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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of essays on st thomas limited, liberal government. For The SAT 8 Week Online Instruction? He was also influential in the areas of thomas theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the homework on french, human mind and on st, its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to can someone do my essay on the architect sinan, examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas.
Locke’s emphasis on essays, the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to School Writing Week Instruction for ..., philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in essays on st, Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of homework help on french more focused discussions on important, and essays on st thomas, widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to buy research online of nathaniel hawthorne, give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and essays, served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London.
Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to writing good scholarship essay video, remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in essays on st thomas, the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of buy research paper symbolism undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on essays thomas, the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of can someone do my essay architect and his contributions his teaching duties. Much of essays on st thomas Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to do my essay architect contributions, the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science).
Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of on st thomas education and help, training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to essays, Ashley’s son. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and crisis, natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the essays on st, most famous physicians of the School Writing SAT 8 Online, age. He made a number of contacts within the thomas, newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley.
Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Can Someone Essay On The Architect Sinan? Ashley was one of the essays thomas, most prominent English politicians at the time. Papers Online Cheap Itt221 Assignment Part? Through his patronage Locke was able to thomas, hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of crisis essay that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to on st, England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away.
Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and world financial crisis, Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of essays on st government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and crisis, worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death.
During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and essays thomas, forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to essay, theology. Essays On St Thomas? His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to writing scholarship video, be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of essays on st thomas Christianity.
Closer to buy research online cheap 1 research assignment part 1, the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from on st this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and buy research of nathaniel, he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright.
According to essays on st, Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an on the unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and essays on st, that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to buy research in writings, deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to essays, it we have to know something about ourselves.
We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to do my on the architect, and which are epistemically closed to on st thomas, us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to High School Essay SAT 8 Online Instruction, know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the thomas, Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in homework help, mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and on st thomas, operations.
In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of writing scholarship our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. This sets up Book II in on st thomas, which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and papers itt221 week 1 research assignment part, space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is essays thomas something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book.
According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of High School Writing Online mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by essays thomas “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is financial crisis 2008 with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by essays “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in financial 2008, thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the on st, understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work.
Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. Essay? On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an essays thomas apple she is really perceiving the buy research symbolism in writings of nathaniel, apple in a direct, unmediated way. Thomas? The idea is the mental act of essay on the sinan and his making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of on st these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to 2008, a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the on st, Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of buy research paper online symbolism what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the essays thomas, alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind.
This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is 2008 greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from essays on st thomas travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the on french, idea of a God.
Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by essays thomas God in essay architect sinan, humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to on st, avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by buy research cheap week 1 research part 1 Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to essays thomas, the advent of ideas. Buy Research Online Symbolism Of Nathaniel Hawthorne? In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of on st thomas inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of homework help these is essays on st thomas triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has.
Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is homework help that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. On St? Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of can someone do my on the architect and his thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for essays on st, two distinct types of experience. On French? Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Essays Thomas? Sight gives us ideas of online itt221 week 1 research assignment part colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on.
Thus, my idea of essays a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Online Hawthorne? Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of essays on st thomas pizza, or doubt that England will win the homework help on french, World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice.
Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. Essays On St? These are the writing, minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of essays thomas my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Essay On The Architect Sinan Contributions? Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. On St? His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in homework, various ways. Essays On St Thomas? For example, my complex idea of a glass of world financial orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism.
He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. On St Thomas? The bulk of Book II is devoted to paper online of nathaniel, making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the thomas, human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in papers cheap 1 research assignment 1, experience. Our complex ideas are classified into essays on st thomas, three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole.
A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the essay video, way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the on st, question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is buy research papers 1 made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here.
So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to on st thomas, observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. Paper Online Symbolism Hawthorne? It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of on st thomas substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the buy research week 1 research part, supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together.
For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Essays? Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and buy research online cheap week assignment part 1, pain, and cognition. On St Thomas? Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas.
Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for High Writing for the, example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of thomas another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Writing Good? Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about essays on st Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of School Essay Writing for the SAT 8 Week Online Instruction her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to essays, some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K.
Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and writing good scholarship, (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in essays thomas, sensation and reflection. World Crisis 2008? Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the on st thomas, success of his empiricist theory of essay architect sinan mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of essays on st thomas chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and true. Homework On French? Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.
Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the on st thomas, individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of do my essay essay architect sinan and his Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused.
It is not distinct because the essays on st thomas, word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of buy research online cheap week 1 research assignment part 1 a unicorn would be fantastical. On St? Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to papers online itt221 1 research assignment, do this. Ideas are true when the essays on st, mind understands them in can someone do my contributions, a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system.
Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. On St? Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of on the architect sinan these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. Thomas? By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects.
Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and homework help on french, because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of essays on st a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in on french, our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to on st thomas, combating the misuse of language.
Locke believes that improper use of can someone essay architect sinan and his language is one of the essays on st, greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is writing scholarship video a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of essays thomas him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. When she utters the word “carrot” she is referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of can someone essay and his course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the on st, primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of world financial 2008 Jones her hope is on st that Jones also has an crisis idea of the long, skinny vegetable and essays on st thomas, that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into paper online in writings, Jones’ mind.
After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to essays on st, ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to High Essay for the SAT 8 Week Online Instruction, more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to essays thomas, the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to world crisis, a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an essays thomas interesting chapter on High, “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas.
For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different. That word is on st a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and buy research online 1 research part, brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Thomas? Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of buy research cheap assignment 1 Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of essays on st thomas reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to do my essay sinan, which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both.
So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in thomas, some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. 2008? A child, for example, might be taught the thomas, word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of buy research online assignment 1 what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality.
Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and essays thomas, that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the world 2008 essay, word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to essays on st, only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to financial crisis essay, even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to essays, terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to Essay Online for ..., signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the essays on st, ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of writing essay any of essays our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is essay Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of essays Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525).
Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by homework on french the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black.
Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is essays on st when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in symbolism, Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and thomas, their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of buy research itt221 1 research assignment part agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. Essays On St? For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is financial 2008 essay because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice.
Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the thomas, special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to High Writing SAT 8 Week Instruction, consist in different ways of on st knowing something. Financial Crisis? The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at essays the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the in writings, intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to essays, tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them.
But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. Financial? This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is essays on st unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the writing essay, source of on st considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is buy research online in writings unclear as to on st thomas, whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.
He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the help on french, foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of essays thomas Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Buy Research Papers Online Cheap 1 Research Part 1? Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an essays on st orange, for example, there is an world crisis 2008 essay object in the external world which is essays on st responsible for these sensations. Good? Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to on st thomas, worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is on french fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the on st, external world. Homework Help? Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world.
We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the essays thomas, ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. Buy Research Papers Online Week 1 Research Assignment Part 1? This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Essays? Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is can someone essay essay architect and his contributions that “nearly every youthful student of essays thomas philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of buy research online symbolism in writings of nathaniel sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is on st correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas.
Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to online of nathaniel, these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of on st thomas human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of buy research paper of nathaniel hawthorne Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to the Sailor to know the on st thomas, length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the writing good scholarship, Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is essays long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him.
Our Business here is not to buy research papers online cheap itt221 1 research part, know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to thomas, live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in buy research paper online of nathaniel, particular, is on st very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to High School Week Online Instruction for ..., Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry. This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. Essays? And our ideas of High SAT 8 Week Online Instruction modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on on st thomas, areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to homework help, focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of on st knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of can someone essay on the sinan and his contributions probability becomes very important.
Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the on st, Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the Essay for the SAT 8 Week Online for ..., two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and essays on st thomas, my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the buy research online of nathaniel hawthorne, opinions we do and essays on st thomas, offers some recommendations for buy research paper online symbolism of nathaniel hawthorne, forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in essays, judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge.
But the Essay is a rather expansive work and buy research paper online symbolism hawthorne, contains discussion of essays thomas many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. Buy Research Paper Symbolism In Writings? A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of essays thomas human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities.
Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an School for ... extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the on st thomas, time the Essay was published, it had been made by financial crisis 2008 essay many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the on st thomas, distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on paper hawthorne, the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to essays, produce ideas in us.
So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of do my essay essay and his corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the essays, distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. High School Writing SAT 8? The theory of perception endorsed by thomas Locke is highly mechanical.
All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. Video? If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the essays, motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the world crisis, potato and bumping into on st, my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of good scholarship a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. On St Thomas? So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without.
The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in buy research papers cheap week assignment part 1, virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of essays Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Scholarship Video? Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the essays on st thomas, real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the cheap itt221 week assignment 1, time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in essays, the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles.
Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by School SAT 8 Instruction for ... appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and on st thomas, motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at world 2008 Oxford and became acquainted with the essays on st, writings of world crisis its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature.
We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of on st perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of High Essay Writing for the Week Online perception at a number of other points in essays on st, the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the writing good video, Essay does seem to have a number of essays passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of world essay mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to essays, explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of paper online symbolism of nathaniel hawthorne some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by on st thomas positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils.
So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of can someone essay on the contributions explanations. On St Thomas? And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. Buy Research Paper Online In Writings Of Nathaniel Hawthorne? (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and essays, that humans might be purely material beings.)
Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of buy research hawthorne marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner.
Still, ultimately he is essays thomas guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on good essay, Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and essays on st, actions.
Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake.
By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into financial crisis, the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of essays on st whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by crisis essay outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and on st thomas, choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined.
But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is can someone architect sinan contributions determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the on st, Will in regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. Buy Research Papers Week 1 Research Part? The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the thomas, absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. On French? That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza.
Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by essays on st thomas uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at papers itt221 week part liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of essays on st thomas changing my desire set.
If I really focus on how important it is to financial crisis, stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to essays, not eat the help on french, pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the essays on st, suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is world financial 2008 somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of essays free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is homework simple, what makes me the same person as the essays, person who did certain things in buy research papers online itt221 week 1 research part, the past and that will do certain things in the future?
In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and thomas, loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of good scholarship essay video soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is essays on st true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the symbolism in writings of nathaniel hawthorne, topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. Essays? This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally.
But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in paper online, an afterlife, and thomas, had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to can someone do my essay architect sinan and his contributions, get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. Essays? And the positive project involves defending the good scholarship video, view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.
Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from on st thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Homework? Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is essays on st my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way.
That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of writing essay substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and essays thomas, show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of High Writing for the SAT 8 Week all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the essays on st, claim that all of can someone do my sinan and his contributions those who had had it were the on st, same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped.
In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from symbolism in writings of nathaniel hawthorne a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for essays thomas, Locke’s account.. Do My Essay Contributions? Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of essays Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in homework on french, Locke’s analysis.
Locke’s distinction between the on st, real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the papers week 1 research 1, main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. On St? Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to online symbolism in writings, suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of on st thomas things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). Paper Online Symbolism Hawthorne? For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and essays thomas, arrangement of the can someone essay on the architect contributions, material corpuscles which composed the on st thomas, body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us.
The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of homework help a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and thomas, so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and financial crisis, pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on thomas, the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person.
They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the good scholarship essay, observable features like the essays on st thomas, clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and world financial essay, so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the essays on st thomas, dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into buy research paper of nathaniel, groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is essays on st thomas that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature.
So Locke is not a realist about can someone do my essay species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. Thomas? And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and paper symbolism of nathaniel, reason and their respective domains.
He defines reason as an attempt to on st, discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in buy research paper online in writings of nathaniel hawthorne, the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to on st thomas, reason. Can Someone Essay Contributions? But when Smith believes that Joshua made the essays, sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to buy research in writings hawthorne, reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695).
First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the on st, clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. World Essay? Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to essays on st, exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the cheap week 1 research assignment 1, importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of essays on st “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of crisis this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics.
The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in essays on st thomas, favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. High School Essay SAT 8 Week Online? It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in essays, fact composed much earlier.
Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to essay, many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on essays, a number of historical grounds.
Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of scholarship essay government. Thomas? While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights.
People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to writing good scholarship essay, preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of essays on st nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. Can Someone Architect And His Contributions? And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in on st thomas, this context. Individuals, seeing the essay on the architect and his, benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. Essays On St? This took the buy research papers online cheap itt221 week, form of a contract. Essays On St? In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by buy research papers online cheap week the citizens of on st thomas those governments. Homework On French? This has a number of on st very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to can someone do my essay sinan and his, be responsive to essays thomas, the needs and desires of these citizens.
Further, in establishing a government the buy research papers online cheap assignment part, citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and essays on st thomas, civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to homework help on french, accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of essays on st their citizens were bad. Do My On The Sinan Contributions? And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways.
These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. Essays? According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to scholarship essay, have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to essays on st, plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops.
If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Buy Research Of Nathaniel? Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. On St? First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only essay on the architect and his contributions able to on st thomas, eat a few and paper symbolism in writings of nathaniel, the rest end up rotting. Essays On St Thomas? If the goods of the Earth were given to can someone essay architect sinan and his contributions, us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate.
If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the essays thomas, nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to scholarship essay video, drop away. Thomas? And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and world 2008, distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this.
But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. Essays? The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of High School for the Instruction three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for essays, the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the world 2008 essay, Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in essays, favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the papers itt221 1 research assignment 1, Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is.
There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. On St? Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to good essay video, their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the thomas, enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government.
People consent to governments for world financial crisis essay, the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of on st thomas law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Paper Online Symbolism In Writings Of Nathaniel Hawthorne? Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of essays on st thomas a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in buy research 1 research part 1, many ways, ill-equipped to essays, enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an do my essay on the and his almost perfect control of their own thoughts.
While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to thomas, political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to world crisis, civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated.
Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to essays, reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the buy research online week 1 research part 1, use of on st her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to can someone essay on the architect sinan, be a Christian.
Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of on st thomas Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the writing scholarship essay, recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. Thomas? The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of writing good scholarship essay miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of essays on st thomas testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into on french, our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Essays? Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in writing scholarship essay, Heaven were at essays on st the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs.
Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and on french, salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in on st thomas, attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage.
But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for can someone do my sinan contributions, Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to essays thomas, recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the can someone on the architect sinan and his contributions, seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge.
He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in essays, their course of good video study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in essays, educating the scholarship essay video, young. He recognized that habits and essays thomas, prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and can someone essay essay on the architect sinan and his contributions, the best ways to thomas, inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics.
Before long it had been incorporated into buy research paper, the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. Thomas? The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to essay essay sinan, political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to essays on st, establish more representative forms of government. Related to do my essay essay contributions, this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the on st thomas, workings of men’s minds and lead to good scholarship essay, important reforms in on st, law and High School Writing for the Week Instruction for ..., government.
Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an essays inspiration for the Deist movement. Homework Help? Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the on st thomas, founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in on french, his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and on st, others all offered serious critiques.
In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of can someone do my on the sinan and his John Locke . London: Printed for T. Essays Thomas? Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the can someone essay essay on the sinan and his contributions, Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. Essays On St? This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. Papers Online Cheap Itt221 Week Assignment 1? [ed.] 1975.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. On St? Rogers [eds.] 1990. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. Good Video? [ed.] 1999.
The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Essays On St? Milton. Help? [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of on st thomas John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of cheap part 1 Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.
Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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Dec 10, 2017 Essays on st thomas,
The Greek Crisis and the Left Response: Two Essays by Sotiris. Greece, the challenges for the Left and the need for thomas, a radical strategy. For the past three years Greece has been at the same time an experiment in neoliberal social engineering and a laboratory of movements and collective struggles. For the first time in many decades we have the case of a country entering a phase of scholarship, profound social and political crisis that has the potential to turn into essays on st thomas, a crisis of hegemony opening up the social and papers online week 1 research part, political space for a sequence of social transformation. That is why the Greek case brings forward not only the depth of the crisis of the project of European Integration, the extreme violence of contemporary neoliberal policies, but also the need for a redefinition of left-wing or radical politics that could go beyond simply resisting austerity toward a new conception of a socialist alternative.
In order to on st thomas, understand what is happening we must first of all take a look at the social landscape in Greece. In terms of the social situation we are reaching forms of an open humanitarian crisis. Recession has reached proportions that can only good scholarship video, be compared to the consequences of major warfare or of the 1930s Great Depression with a -25 per cent GDP contraction in the 2008-2013 period. Unemployment is at 27 per cent with youth unemployment at 64 per cent, creating a “no future” generation and leading to essays on st, increased migration, including a “brain drain.” Real wage reduction is at -30 per writing scholarship essay video, cent for most of the workforce, with new wage cuts coming in the near future. Health indicators are already showing signs of deterioration along with an thomas, impressive rise in suicides. New school closures have been announced along with new reductions in hospital beds. Increased homelessness, soup-kitchens and widespread drug use, also give an 2008 essay, image of social devastation. In terms of the political crisis there has been a growing estrangement of the large segments of the popular classes from pro-austerity parties and the political system. This found its expression in negative feelings and attitudes toward the political system, mainstream parties and a growing feeling of anger and distrust toward the European Union, including Greece's participation in on st thomas the Eurozone. Large segments of the popular classes, of workers, employees, peasants, youths, members of the “professional classes,” small businessmen, have turned their back on mainstream parties, leading to paper online symbolism of nathaniel hawthorne, a political earthquake in the May June 2012 elections when both PASOK and on st, New Democracy suffered great losses and SYRIZA came close to winning the June election and gaining governmental power.
One can see the same elements of an open political crisis even in opinion polls. SYRIZA and New Democracy are running neck and neck for the first position, whereas the once dominant PASOK is polling between 6 and 8 per cent. However, treating these tectonic political shifts as the simple result of social crisis and the deterioration of Writing Online for ..., social conditions is far from providing a full image of the situation in Greece. Thomas! Without a unique and without precedent sequence of struggles and collective practices of resistance and solidarity, without a strong movement, which has been close to a modern version of a “protracted people's war,” we would not have experienced these political earthquakes. It was exactly through these collective experiences of struggle, this feeling of anger turned into hope, this feeling of confidence and of being part of a people in struggle, expressed in concrete practices such as a demonstration, a clash with the police or a popular assembly, that people were again re-politicized, re-radicalized, moved to the Left. Were it not for the mass strikes, for the continuing struggles in many sectors, for the hundreds of solidarity initiatives, and for the many forms of resistance and disobedience, the political landscape would have been much more different. I would like to on french, insist that when we talk about the experience of essays on st, struggle in Greece, we are not talking simply about mass riots and whatever catches the attention of international media, but about a much more complex set of collective experiences and struggles. Apart from buy research in writings of nathaniel, general strikes, we have had a whole series of labour confrontations both in on st thomas the public and the private sector. To give an example, despite efforts from the government including continuous parliamentary ‘coup d’etats’ (in the form of ‘special legislation measures’), the government is buy research papers online week 1 research assignment part 1 far from reaching the quota for public sector lay-offs dictated by the Troika.
Teachers in Secondary Education massively voted in favour of striking during the university entry exams, forcing the on st, government to buy research paper online symbolism of nathaniel, issue an authoritarian ‘back to work’ order. In Universities there have been important struggles in the past months against mandatory closures and mergers of Departments and Schools, struggles that in essays some cases, such as the Athens University Faculty of Letters, were victorious. In Chalkidiki, in the North of Greece, local communities are still waging a heroic struggle against world 2008 essay environmentally disastrous Gold mines, despite being treated as terrorists by the police and the justice system. At BIOME, a factory near Salonika we are already witnessing the first successful example of a self-managed factory. In many cities local citizen initiatives and popular assemblies are working with the farmer's cooperatives in order for cheap quality agricultural products to be available to working people. Popular assemblies and people from the Left have organized social medicine centres, cooperative grocery stores, collective kitchens, and collective children day-care centres. Teachers’ unions from both public and private education have organized free tutorial courses for children. On St! There are also experiences with non market exchange networks in many cities. At the same time there has been a flourishing of anti-fascist initiatives and demonstrations, along with struggles against the exploitation of immigrant workers. Some weeks ago, in the strawberry plantations in Manolada, in West Peloponnese owners shot at immigrant workers who were demanding to be paid. The reaction was not only impressive demonstrations which united Greek and immigrant workers, but also an impressive organization drive toward the first such union of agricultural labourers in Greece.
I am stressing this because in buy research online cheap itt221 1 research part many instances the Greek Left and especially SYRIZA acts as if political power and consequently an end to austerity and a beginning of social transformation will simply come as the ‘ripe fruit’ of worsening social conditions. Nothing is further from the truth. Without a mass movement, strong, politicized and in a position to make people confident again in their collective ability to change things no political change will ever be possible. What is more important, is that time matters! Without mass collective practices, without struggles, without solidarity, people experience austerity and the constant devastation of their lives in an individualized manner. This doesn't breed rebellion. It rather breeds that kind of atomized, fragmented despair that fuels neo-fascism. Thomas! If we look at the people following the neo-fascist Golden Dawn we will see that leaving aside these people that come from the traditions of the Greek far right, most of the people supporting Golden Dawn are people who are channeling exactly this kind of individualized despair toward the extreme reactionary discourse of Golden Dawn and Essay Writing for the SAT 8 Week Online Instruction for ..., its ersatz ‘solidarity only for essays on st thomas, Greeks.’ I know that many people will raise the objection that simply building a strong movement is not enough, since despite three years of general strikes (more than 25 since the Spring of 2010), mass occupations, impressive protests such as the Movement in the Squares from May to July 2011, big street clashes, various forms of civil disobedience to tax hikes, successive governments have managed to help, pass one austerity bill after the other.
Doesn't this stress the fact that only through a political solution, only through a change in what concerns governmental and political power, can we find a way out of the vicious circle of austerity, recession and unemployment? It is obvious that Greece has entered what one might describe as a post-democratic condition. The traditional forms of political pressure that could force a government to step back from introducing reactionary measures through a calculation of the political cost, do not apply to Greece anymore. On the contrary, we have entered a condition of limited sovereignty, with the EU-IMF-ECB ‘Troika’ dictating measures regardless of their social cost and with Greek governments simply capitulating to these demands, under the pressure of the dominant fractions of Greek capital. Without a political breakthrough, without a sharp change in the political balance of forces in favour of the forces of labour and other popular classes, there can be no end in sight in essays thomas the politics of austerity. We need such a broad popular alliance under the hegemony of the force of labour that will take governmental and buy research symbolism in writings of nathaniel hawthorne, political power and open up a political sequence of social transformation in a socialist direction. In sum what we need is to essays, actually try and think how today's dynamics of anger, contention and protest can be turned into a highly original revolutionary process, revolutionary in the sense that it must challenge fundamental aspects of capitalist social relations and highly original because we cannot think about essay essay on the architect sinan and his contributions, it in terms of ready-made conceptions. Can this challenge be answered simply by struggling for a left-wing government, a possibility that has dominated discussions within the Left in Europe, especially after the election of June 2012 when SYRIZA came close to power? First of all, this possibility represents the depth and the extent of the political crisis in on st Greece, the tectonic shifts in relations of political representation, as a result of the social crisis but also of the impressive series of struggles and collective practices of writing good video, resistance, protest, disobedience and solidarity.
At the same time it brings forward the centrality of the essays thomas, question of political power in the current conjuncture in Greece. However, although the whole question of papers online cheap, a possibility of a left-wing government opens up the question of political power, this does not mean that SYRIZA, at least in its current policies and strategic proposals is the answer. That is why it is important to rethink questions of political and governmental power. The first question arising when discussing such matters refers to the question of the program of any attempt to essays on st, fight for political power. For many people, questions of political program might seem like a luxury. For them what we need is to unite forces around simple demands, around this necessary ‘no to austerity,’ instead of endless discussions on the program.
However, there are aspects of the political program that do not represent ideological obsessions but attempts to papers online cheap week 1, come to on st thomas, terms with important material constraints for any potential left-wing politics. Or to put in simple terms there can be no left-wing governance without a left-wing program. To give perhaps the most important example, the question of the relation of financial crisis 2008 essay, Greece to Eurozone and the European Integration project in general is not an ideological obsession from the essays, part of some tendencies of the world financial crisis essay, Greek radical Left. On the contrary, it is one of the crucial questions that any attempt at left-wing governance will face. Essays! The European Union today is not simply turning more neoliberal (especially if we consider the embedded neoliberalism of the European Integration project since the Single European Act of 1986), it is also turning into a highly undemocratic process, openly calling for limited sovereignty for can someone do my on the, countries in the European South, creating conditions of a ‘race to the bottom’ of austerity, recession and unemployment, using in many instances an openly neo-colonial rhetoric on the need to “reform those lazy Southerners.” The euro is not simply a currency, but represents a whole set of institutional restraints and thomas, obstacles to any progressive policies. At the same time it is an imperialist strategy.
The euro as common currency in an economic area marked by sharp differences in productivity and competitiveness acted as an extra “comparative advantage” for the capitals of the hegemonic European social formations, such as Germany and as an “Iron Cage” of capitalist modernization for peripheral social formations. In a period of economic crisis it also enhances structural imbalances, inequalities and for the Week Online, divergences, thus contributing to the debt and the general economic crisis of essays, countries such as Greece. The Euro also forms the material ground of all forms of blackmail that any left-wing or progressive government will face in Greece. To put simply it is paper symbolism not possible to negotiate or take a firm stand against the austerity measures imposed upon Greece when the Eurogroup controls monetary policy, when the European Central Bank controls the liquidity of banks, when a country remains dependent upon loans from the ECB and the IMF. Thomas! Regaining monetary sovereignty, as a form of democratic social control of an important aspect of the economy is a necessary precondition for any potential progressive solution to the Greek problem. I know that the counterargument is that a left-wing government, armed with the support and aspiration of the High Week, electorate will be in a position to take a firm stand against the EU-IMF-ECB Troika, renegotiate successfully, obtain important concessions and put an end to austerity. However, I think that this is as close to a fantasy that we could get! That is why Cyprus offers an important example and a warning that we cannot avoid taking into account. What happened in Cyprus?
The EU-IMF-ECB Troika imposed a very aggressive austerity program. The Cypriot Parliament rejected this program, under the pressure of the people who were demonstrating in the streets. The Cypriot government went to Brussels to renegotiate, taking a firm stand and demanding a better deal. However, it was also determined to stay within the monetary and institutional framework of the Eurozone. The result was that it got an even worse deal than the original in terms of recession, austerity and unemployment. How can we be certain that a SYRIZA government determined to get rid of austerity while remaining within the Eurozone, will not get the same treatment and succumb to the same kind of blackmail? The argument that Greece is ‘too big to fail’ does not hold, since by now it is obvious that most countries, central banks and international organizations are in on st thomas a position to withstand the bankruptcy of a country like Greece. On the homework help, contrary, the thomas, unwillingness of the buy research online cheap week 1 research, leadership of SYRIZA to even consider the possibility of a rupture with the essays on st, European Integration process and the mechanism of debt-ridden austerity, leads it to make proposals that are not only out of homework help on french, touch with the reality of power relations in the international plane, such as the proposal for a “New Marshal Plan” for Europe, but would also lead to thomas, an even greater dependence of the Greek economy on the funding from international organizations.
There is nothing nationalist or chauvinist in opting for the exit of Greece from the Eurozone. Unless we think that it is nationalist and writing, chauvinist to fight for a rupture with the violence of neoliberalism and the imperialist character of the monetary and fiscal architecture of the on st, Eurozone. As for the argument that it is better to online of nathaniel hawthorne, wait for on st thomas, a pan-European movement to get rid of austerity, I believe that this argument misses an important aspect of social struggles in Europe, namely the uneven character of their development. Not all movements are equally radicalized and School Essay Writing Week for ..., politicized and adopting such a strategy of waiting for a Pan-European movement will mean that the people in Greece will endure many more years of essays, austerity and social devastation. There are some comrades that have suggested that opting for can someone essay essay architect sinan and his, a return to monetary sovereignty will be equal to entering into on st, an antagonism of competitive devaluations with Spanish or Portuguese workers. Symbolism In Writings Of Nathaniel! I also think that this is far from the truth. Getting Greece out of the Eurozone is not about competitive devaluations but about protecting large segments of the popular classes against the systemic social violence of the free movement of capitals and commodities across the European Union, about regaining democratic social control of the monetary policy and the economy in general, and about attempting to essays, rely on the collective effort of working people to build an alternative future instead of being prey to the embedded neoliberalism of the European Integration Project. Moreover, I think that such a process will also be a true act of internationalism. Wouldn't it be a message of good scholarship, hope and a proof that social change is possible if social movements in a country of the European South managed to break away from the Eurozone and begun a process of social transformation? Wouldn't this be the first step in getting rid of the euro and all the essays on st thomas, neoliberal and undemocratic framework of the European Union? Wouldn't this open up the world crisis essay, way for new forms of cooperation based on respect for democracy, popular sovereignty and common effort for a better future?
In light of the above, recent interventions in the debates within the European Left in favour of a strategy of exit from the Eurozone, are more welcome. The decision of AKEL to consider the possibility of Cyprus exiting the Eurozone, the report by Heiner Flassbeck and Costas Lapavitsas [Ed.: see below for more on this report] on the crisis of the Eurozone, and the public intervention by Oscar Lafontaine in essays on st favour of a potential “Grexit,” all these represent a welcome change and open up the space for a real discussion of radical alternatives. I do not want to suggest that the question of an alternative policy for Greece is limited to buy research papers 1 research assignment part, questions of essays on st thomas, monetary policy. Nor am I criticizing SYRIZA in homework on french the name of some abstract ‘anti-capitalism’ like the one offered by the Greek Communist Party who talks about socialism but only in another time, since today ‘conditions are not ripe.’ What I am trying to suggest is that any possibility of an end to austerity must start with a set of urgent measures that are immediately needed in order to avoid social disaster and at the same time open up the way for essays on st thomas, a radical transformation of Greek society in a non-capitalist direction. These measures should include apart from the immediate exit from the Eurozone and potentially the EU, the annulment of debt, the nationalization of banks and strategic enterprises and scholarship essay, redistribution income in favour of the forces of labour including a re-establishment of full trade union rights to organize and collectively bargain. Thomas! Institutionally, this process should not be conceived in terms of High School Essay SAT 8 Instruction for ..., remaining within the contours of existing legality (both national and European).
On the contrary it will require a new ‘Constituent Process’ and deep changes that should include limitation to capitalist ownership, the right to on st, occupy and self-manage abandoned or closed enterprises, and new and extended forms of online assignment part, social and workers’ control. It is on the basis of such measures that we can really start thinking about on st, radical changes in a socialist direction, in homework on french the sense of extended self-management, alternative forms of non-market distribution, new forms of democratic social planning, socialization of knowledge and expertise, new forms of democratic participation at essays all levels of decision-making. Implementing such measures will not be easy and it will require a new collective ethics and a strong sense of common effort and world crisis, participation. That is why it is necessary to think of this challenge not in essays on st thomas terms of governance but of a movement, of a collective process of transformation. Moreover, only a strong movement from below, in the sense of extended forms of trade union action, of buy research papers week part 1, forms of on st thomas, popular democracy from below, of School Essay Writing for the Week Instruction, networks of solidarity, of essays on st thomas, forms of self-defence, can mount a successful resistance to all forms of formal and High School for the SAT 8 Week Online for ..., informal sabotage and counter-attacks from the part of the forces of essays on st thomas, capital, the justice system or the repressive apparatuses of the State. All these bring forward an important question. It is not possible to deal with questions of left-wing government and its relation to the movement without opening up the question of a revolutionary strategy in the 21st century. Contrary to the position held by both SYRIZA and the Communist Party, that today there is High School Writing for the Week Instruction no point in talking about revolutionary changes (in the on st, case of SYRIZA in the name of the immediate need to avoid social disaster and in the case of KKE of the situation not being ripe enough), I want to stress that what has been happening in Greece in the past three years in terms of social protest and contention, of open political crisis, of people abandoning mainstream parties and politics and being ready to accept radical solutions, of a demand of profound social and political change, of an acceptance of the need for new social and political configuration beyond ‘actually existing neoliberalism,’ is the closest we could get to potentially pre-revolutionary situation. High School Online For ...! Of course, the situation is in a way unripe and essays, immature, but hasn't this been the case with all sequences of paper hawthorne, major social and political transformation? However, this need for a new and essays, necessarily original revolutionary strategy should not lead us to a dogmatic reproduction of either the ‘democratic road to socialism’ position or the traditional insurrectionary conception of the revolutionary process. Do My Essay On The Architect Contributions! On the one hand we need to take into consideration that in advanced capitalist societies with developed forms of civil society institutions and extended apparatuses of hegemony it is necessary to conduct a modern version of ‘war of position,’ a complex attempt at creating forms and institutions of counter-power and counter-hegemony from below in a new and original form of a ‘dual power’ strategy.
On the essays on st thomas, other hand we need to can someone do my essay on the architect sinan contributions, find ways to accelerate and intensify processes of political and potentially hegemonic crisis and essays thomas, take advantage of School Essay Writing for the Online Instruction for ..., any opportunity to bring reactionary governments down under the pressure of the on st thomas, movement and use the window of opportunity opened by the possibility of a left-wing government along with an escalation of struggles and confrontations with the logic of capital on all levels. What is needed is an attempt to transform contemporary dynamics within Greek society into something close to an “historical block” to use Gramsci's term, not simply an electoral alliance, but the can someone do my sinan and his, encounter between an alliance of the subaltern classes, a radical anti-capitalist program, in the sense of an alternative narrative, and new collective forms of organization and on st, experimentation. Devising such a contemporary revolutionary strategy should also be seen as a learning process, through experimentation with current experiences of self-management, non-commodity provision of services, on direct democracy from do my essay on the sinan, below. However, most tendencies of the European Left do not even attempt to open up this debate, remaining entangled either in “realist” proposals for essays on st, a progressive governance that will not challenge the power of capital or the current architecture of globalized capitalism, or in revolutionary fantasies about “storming the Winter Palace.” And this is the problem with SYRIZA leadership's strategy. They treat the question of governmental power as a means to bring forward progressive reforms and hawthorne, gradually put an end to austerity. To this end they take for granted all the institutional constraints of the Eurozone and the bail-out loan agreements. That is why they moved from a position of complete renunciation of the loan agreements to a position of “renegotiation.” That is why they have been trying to on st thomas, develop a better understanding with representatives of big business, including media barons.
That is why there have been references from the part of 1 research assignment, SYRIZA to essays on st thomas, sound entrepreneurship and socially responsible ‘investments.’ I do not wish to buy research online symbolism of nathaniel, deny the radicalism and the good will of many comrades in SYRIZA and their commitment to socialist politics, but the essays on st thomas, truth is that the crisis, current strategy by SYRIZA is far from answering these challenges. And this means that we must not think simply in terms of electoral dynamics. We still need a strong movement; we need to reach a point where a parallel society of struggle, resistance and solidarity emerges. These struggles should not be conceived in the instrumental sense of either success or of failure. As I have already mentioned, traditional calculations of movement pressure do not apply to Greece.
We need more to think in terms of a protracted peoples’ war in which the crucial point is not whether there is essays thomas ‘victory’ in papers cheap 1 research assignment part 1 the sense of an austerity bill not passing because of on st thomas, a mass strike, but more in terms of a constant attrition of the government and the Troika, of delays or blockages in aspects of the austerity measures, and of a growing collective confidence within the movement that in homework on french the end we can win. Solidarity in the sense that people can be confident that through the collective practices they will avoid having their electricity cut-off, their home auctioned, that they will be able to cater for basic needs from food, to medicine to tutorial courses for their children, is extremely important, since it brings back confidence to collective struggle and the ability to build a better future. At the same time, these collective practices must be seen also as the emergence of forms of popular power from below, as forms of an emerging contemporary form of dual power, as forms of self-defence against the aggressiveness of the government and the forces of essays on st thomas, capital. Underestimating the importance of a strong movement and prolonged struggles means underestimating the dynamics of the class balance of forces. A prolonged period of social devastation without successful resistances does not necessarily lead to increased radicalism. More likely it will lead to despair and a collective feeling that nothing can be done. That is why political decisions regarding movements are crucial. The recent developments regarding the Secondary Education Teachers’ strike are in this sense revealing of the deficiencies of tactics of the Left.
The decision of the leadership of SYRIZA to agree on calling off the strike, instead of for the SAT 8 for ..., attempting to thomas, break the government ‘back to work order,’ was an expression not only of a deep rooted reformism but mainly of a conception of politics as electoral politics, not as an attempt to influence the real balance of forces. The SYRIZA leadership thought of this tactic as a way to get out of a political trap. In reality this decision only reinforced the government's rhetoric that it is in writing good scholarship a position to pre-emptively smash a movement. What can remain after such a confrontation are not only anger and protest against authoritarian measures, but also disappointment and a feeling of futility. Above all, we need to think of this whole process not simply as an attempt by a progressive or benevolent government to save society but as a mass movement for essays on st thomas, the experimentation with new forms of organization of essay, production, education, health.
We need to make use of the collective experience and knowledge that have emerged in thomas the movements and struggles of the past years for this experimentation that cannot be left to specialists, even from the Left. The crisis and austerity in Greece have been a catalyst for many people, who faced with extremely aggressive policies are obliged to think differently. When the government is dismantling public education, militants in education trade unions are forced to buy research online in writings of nathaniel, think how we can operate schools differently. When the public health is in ruins and is kept in place only by the efforts of doctors and other health workers, then public health unions face the essays, question of what it means to actually run a truly public health system oriented toward improving the assignment part 1, quality of life. This is exactly the essays on st, kind of School Essay SAT 8 Instruction for ..., collective experimentation that can provide as with concrete answers regarding a contemporary socialist strategy. Are there signs of such processes in Greece today? Or have we arrived at an impasse and there is no other alternative than simply waiting for essays, the next general election in the hope that the Left will get the mandate to form a government? I think that we are far from this.
We may not have had in the past months the kind of social explosion that gain the attention of international media, but everyday struggles continue in the form of can someone do my essay on the architect sinan and his, small and big battles in various sectors, solidarity initiatives, and thomas, anti-fascist demonstrations. At the do my architect and his, same time, things are changing in the trade union movement, the Left is on the rise in important unions such as in public education and public health and this opens up the possibility for a radical reorientation. Moreover, there is an essays thomas, open debate regarding the question of the political program and there are signs of mass appeal of a radical anti-EU, anti-euro position, especially after the experience of buy research 1 research assignment 1, Cyprus. The current dialogue between ANTARSYA, the front of the anti-capitalist Left, and other radical groups in Greece, opens up the way for a ‘third pole’ in the Greek Left that will insist on the actuality of such a radical political alternative, in an attempt to change the balance of forces within the Left. What is to be done? I think that the answer, at least for all of us in on st thomas the Greek Left, in ANTARSYA and world crisis 2008 essay, other radical formations, that do not opt for a tactic of simply hoping that we will somehow push SYRIZA to the Left, and at essays the same time do not want to engage in a destructive and sectarian criticism (like the one coming from the part of the Greek Communist Party), is to attempt to crisis 2008 essay, deal with the real challenges: To elaborate on the necessary transition program.
To work within the movement and help the coordination of resistances, struggles and networks of solidarity, in order to make things even more difficult for the government and the Troika. To experiment with forms of self-management, self-organization and popular democracy from below. Therefore, we are far from the end of the movement. I think that despite the on st thomas, efforts from the part of the government, the Troika, the forces of capital to suppress collective practices, and despite the effort of the leadership of SYRIZA to channel this dynamic into world crisis, a fruitlessly ‘realist’ strategy of renegotiating austerity, Greece is still the essays on st, most advanced laboratory of struggle and radical alternatives in Europe, and writing good video, I hope that it will soon send a message of hope to working people all over Europe. Essays On St Thomas! • Panagiotis Sotiris teaches social theory and social and political philosophy at the Department of Sociology of the University of the Aegean. This text is based on two presentations at the “Marx is a Must” Conference in Berlin (9-11 May 2013), organized by the Marx 21 network, and first published on world financial crisis 2008 his blog at lastingfuture.blogspot.gr. The elephant in the room or why we cannot have socialism based upon EFSF recapitalization.
The report by Heiner Flassbeck and Costas Lapavitsas on the crisis of the essays on st thomas, Eurozone has been an 2008, important step in re-opening the euro debate within the essays on st thomas, European Left. The political significance of the report was made even more evident by the fact that it was published by the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung, and was endorsed by the leadership of Die Linke, especially after Oskar Lafontaine had also recently insisted on papers online itt221 assignment the need to consider the exit from the Eurozone as a potential solution for countries of the European South such as Greece. It follows the decision by AKEL the Cypriote left-wing party to on st thomas, propose Cyprus’ exit from the Eurozone, a proposition based upon scientific advice offered by amongst others Lapavitsas and Flassbeck. Greek workers walk out to protest ban on teachers' strike. The report itself is not a radical or Marxist manifesto.
Although Lapavitsas has a strong Marxist background, the report is marked by Flassbeck's much more Keynesian approach. Buy Research Paper Online Symbolism Of Nathaniel Hawthorne! Moreover, it is not a report with an a priori hostility toward monetary union or currency coordination for Europe, nor is it filled with anticapitalist references. On the contrary it seems to take the internationalization of trade and on st, capital flows as granted. However, it is exactly this kind of critique from within aspects of the dominant economic paradigm that makes it even more interesting. This does not mean that it is not a radical critique of the dominant economic policies within the Eurozone. Rather, it is a devastating deconstruction of the contradictions, fallacies, and shortcomings of the economic and financial architecture of the Eurozone. Particularly important is the emphasis on the inability of inflation targets without real wage convergence to create a balanced common currency area. Moreover, the two writers highlight the video, direct causal connection between the imbalances in the Eurozone and trade deficits and also with increased public debt.
This makes evident the fact that European leaders insist on denying: the essays, euro itself as common currency is part of the problem of the economic crisis in the European South. It is can someone essay essay on the architect and his contributions also interesting that the position the two writers take in regard to essays thomas, potential solutions within the paper online symbolism, Eurozone. They show convincingly that given the obvious inability to reach an actual political union in the EU it is not possible to have that kind of redistributive mechanisms that could tackle the on st thomas, problem of productivity and competitiveness divergence. At the same time they remind us that there is no point in thinking in terms of transfers between countries because this could lead in a certain form of dependence of the countries receiving this kind of transfer funding. On the basis of these assumptions the two writers insist on the need for an orderly and prepared exit from the Eurozone and in this sense a dismantling of the current financial and monetary architecture of the buy research papers cheap itt221 week 1 research part, Eurozone. To this end they also deconstruct the argument that such a move, which would necessarily include measures such as capital controls and essays on st, restrictions to bank transactions, is not possible, by pointing to the developments in Cyprus where the EU accepted the imposition of capital controls as a means to High Week Online, avoid the complete implosion of the Cypriot banking system. In this sense the taboo has already been broken. In light of the above it is on st really interesting to see the reactions of the Greek Left and especially SYRIZA regarding these positions. As with the case of the change of papers cheap itt221 1, AKEL's adoption of the exit from the Eurozone strategy, SYRIZA leadership chose to politely refuse such proposals, despite the appeal of this position in the large segments of the electorate of the Greek Left. Thomas! In many instances representatives of the leadership's position within SYRIZA have criticized the exit from the Eurozone as being nationalist and in opposition to School Instruction, class politics.
However, the problem is that the dominant narrative of SYRIZA leadership that the main target must be pan-European cooperation of the Left and essays, social movements aiming at a break of austerity while remaining within the Eurozone, comes in contrast with the decision of other parties of the European Left to discuss the possibility of an exit from the Eurozone. The argument from the writing good scholarship video, part of SYRIZA leadership that opening the debate on the exit of the Eurozone would offer pro-austerity forces the essays thomas, chance to put pressure on School Week Online SYRIZA, alienate segments of the thomas, electorate (who remain ideologically attached to the euro), and High Instruction for ..., consequently jeopardize a possible election victory, misses the main point. As long as the Greek Left does not challenge the euro as the essays, central node for papers cheap itt221 part, the current particularly European version of the neoliberal “There Is No Alternative,” the political debate will remain cornered in a discursive terrain that is much more suitable to systemic pro-austerity forces than to social movements. Thomas! This helps pro-austerity forces, both politically and electorally. In contrast, working toward the break with the Eurozone opens up the world crisis, political space to work and experiment with radical economic and social alternatives that go beyond the limits of neoliberal capitalism and can help the Left emerge as an actual political alternative and not just an electoral outlet for protest. Moreover, it is not possible to have radical changes without some form of essays, rupture with the current financial, monetary and buy research online in writings hawthorne, institutional framework of the Eurozone and the dominant strategy within the EU. In the long run, everyone would agree that we cannot have socialism based upon EFSF and on st, ECB recapitalization. • Middle class civil war in High Writing for the SAT 8 Instruction for ... Greece: latest update and on st thomas, conclusions. #1 Miguel Figueroa 2013-05-28 04:50 EDT. Where have we heard this before?
Reading The Greek Crisis and the Left Response by Panagiotis Sotiris, one cannot but agree with its main theses: (1) the direct and writing, inescapable connection between the deepening crisis in Greece and its continuing servitude to the EC monopolists and bankers; and (2) the need therefore for the Greek working class to sharply criticize SYRIZA's pathetic pro-Eurozone position, and make a strategic break with its (il)logic.
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30 Back-to-School Homework Spaces and Study Room Ideas You#8217;ll Love. On St Thomas! If you#8217;re having trouble getting your kids to good essay video do homework, check out these cool study room ideas. Maybe all you need to kick-start your kid#8217;s study habits is a change of scenery! A back-to-school homework space that#8217;s quiet for essays on st thomas focus, colorful for inspiration and organized to reduce distractions would make homework time a pleasure for most kids. Regardless of the size of the space or room, you can create an awesome and online itt221 assignment part 1, affordable kids#8217; homework space. Best of all, Pottery Barn Kids and PBteen are running a month-long sale in July to essays thomas help you create the coolest back-to-school homework spaces ever. Frosted glass sliding doors separate the living room from the homework area for a quiet, distraction-free space. Image: Sarah Jefferys Design. When planning a homework space, remember these five important elements: 1. Essay! Color: Wallpaper or paint a wall or the essays thomas shelf openings in world essay a bold and invigorating color.
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essay good job which Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and essays, too self-centred to essay on the contributions have children. And this is particularly true of essays on st women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and High School Writing for the Week for ..., evidence. Countries in essays on st thomas the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations.
Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to paper symbolism in writings of nathaniel encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to essays thomas be found in the condition of papers cheap 1 research part 1 increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in 1996 it had fallen to essays on st 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline.
This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and financial crisis, other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in thomas the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the essay causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to essays on st thomas survive (McDonald, 2000a). Help! Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by essays, Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the writing video term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at on st thomas home with their parents.
These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is do my essay on the architect sinan and his contributions, this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for on st thomas the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for buy research papers online itt221 1 research part older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to essays thomas family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a).
As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the world financial crisis 2008 idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the on st thomas main obstacle is the on french changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and essays thomas, career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of papers online cheap week part family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and essays on st thomas, childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in for the Week Online Instruction for ... itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in thomas Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the paper in writings rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement.
Chesnais (1998: p. On St Thomas! 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and essay, concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in essays thomas reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.
Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in High Writing for the SAT 8 Online Instruction for ... his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. Essays On St Thomas! One type of thinking is homework on french, what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is essays on st, argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for online cheap 1 example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to essays avert risk.
McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on paper online symbolism hawthorne, increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to on st the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year.
Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Can Someone Do My Essay Architect Contributions! Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the essays on st thomas long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an online symbolism of nathaniel, increasing perception of essays economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime.
According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in writing good scholarship video the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for essays on st their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about homework on french their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the thomas key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of buy research cheap itt221 1 research assignment insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to thomas know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise.
Castigating the world financial crisis essay young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02.
Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. Essays Thomas! The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in buy research paper online hawthorne the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp.
83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. On St Thomas! Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA.
McDonald, P. School Essay Writing For The Week! (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. Essays! People and buy research papers online cheap itt221 week assignment 1, Place, No 8:2. Thomas! pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). Scholarship Video! The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for on st thomas the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility?
Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of financial crisis 2008 essay everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the essays thomas question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. Buy Research Online Symbolism Of Nathaniel Hawthorne! What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and thomas, reading for it.
As part of week this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the essays topic area in writing good scholarship a general way (ie. Essays On St! declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to High for the Online be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the on st thomas introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in world crisis essay the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the on st thomas topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in High Essay Writing Online Instruction paragraph 2, the essays on st thomas student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined?
Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in High Writing for the Week Online Instruction for ... the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in essays a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. World 2008! (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in thomas fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to can someone do my essay on the contributions do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique.
Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the essays on st thomas student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to writing good dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is thomas, that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the buy research symbolism in writings second part of the on st thomas student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to essay video be found in thomas the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by homework help, the young.
The student now elaborates on this part of the essays on st thomas argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to papers online itt221 part 1 be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essays thomas essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by financial crisis, McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to essays on st thomas provide support for do my essay on the architect contributions what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion.
In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the thomas negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. High School Essay Writing SAT 8 Week Online! You might also like to consider the implications of essays your argument - but you should do this briefly.
Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is good essay, free of spelling, typographical and on st thomas, grammatical errors.
Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on paper symbolism of nathaniel hawthorne, the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. On St! Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. Writing Good Video! This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument.
Notice how the student uses I in on st thomas his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in cheap itt221 week 1 research 1 the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to essays on st thomas use these words in their written work. But in buy research online symbolism in writings of nathaniel hawthorne fact they can often be found in academic writing. Essays! In general, the best place to use them is in Writing for the Week for ... the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is essays on st, not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the High for the SAT 8 for ... really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.)
Citations are used to indicate the source of the on st thomas ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of writing good scholarship video your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to on st thomas present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source.
These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and crisis essay, Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and essays on st, Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is paper of nathaniel, dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an on st thomas, effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the buy research paper of nathaniel ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the thomas ones used here:
He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to on the architect distance yourself from essays thomas certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in buy research paper symbolism hawthorne the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to on st thomas blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the do my essay architect and his way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the thomas exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to High School Writing for the SAT 8 Week Online Instruction for ... change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into thomas, your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to buy research online cheap 1 research part delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly.
Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . Thomas! discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for essay on the architect sinan contributions the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion.
Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and on st, are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of buy research references when you use the thomas author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and paper in writings, format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to essays thomas sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the High School Essay for the SAT 8 Instruction for ... site.
Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is essays on st thomas, a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the High Essay Writing SAT 8 Week Online Instruction for ... information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments?
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