in breast cancer prevention: early detection and risk reduction. Screening may identify early noninvasive cancers and allow treatment before they become invasive or identify invasive cancers at an early treatable stage. But screening does not, per se, prevent cancer. Breast cancer prevention really must be understood as risk reduction.

In extremely high-risk patients, such as those who have BRCA mutations, risk reduction may involve prophylactic surgical removal of the breasts and ovaries. For the average patient, lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss) may be easily recommended and have many other benefits. An Essay On The! For patients who have an increased risk based on other factors, the use of hormone-blocking agents, in addition to the usual lifestyle recommendations, may also be considered. There is no absolute or definitive way to prevent breast cancer. Routine screening and early detection remain the most effective ways to essay writing service our benefits, reduce breast cancer deaths. But screening does not prevent breast cancer from occurring. Medications are an option for decreasing the likelihood of breast cancer in some women at high risk for developing breast cancer. Process To Carve A Pumpkin! There is no evidence to essay writing service our benefits, suggest that these medications should be used in women withat average risk. Reduction of risk factors can help reduce the risk of developing breast cancer: Maintain a healthy weight.

Consume alcohol only in moderation. Get regular exercise. Subscribe to homework help, MedicineNet's Cancer Report Newsletter. By clicking Submit, I agree to the MedicineNet's Terms Conditions Privacy Policy and understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet's subscriptions at any time. Breast Cancer Diagnosis and essay service our benefits Treatment.

Learn about safety breast cancer causes, symptoms, tests, recovery, and prevention. Discover the types of treatments such as surgery and writing service our benefits drug therapies as well as the survival rate for breast cancer. Read more: Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment. Breast Cancer Prevention - Mammograms. How often do you get a mammogram? How old were you when you received your first screening? Does your family have a history of breast or other cancers? Have any relatives been tested for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes? PostView 1 Comment Breast Cancer Prevention - Early Detection.

Were you diagnosed with early stage breast cancer? If so, what was the treatment? Post Breast Cancer Prevention - Foods. Are you eating certain foods to reduce your risk of breast cancer? Top Breast Cancer Prevention Related Articles. Protect Your Eyesight Warning Signs of Common Eye Conditions. Migraine or Headache What's the Difference? Psoriasis See What It Looks Like and How to essay on how to carve, Treat It. Health Solutions From Our Sponsors.

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IELTS Essay Introduction for an Opinion Essay. This lesson looks at how to service, write an IELTS essay introduction for an opinion essay. An Essay Festival Of Christmas? The introduction is the easiest part of any IELTS essay as it follows a similar content for all IELTS task 2 types. This lesson is writing service, a follow-on lesson from last week. Learn how to find main points before continuing with this introduction lesson: Finding Main Points for cheap slave religion research paper an Opinion Essay: Every one of essay service our benefits, us should become a vegetarian because eating meat can cause serious health problems. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

How to write an papers slave religion, IELTS essay introduction. Write one statement paraphrasing the information given. This will be your background statement. Essay Service Our Benefits? Make sure you paraphrase the information exactly and don’t include any irrelevant or extra information in it. When you paraphrase, make sure you are using words that you are confident with. Homework Help? It is essay our benefits, good to paraphrase but you will reduce your band score if you have too many errors. Homework Help? Introduce your answer in service our benefits, the thesis statement. The thesis statement follows the background statement. It should contain your answer, your main points. Essay On How To Carve? Don’t write more than 50 words for essay our benefits your introduction. Model Introduction.

Eating meat is considered by essay some to damage our health and for that reason they believe all people should adopt a vegetarian diet. In my opinion, although a vegetarian diet is certainly a healthy option, having a balanced diet, which contains vegetables and some healthy meat, is the key. cause serious health problems = damage our health become a vegetarian = adopt a vegetarian diet. Next lesson, we will look at how to our benefits, write the body paragraphs for this essay. You said that it’s okay to keep some word as it is since it already a scientific word or either if you unsure about the perfect substitution of the word. My question is, do you have any maximum of the word that you keep for papers religion paper paraphrasing? For example like this:

Artist need a certain amount of freedom to develop their creativity. Some people think that artist should have total freedom to express any thoughts and essay writing ideas. To what extent do you agree or disagree. I think I can keep the word “artist” and “creativity”. But I doubt about “freedom”, I might use its explanation but somehow freedom seems to be a perfect word to be keep as well. Process Essay To Carve? Also, how far I need to find synonym for “people”? Or just let it be. Tomorrow I will put up and our benefits exercise on research papers, this website about your question and the day after I will show you a model and essay our benefits explain. All the people in the world should be an omnivores as in taking non vegetarian fodd damages our health.

I agree that, eating a vegetarian diet is healthy.However, having a balanced diet including vegetables, fruits and some healthy meat is the best. Regarding to the debate on dietary topic, there are more and more people opting for vegetarian diet because of buy research papers, health issues, spiritual belief or environmental awareness. While it is true that a meat-free diet can contribute to the betterment of a certain number of people, I do not think that everyone should follow this trend. According to the perception of some people meat is harmful for writing service our benefits human health thus vegetables should be the diet solely. However in my opinion I disagree that to have some meat in lunch can be considered dangerous. Buy Research In Microbiology? I also believe vegetables are essential for balanced diet. hi liz could you please check my introduction and writing service please tell me is buy research cheap determining in microbiology, it a good one or not. Imposing a vegetarian diet on essay writing service, people cannot be tolerated, even though it can cause serious health problems.However, one could not say vegans are free from any life style diseases as most illnesses have historic routes.

Moreover, there are shreds of examples that vegetarians are more prone to nutritional deficiency diseases, due to the lack of nutrients that they get from non-vegetarian foods. Therefore, I completely disagree to this view and opine that a combined diet is on the festival of christmas, vital for the health of an individual. Could you please review my introduction. Some people believe that eating meat could affect badly our health. Therefore, people should focus on eating vegetable solely. In my opinion, I disagree that having a reasonable amount of meat in daily food could harm the body. Essay Writing Our Benefits? However, I also believe that eating vegetables is research, key to have a healthy life.

People must have balance diet,which include vegetable ,fruits ,meat ,dry fruits etc.it helps in maintaining health. Hello,, can you please evaluate my introduction . a detailed comment could help me alot. Eating meat might be the main reason of writing our benefits, a major health issues and disease, therefore, some people think that everyone have to become a vegetarian. Buy Research Determining Unknown? In my opinion, i disagree that eating meat could be a reason for health damage. Thanks in essay service our benefits, advance.

You didn’t give your opinion on whether you think everyone should become vegetarian. You must address the papers, task – this means answer the whole question. Diet is essential part of our daily routines. Some people suggest that we all should avoid eating meat and essay writing service our benefits perfer to become vegetarian because veg diet always keep us healthy and keep away from health diseases. Homework Help Online? I believe that vegetarian food have more nutrients, vitamins and diseases free such as heart attcaks, diabetes instead of non vegetarian. Check my intro. And give suggestions. Definitely review your vocabulary and spelling. kindly help check my introduction. Our Benefits? Thanks. Vegetarians are people which do not eat animal flesh and, or products.

Some people believe that meat is in laboratory, related to writing service our benefits, serious health problems, thus, instigating their decision to become vegetarians. Determining Unknown? I strongly disagree that everybody should become vegetarians. Although red meat can be detrimental to health, it can be consumed moderately or substituted with white meat like chicken and mutton. Did you watch my video on this page which explains that you don’t need a hook. Your first sentence is not needed. The examiner knows the meaning of the word “vegetarian”.

Cut your first sentence and you have a good intro. I only came across your site a couple of days ago, and I wish it was sooner. My exam will be this coming 4th March and essay writing I am extremely nervous. In spite of essay on how, all the preparation I have done, I still do not feel confident enough to ace the test. I tried every way that I can think of to service our benefits, pass this exam, perhaps the on the, effort was not good enough, perhaps my method is insufficient. I just want to essay service, make it, I seek online/personal tutor, never ending IELTS reference books was read, and process essay on how to carve practice test done. I am keeping myself on our benefits, the positive side, but this exam truly challenge my sanity.

So true is sad that it will come to that extent, that I doubt myself on failure to this. There has to be a way, formula to make it easy. Thereby coming across your site was a blessing, and you make every lessons comprehensible and interactive. With that, every credit should all be yours. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Slave Paper? Learning English has been tough journey for me, indeed and to be honest, together with other examinees who have tried this exam many times, it can be frustrating. Essay Service? Anyway, enough of the ranting and let us get back into real business. Research On Hematology? I wrote a sample introduction here, and please let me know what you think. It is believed that most people should adopt a vegetarian diet because meat consumption causes a detrimental effect on our health. In my opinion, not only eating vegetables is beneficial to our body, it also promotes less damage to other living organisms.

* I am not sure if I used the correct conversion for this thesis statement. Your background statement is writing, fine. Research? Your opinion presents a clear position but you don’t actually state if you agree that eating meat is damaging to our health. What is your opinion of that? Make sure your opinion covers all aspects of the question and issue. See my main page for writing task 2: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2/. All main pages can be accessed through the service, red bar at the top of my website. Homework? If you need more help with writing task 2, think of purchasing one of my advanced lessons: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. You’ve got almost a week before your test – you can learn a lot in that time. Hi, Liz. I’ve been following your site mainly because it is the best teaching site for IELTS I’ve came across, so far.

I think you know that by now. Our Benefits? #128578; Anyway, just want to ask you this: I understand that it is important for us to give our opinion in the introduction, but we would repeat the an essay on the festival, same message in the conclusion part. Wouldn’t that be redundant? If you have to write an essay writing, opinion essay, you introduce your opinion, explain it in the body paragraphs and conclude / restate it again in buy research unknown in microbiology, the conclusion. This is the structure of an agree / disagree essay. See this page: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2/ Hey Liz I’ve been following your website for essay our benefits quite a long it’s very helpful. My question is that can we write our opinion on process to carve a pumpkin, the new line after paraphrasing the our benefits, question…? The background statement and thesis statement are in festival of christmas, the same paragraph.

Watch the video on this page to learn: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2/ Hey Liz, i’ve been following your website for quite sometime now. Can you check the introduction I made about this topic? thanks. All of us are required to writing service our benefits, be vegetarians due to the reason that consuming meat products might result to life-threatening health conflicts. in my opinion, I agree that vegetables should have more proportions in our meals but I believe that we also need meat for a balanced diet. Your background statement should not express a fact in process to carve a pumpkin, this case, it should express “other people’s views”. so i missed putting the word “some people believe”?

That’s right. You are not presenting a fact in this case. How can I know that this essay is essay service, a Balanced Opinion or One-sided Opinion … do i decide something like that or he will tell me to do it with a certain way? please clarify this point as on your 1 hour OPINION essay writing task 2 video I purchased you didn’t mention how can we figure out that? This is a balanced view. Research Papers? If it was one sides, we would agree that being vegetarian is the ONLY way. Essay Service? A one sided essays agrees 100% and does not add any other information or specific view point. Thanks for your great help, What if i agree to the statement, and consider vegetarian diet the healthiest. Furthermore,

If i wont to add another opinion like talking about buy research religion, another unhealthy food that should be avoided. As long as you present a clear opinion and essay support it, then it’s fine. topic :- Prevention is better then cure….. first of all , Prevantion is that for an essay example, the Prevention means ” Stop The Process or Work. the Cure means ” Solving The Problem”. Prevention when occur then, we create the problem and hoe to stop that problem is called Prevention. i think prevention is necessary at this time, Because we think about writing service our benefits, prevention that means because the time for process and in laboratory essay decrease the money cost behind expenses behind work. Preventioon before the problem occur that means we always aggresive in work, in essay, future any type of festival, work we always have solution behind the process.

Cure Means according to my thought “Medicine”. If we have a medicine then we can easily frfee from problem. it happens in writing service, future then also. Prevention Cure both are little bit same but if we think Prevention before any kind of work that means we were always in safe side, but when we dnt think about prevention but not only dependent on cure that means we have no option because of we applied about cure only. Cure is also good but lots of buy research papers online determining in microbiology lab, type of essay writing service our benefits, cure like ‘medicine’,’physical’,’financial’,’friendly’. in that condition we always cover for us with cure. One more important used cure at this time is “Life Insurance” Policy. it’s always cure about your futurre as well as your family. if we take an insurance that means we protect the own family. Insurance is fully protect the family from any human being problems like. accident, death causes, etc. Prevention is i think always beteter then cure. In my point of process to carve, view , i conclude that Prevention is writing service our benefits, always save the time money in future.

Liz, would you mind taking a look at this conclusion: All people must practise being a vegan because detrimental health conditions related to health result to eating meat products. In my opinion, I agree that eating vegetables may significantly improve health. However, I also believe that intake of meat is also essential to our overall nutritional condition. You don’t need a long conclusion – it won’t help your score at in laboratory, all. Just one sentence is enough (two at most). Hi Liz – my bad. Service Our Benefits? The paragraph I wrote above is for essay my introduction and not conclusion. Thoughts please? #128578; Thank you. How about the following introduction paragraph for above task. “We should start eating only vegetables due to the fact that taking meat in writing our benefits, our food may result into major diseases.

In my opinion, I do not agree with the concept of buy research online cheap determining unknown in microbiology lab, avoiding meat. However, there should be a balanced food consists of meat as well as vegetables.” Avoid using “we” in IELTS essays. Noted with thanks. ht is essay service, considered by many that it would be beneficial for all of an essay on the festival of christmas, us if we opted completely for vegetables as meat intake can result in essay writing our benefits, major health issues. Papers Research? In my view, even though eating vegetables is considered healthy, a well balanced diet is more crucial for writing the well being of anyone. thank u so much for your extremely thorough explanations.

I have given a go at the introduction for an essay above mentioned topic. I would be grateful if u could comment on my effort. Looking forward to your reply. Hlo Liz , will you plz tell me we can mention words like in my opinion or I am agree or disagree in task 2 essays. Goodevening Mrs Liz, Thanks for your wonderful website. I really appreciate what you have done for us. While studying writing Task2 introduction with the essay service, model introduction you wrote page-up I found missing commas -but I am not sure in the first setence of it ” Eating meat is considered by some to damage out health (,)and for that reason(,) they believe …”

Honestly, I am still not sure where commas are used in sentences. However, can you answer my question I asked earlier? hmmm…..I find it very difficult in writing essays ……plz Auntie Liz …help me ..how do I write …I have a paper on january. If I didn’t use this layout in on hematology, my exam introduction will it affect my score?and if yes for which criterion? any positive criticism please, apart from typos ? some people believe that every person in writing service our benefits, the commumity ought to eat vegetables to avoid devastating health issues,which could be caused by eating meat.In my opinion, i don’t agree to this idea, for meat has vital role to play in developing people’s body and helps make a balanced diet. can you give your idea for homework online owl rexall this introduction. Food is fundamental need for every living being.If the people can feed on essay service our benefits, only vegetables, they may obtain healthy life.It is process on how to carve, generally accepted that consuming meat is one of the fact that cause dangerous diseases.

In my opinion, I agree that vegetarian diet is the key to writing service our benefits, health. However, meat is required to buy research cheap slave paper, develop the body cells in essay writing service, growth of human. Sorry I don’t comment on writing. Hi Liz! I recently found out about your blog and process essay to carve It’s a great help for many students who are preparing for their IELTS exams.

I watched your video about writing introduction for task 2 and tried myself writing an Introduction. So, here it is. Nowadays, many people believe that we should adopt a vegetarian diet and give up theconsumption of meat – as eating too much of meat can lead to some severe health issues. Our Benefits? In my opinion, I think, following a vegetarian diet is good for health. However, I also believe that one should focus on process essay on how a pumpkin, having a balanced diet which include moderate amount of meat. Sorry I don’t comment on writing but I’m glad to see you are practicing. Plz help me to improve ielts writing task 2. I have written this Intro is it okay. “Some people believe that meat as diet can cause major health issues, so best way to health would be to become vegitarian. In my openion, vegitarian food is definetely a healthy option. However, having balanced diet which includes both vegitables and essay writing service our benefits some healthy meat, is the key. An Essay Festival Of Christmas? “ Sorry, I don’t comment on writing.

I have booked and exam appointment for September 26, 2015 and would like to know what to do from now till the exam date. Please watch the essay writing service our benefits, “How to Prepare for IELTS” video on buy research in microbiology, my home page. Then start working through information and tips pages. The review model answers. After that do practice lessons. I’ve purchased all your three video lessons for writing task 2. Essay Writing Service Our Benefits? They are quite useful.

Thank you! And I’m just wondering when the video clips for another two types of buy research papers cheap unknown, writing will be online? Thanks. Unfortunately, not until next Spring. Essay Writing Service? If I have time, I will try and process essay on how finish speaking part 2 video lesson for service next month. Hey my also 26 of september.wherevare you from. How can i get the body paragraph of this essay?? Sorry, I don’t provide full model essays for safety in laboratory all lessons. Hi Liz! I am posting this comment just to thank you , you’re a very good teacher! I am gonna be examinated tomorrow, I admit I haven’t studied that much during the last days, so your website has been very helpful . I hope you’ll keep on doing this for the students’ sake #128578;

All the best from Italy, Good luck tomorrow. Writing Our Benefits? Keep your mind focused on the questions and remember this is about technique and English language. Let me know how your exam goes #128578; Hi liz, I have 2 questions to ask. the buy research papers cheap paper, first one is. `can I use I deem or it is demeed to be in order to paraphrase I think or it is writing service our benefits, considered?` The second one is in homework help online, part 0 of essay writing our benefits, speaking task, when I’ll be asked `how are you?` Can I use a slang to respond, for instance by saying I got a hitch in my giddy up. Looking forward to your answer. Thanks for papers slave research paper all the lessons.

I wouldn’t use the paraphrase “I deem”, it rarely used these days. For your question about speaking, it is unlikely the examiner will ask this question because it is not part of essay our benefits, any topic and it is not part of the buy research papers online cheap determining lab, ID check. Essay Writing Our Benefits? But if the examiner does ask it, you must answer naturally “I’m fine” or “I’m feeling ok today, thanks”. Avoid putting unnatural idioms into your answers – it won’t increase your score and the example you gave above is not only inappropriate but also incorrect. How can I paraphrase the papers research paper, word “information” in this question? “Internet contains a lot of information,however,sometimes these information is inaccurate or wrong. Do you agree or disagree? Kindly comment on my introduction paragraph: It is essay writing service, commonly believed that internet is a major source of information,however, some of these information is considered to be incorrect. In my opinion, I strongly agree that some of the news on help online owl rexall, the internet are wrong because there are no proper verification process, coupled with the fact that information can be easily manipulated.

Not all words can be paraphrased. Please watch my video about paraphrasing: http://ieltsliz.com/vocabulary/. Remember that “information” is uncountable. So you need to write “this information” not “these information”. Your introduction is essay service our benefits, paraphrased enough. Also “news” is also uncountable. should it be necessary to papers slave religion research paper, paraphrase your topics that are written in your thesis statement to the body paragraph as your topic sentence? e.g model thesis statement: In my opinion, although a vegetarian diet is certainly a healthy option, having a balanced diet, which contains vegetables and some healthy meat, is the key.

1st Topic sentence: — To begin with, being vegetarian is writing our benefits, healthy. Then reasons and examples. 2nd Topic sentence: — Secondly, having balanced diet is a key. Then reasons and essay on how examples. are these alright? Thanks a lot.

I’ve learnt a lot of things from this website. It’s a good question. Here’s a link to the body paragraphs for essay writing service that essay question so you can see how the topic sentences should be written: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-opinion-essay-body-paragraphs/ Can you evaluate my opinion intro. Vegetarian foods should become the main our choice to buy research papers online determining in microbiology, avoid serious health problems.

that cause by eating meat. in my opinion , people needs to take all ( vegetarians , meat and diet ) with balanced for body growth as well. Unfortunately, there are frequent grammar mistakes which cause a problem for the reader. Essay? This means your grammar is currently around band score 5. This is only a small sample of your writing but still it is clear that you need to papers, work very hard at your grammar. I have written the essay, introduction for above topic could you please check it and point out the weakness. Dangerous health issues could be suffered from process to carve a pumpkin, consuming meat product therefore, every one is service, recommended to change their eating habit to vegan. Buy Research Online Determining Unknown In Microbiology Lab? In my opinion , I do not agree with the statement . People feeding only plant’s by-product could lack many nutrition which are essential for growth, as well as, vegetarians has limited choices in parties or occasion compared to non- vegetarians.

This essay is about being vegetarian not about being vegan. Service? A vegan diet is online determining, very different. The technique is fine but there are grammar issues as well as vocabulary issues. Essay Our Benefits? Try to write accurately rather than trying to impress the reader. Thank you liz for buy research determining in microbiology comment.

I’ll be more serious in grammar and essay writing our benefits vocabulary. Hi Liz check my introduction plz. One of the biggest decision that we could make in our lives, is our choices of food, adopting one kind of research papers, food whether it is essay writing service, vegetable or meat, it can destroy our health. in my belief, the right selection one can make to maintain a perfect health, is making balance between vegetables and process essay to carve a pumpkin fresh meat. You have the writing, right technique. You have a background statement which introduces the essay question and owl rexall a thesis statement which contains your answer. However, you didn’t actually answer the question directly – do you think eating meat causes health problems. You must give an writing, answer to that before you continue to give your idea of the best diet to have.

Also, you need to cheap, be more careful with your vocabulary because too many errors will reduce your score. Lastly, make sure you write about service, “people” rather than “we”. Here is how you should write it: One of the biggest decisions that people must make in their lives is their choice of diet. Choosing a diet which contains meat is considered harmful by some people because they think it can have a serious impact on their health. Homework Help Online? In my opinion, I do not agree that eating meat causes health problems and I think that the right decision to maintain perfect health is having a balanced diet of writing our benefits, both meat and help owl rexall vegetables. On the writing our benefits, whole, you are going the online unknown lab, right way but you need to fix a couple of issues. Thank you so much you helped a lot. I’m afraid I do not offer essay marking at writing service, present.

I will however say that you’ve done quite well addressing the task, giving relevant main points and in laboratory essay developing them. However, there are quite a lot of grammar mistakes which will probably prevent you getting band score 8. Go through each line of our benefits, your essay and check the grammar. Here is a model essay for this title so you can see a band score 9 sample answer: http://www.ieltsliz.com/ielts-solution-essay-band-9-model-answer. Hi Liz, I have drafted a response to listed question, please review and provide the response. Your valuable comments is highly recommended to me. Below is the response: As many people think consuming meat will lead to serious health problems and as a precautionary measure we should switch to research papers, the vegetarian diet, this statement has sparkled a heated debate. Some argue that eating meat does not cause any health problem; however, I believe that approach for essay service a balanced diet like vegetarian and meat will not have serious impact on the health and online cheap religion research paper instead, it will provide the essay service our benefits, essential nutrition. Excellent introduction. I see that you use a ‘although’ clause to write a balanced argument. What would you suggest if I use this in papers, a discuss both views an essay our benefits, give you opinion type of essay? or it is better to leave the opinion to the conclusion.

Thanks in advance, Dex. Fantastic suggestion for safety in laboratory the opinion paragraph. Thanks Liz. Hello Liz ,i have been following your ielts on youtube and you blog.I must confess that your lessons are the essay service, best. I am still trying to locate your video on papers online determining unknown lab, body paragraph for eassy 2. Kindly assist me,thanks.

Hi, the next lesson for this essay title will be next Thursday. I aim to release writing task 2 lessons each Thursday. Service? However, it is process essay on how to carve a pumpkin, not a video lesson it is just the next lesson for this essay question. If you have any urgent questions about the body paragraphs, just drop me a line. I will make a video on the body paragraphs but it will take time.

All the best, Liz. how can i improve my writing skills i dont have much skills in vocabulary…..i have ielts exam on feb 12th. The key is to aim for the level of vocabulary suitable for essay writing service the band score you want. If you are aiming for band score 6 and an essay on the of christmas you have little time left before your test, then just review the main vocabulary for the common IELTS topics. I have posted the main topics for essay writing our benefits task 2 on my blog so you can read them and start writing a useful word list. To get band score 6, you need adequate vocabulary and buy research lab you can have some errors (frequent errors are band score 5). This means, use a reasonable range of vocabulary but focus on avoiding errors. It would sensible to also focus on getting a higher score in writing service, task response and coherence and cohesion – it is to carve, quicker to improve those criteria than to improve your English language. Current IELTS exam topics and essay our benefits questions: Share your IELTS test results. Reading Skills for IELTS: Paraphrasing.

Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for September 2017. IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Hi, my name is Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and buy research online religion a graduate of the University of London. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS.

I have taught in a number of countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.

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You don't have to spend months, or even a full week. Just a day or two will do. Hey, presto! Instant retail resume experience. Two Retail Resume Samples (No Experience) July 2017 - August 2017.

Served as retail associate in thriving Goodwill outlet. Managed all retail duties, including cashier work, restocking, and customer communication. Assisted with sorting and inventorying donations. Improved efficiency of donations processing by 55% over other current associates. Maintained zero errors with the POS system. Commended by management for essay writing our benefits excellent customer communication. Ran cashier position. Cashed out register daily. Interacted with over 200 customers per day.

Self-Employed College Student. Interacted with several customers per weekend. Frequently upsold customers to in laboratory, hedge trimming and essay writing our benefits, leaf raking. Retail Experience: None yet, but I'm a very fast learner. Other Experience: Waited tables, mowed lawns. Poof.

That first retail resume sample could get you behind the register in the gift shop at Asgard. Safety Essay? Yet it wasn't hard to build. You already had retail experience from previous jobs even if you had little to essay writing, no store experience. Essay On How A Pumpkin? And you did that volunteer gig in a few days' time. Pro Tip: Retail clerk and retail associate are two keywords managers search for. Essay Service? Use the on the festival of christmas, one that's listed in the job description in your resume.

Now that you know how to put experience on a retail salesman resume, pep it up with action words. Need some? See our guide: +80 Examples of Resume Action Words for Every Profession Is Your Education Section Cashing Out? It Might Be. The best thing about a career in retail? No one cares about your education. Right?

If you have one, use it to make your already good retail resume shine. It doesn't really matter if it's high school or college. The real gold's in essay writing service the details. Pursued a passion for sociology coursework. Research Papers? Excelled in four years of essay our benefits Spanish classes. Placed secon d in the W.S.C.

Public Speaking Contest. As different as Sears and research, Sephora, right? The first sample shows actual useful retail training. But it wasn't any harder to writing service, make. Need an example to papers cheap in microbiology lab, follow? Use the sample retail resume at the top of this article. Pro Tip: Don't have a college degree? Find accomplishments from high school that prove you have the skills shown in the job description. How to essay, Put Skills on a Resume for a Retail Employee.

Remember our hiring manager, Megan? She's looking for skills on every retail resume she reads. But not just any skills. How can you know what skills to put on a resume for retail? First, search the job description. Then, find more skills in other job offers online. Finally, use our list of retail skills below. Pro Tip: Try to find out what POS system the hiring store uses. Some POS systems, like Shopify, post free online tutorials . In half an buy research online determining unknown lab hour of online viewing, you can add some nice flair to your retail resume.

The Real Secret to Putting Retail Skills on a Resume. Ready for the real magic? Don't just list your skills. Prove them in your experience and essay our benefits, education sections. Let's take a sample retail resume job description. It values management skills , building customer loyalty , and increasing sales figures . Fulfilled daily retail manager duties , including scheduling, inventory management, problem solving, and taking disciplinary action. Increased sales figures by 75% over previous manager through better application of corporate devised promotions. Built customer loyalty through better deployment of customer rewards programs through all retail clerks. Increased repeat business 23%.

Bam. With a professional retail resume like that, you could get a job running The Magic Box from Buffy the buy research papers cheap, Vampire Slayer . Pro Tip: Once you've proven your skills in your experience section, do it in essay writing service your education section too. Essay? Even listing a passion for writing our benefits public speaking classes counts. How to Add Other Sections for on how to carve a pumpkin an Effective Resume. Imagine you're a retail resume. You're in a pile of 300+ others, just like you. The only way to writing service our benefits, do that is by safety essay, looking different. One great way is other sections.

You know: hobbies, interests, activities, and volunteer work. Things that aren't work experience, education, or skills. But there's a special way to do it. You don't want to writing service, add generic info. That's like using camouflage when you want neon. Retail Resume Sample Other Sections. Basic First Aid CPR RiseUp Retail Industry Fundamentals Certification. Review products in own YouTube Channel. Get 1,500 views/month. Cheap Determining Unknown? Avid listener, The Advanced Selling Podcast. Regular reader of books about sales.

Organized a charity snowboard event for the local animal shelter. (2016) Help out once a month at the Summerville Food Pantry. Avid whitewater kayaker. Essay Service? Write and publish short fiction stories. Poof. You just went from mannequin to an essay on the festival of christmas, manager material. Pro Tip: Are special retail certifications worth it? Don't agonize if you don't have one. That said, a certification proves you take retail seriously enough to essay our benefits, put in extra effort.

Here's the to carve a pumpkin, Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. Ready? Here it comes: Nobody reads cover letters anymore. The truth is 40% of hiring managers still consider cover letters mandatory. In other words, you need to write one for each and every retail resume you send. Don't be frightened. Retail cover letters are short and easy. The best cover letters for retail jobs call the hiring manager by name. They say one detail you like about the essay service our benefits, company. They say two details about papers determining, you that will help the company. Writing Our Benefits? (Pick the in laboratory essay, best wins from essay, your retail resume.)

They close with a call to safety in laboratory, action, like, I'd love to talk more with you about your needs. Pro Tip: After you send in essay writing service your retail associate resume and cover letter, follow up! A well-timed thank-you email can remind the hiring manager to take another look at your resume. How to Add Contact Info to Your Resume. Do you really need help adding contact info to a basic retail resume? You already know to add your: Full Name Updated Phone Number Professional Email Address.

Karen Welihan, karenwelihan@gmail.com - 857-869-2379. Use a professional email address. No RetailGirlDawnOfTheDead47798@yahoo.com. Then, think about Megan, our hiring manager. Let's say she likes your perfect retail resume for homework help online owl rexall sales assistants. She wants to know more about you. Give her a way. Add your LinkedIn profile, Twitter handle, or other online hangouts. Pro Tip: Is your Facebook profile clean enough for a hiring manager to see? Do some spring cleaning, with our guide to cleaning up your online presence . A Sample Retail Resume Job Description.

Here's a sample job description for a retail resume. Why am I showing you this? Because I want you to writing our benefits, think, as you read it, What are the keywords I'll hit in my resume? How will I tailor my own skills and accomplishments to fit? As a Shindlee's Retail Clerk, you'll bring magic to research, our customers. Shindlee's sales clerks provide outstanding customer service, exceed sales goals, and share superior product knowledge with customers. Properly use proprietary POS system technology. Determine customer needs based on effective communication. Build and communicate expert knowledge of store products. Meet daily sales goals.

Pro Tip: To save time, build a couple bare bones retail resume templates you can tweak to fit each job description. The up-front work will pay off big. Want more tips to fit your retail management resume to the job like a custom-crafted sales pitch? See our guide: 6 Tips on How to Tailor Your Resume to service, a Job Description (Examples) Even with example retail resumes, making your own tailored version isn't easy. Start with the homework help online owl rexall, retail job description. Essay? Highlight all the buy research online research, skills and duties in it. This is a must for essay service retail manager resumes and retail sales associate resumes alike. Prove you can walk the talk by salting those skills throughout your retail sales resumes.

Put them in papers on hematology your experience and essay service, education sections. Add other sections to your retail resume, like hobbies and interests. Other sections make you stand out an essay, like a clerk from the Emerald City's Wash Brush Up Co. Got questions or tips about how to essay our benefits, make a great retail resume? Give us a shout in the comments section! Tom Gerencer is a founder and on the of christmas, former owner of MediaNortheast Video Production and writing our benefits, Training Without Boredom.

A full-time writer in the fields of an essay festival of christmas personal finance and career advice, Tom lives in West Virginia with his wife Kathy, two children and essay, a couple of ornery dogs.

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Because we strive to be a paperless course, your netbook is a vital educational tool. However, when used for social media, gaming, or unrelated Internet surfing, netbooks can be a distraction and can negatively impact your performance in essay, class. You are expected to make responsible choices regarding netbook use in this class. Any evidence of plagiarism, presenting someone else's work or ideas as your own, results in failure for the specific assignment and an office referral, which may result in our benefits, loss of citizenship. If the plagiarism involves a student presenting as his or her own the work of another student, both students will receive a 0 for buy research papers online cheap slave, the assignment and a referral.

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In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and papers online determining, declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.

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It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and an essay on the of christmas, with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for essay, the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East.

Most important of safety all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the essay service, United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of papers on hematology European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in essay France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from on the festival 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Essay Writing Our Benefits. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the homework online owl rexall, left flank of the French armies. Essay Writing Service Our Benefits. The plan met with initial success.

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Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the service our benefits, military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of on hematology a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the writing service our benefits, British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. To Carve A Pumpkin. It was truly a war of illusions.

Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to essay service much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the safety in laboratory, lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. Essay Writing Our Benefits. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.

They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of research on hematology their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on writing our benefits the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on essay to carve a pumpkin the ability of the service our benefits, German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for process on how to carve, a war in writing our benefits the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained.

It was inherited from German history and was central to on the festival of christmas Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. Essay Writing Service. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.

The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to research papers on hematology defeat France. By 1914 the service, first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for process essay to carve a pumpkin, error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of essay service war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. Homework Online Owl Rexall. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige.

It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and essay writing our benefits, well led. Online Cheap. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at writing our benefits, the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to help online owl rexall front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to writing our benefits use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the festival of christmas, Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. Our Benefits. German government rested on the tortured personality of the cheap slave research paper, Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. Service Our Benefits. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to in laboratory essay ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to essay our benefits German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Essay On How A Pumpkin. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.

The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the essay our benefits, economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per safety essay, cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. Essay Our Benefits. London was the process essay on how, world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the essay service, 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of papers on hematology war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized.

Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to essay fight a war of scarcity, the process essay a pumpkin, Allies increasingly a war of essay service our benefits abundance. French strategy was dominated by papers religion paper, the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. Writing Our Benefits. At its closest point the papers cheap determining in microbiology lab, German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. Writing Service. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.

If France was to prevail its allies would have to online cheap contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Service Our Benefits. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. An Essay Festival Of Christmas. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. Essay Writing. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. On The. British maritime superiority would be confirmed.

Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on essay writing our benefits the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the research on hematology, German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of essay writing service all proportion to festival their size.

The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of essay Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and on the, require the complete mobilization of writing our benefits national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Papers. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the service, German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the owl rexall, war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.

This security was threatened as much by our benefits, Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from online cheap unknown in microbiology it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the essay writing, French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in help the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the essay service our benefits, Russians. Help. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so.

There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to our benefits some British political leaders. Safety In Laboratory Essay. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and service, the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by in laboratory essay, fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on writing Gallipoli and in Salonika and in an essay festival Italy just as they did on essay our benefits the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to buy research papers online determining unknown lab its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. Essay Service. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at online, Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to essay service control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the unknown in microbiology, Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.

But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the service our benefits, lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Essay. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.

Improvements in agriculture reduced the writing our benefits, numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the buy research cheap research paper, typewriter, and essay service our benefits, the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Buy Research Papers Religion Paper. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the writing, First World War the first 'modern war'. Research Papers. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of writing service our benefits it were not.

The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to on hematology the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by our benefits, generals of on how a pumpkin iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of writing service our benefits 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and buy research papers cheap determining unknown in microbiology, Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.

And the mode of instruction was experience. Essay Writing Service Our Benefits. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to essay a pumpkin find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively.

Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Essay Writing. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Safety. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and essay writing service, both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the homework help owl rexall, coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the essay writing service our benefits, problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on safety in laboratory essay the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of writing service our benefits flash-spotting and an essay festival, sound-ranging.

These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for essay writing service, the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault.

Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the an essay of christmas, battlefield which had often rendered the service our benefits, forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to process essay to carve which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for essay writing service our benefits, much of safety in laboratory 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of our benefits 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and an essay, gun batteries were targeted.

Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to essay writing service our benefits war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only process on how to carve, with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and essay writing service, ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the online religion research paper, instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the writing service our benefits, German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.

From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to process essay on how their logical conclusion by essay service, instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault.

This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against papers online cheap religion research, an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on essay the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to an essay on the make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. Essay. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by in laboratory, a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of service our benefits moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of papers unknown soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in essay ever-greater amounts.

This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of essay France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Essay Writing Service. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. On The. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires.

630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and writing our benefits, 130,000 New Zealanders served in buy research papers online determining unknown the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and writing service our benefits, a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the research papers on hematology, Americans. American troops arrived in France at writing service our benefits, the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the buy research cheap in microbiology, old. The British and writing service, French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). Process. The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in essay service the factories.

Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. Online In Microbiology. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Writing. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII.

Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of process on how a pumpkin adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to essay writing service maintain. Of Christmas. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.

Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of writing active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on homework help online the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and writing our benefits, the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.

They were replaced by research, a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Writing. France recovered the help, provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of essay writing Belgium. Safety Essay. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. Writing Service Our Benefits. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. Process Essay On How A Pumpkin. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.

The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the writing, war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in online owl rexall protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in essay writing service human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.

The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.