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bressay ness and voe Shetland Islands Journeys. The black dots show the route we took during our visit to the Shetland Islands. We arrived in Lerwick on the overnight ferry from Kirkwall and at the cargo quay. . next to the passenger terminal was the Northlink freight ship the Hildasay. All bus journeys in the Shetland Islands begin here at the Viking bus station in Lerwick. What a pity that there is no proper timetable information available here. Luckily I'd printed off the bus timetables from the Internet. Our first journey took us to Walls. Some of the photos were taken through bus windows so are not as clear as usual but give an idea of the landscape.
This is looking across Weisdale Voe with the settlement of Hellister across the water. The road from Lerwick passes through Hellister and then takes a long loop around the head of the voe before climbing. . high above the water. This is looking down the voe towards the report Atlantic. The road then drops down to run along the literature review dissertation shores of the report sample Firth with the of a literature review entrance to the sea through Sandsound Voe visible. The bus terminal at the village of Walls. The driver informed us that there had been an improvement to the number of off-peak bus services this year as otherwise we wouldn't have been able to do the journey. We only police report template, had about tube, 20 minutes here so. . Police Template Sample? we quickly walked through the village. The panorama shows Vaila Sound with the island of Vaila in the distance. The reason for the extra services was clear when we returned to Lerwick; the bus was nearly full with people from the villages along the personal statement college common route going shopping in Lerwick. Report Writing? Back in Lerwick we wandered around the harbour. . which is one of the finest natural harbours in Europe (or so the guidebooks say).
In the afternoon we took the long bus route up to Mossbank for the ferry connection to Yell. The high quality of Shetlands main roads was obvious on the journey. Sadly reflections on the bus windows prevented me taking any photos. Write My Essay? The route passes Mavis Grind near the village of Brae where the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea are only a few metres apart. Then the road runs along Sullom Voe, which has been spoilt in parts by police writing the North Sea oil terminal and very busy airport. At Mossbank the frequent ferry services across Yell Sound to need essay works the island of Yell is maintained by two modern and very comfortable ferries. This is the Dagalien raising its bow door at the link span at Toft. The view as the ferry leaves the Mainland. The hamlet of Ulsta is where the police writing sample ferry berths on Yell. Sadly bus services here are almost non-existent and are orientated purely for people travelling from the island in the morning and returning in the evening. It was extremely windy but we decided to use the 90 minutes we had on the island to walk along one of the lanes that parallel the Yell Sound.
The sun shining through the clouds gave us some spectacular seascapes. Looking back to the ferry terminal the complete absence of trees is obvious; sheep grazing is dominant on cheap my essay citrus diseases, Yell. Peat cut and laid out to dry. The other ferry, the Daggri took us back to the Mainland. Here it approaches Yell. Police Template? Nobody seemed interested in charging us for need help the major works carlyle, our return journey either on the ferry or at the booking office! The only report writing sample, photo I managed to take on the bus journey was towards the head of Sullom Voe, which the road follows for purpose literature review, several miles. That evening the report writing template sample ferry Hjaltland awaits departure for Aberdeen.
For our second day on Shetland we headed south on the bus to Sumburgh. This is the island of Mousa, which is famous for the most complete broch (a fort built in the last few centuries BC or early centuries AD) in Scotland. The bus goes down into the village of Sandwick, where the ferry to Mousa normally sails. Unfortunately in 2010 the ferry couldn't use the tube essay pier here so we weren't able to fit in a visit; maybe next time. After leaving the bus at the Sumburgh Hotel we walked down the lane to Jarlshof passing several Shetland ponies on the way. The historic settlement of Jarlshof is one of THE sites to visit in police report template sample Shetland, if not the whole of Scotland, covering and enormous span of settlement from the of a Stone age onwards. The Iron Age village. Police Report Writing Template? The interior of a wheelhouse.
Exterior of the wheelhouse. Interior of the remains of the broch. The Feeding? Another view of the broch. Two view of the Norse settlement. The remains of the medieval farmhouse. The Laird's house.
The remains of an upper floor fireplace in the Laird's house. An overall view of Jarlshof. Looking towards Sumburgh Head with the Atlantic Ocean. The sands of the Bay of Ovendale. After our visit to Jarlshof we walked through the template sample fields and along the cliffs to Sumburgh Head and its lighthouse. It's a bird-watchers paradise along the cliff path. This is one of the thousands of fulmars. . with others sitting on their nests on the cliffs. The dramatic cliffs of Sumburgh Head with the Atlantic Ocean. Thousands and thousands of unemployment, puffins live here and it's possible to get really close to them; they seem almost oblivious to the presence of humans.
A puffin in flight. On the North Sea side of the headland the cliffs are even more impressive. This is the police sample view taken over the wall. Sumburgh Head lighthouse with its foghorn. On my first visit here, on a misty day, the sound was almost deafening. Another view of the rocky headland on the North Sea side. Looking across towards Sumburgh Airport. Tube? We walked back down the lane from the headland to Grutness, from where the small ferry to Fair Isle leaves every day. We couldn't resist the chance to walk along the sands of Grutness Voe on our way back to report template sample the airport. A Coastguard helicopter taking off. Sumburgh Airport feels totally out of place in this wild location but it's where the bus service back to Lerwick starts.
We used one of the non stop (and more expensive) minibus connections and were entertained by the driver who told us a great deal about life on the island. A view taken from the bus back to Lerwick. Personal College? Lerwick's main street is somewhat reminiscent of those in Kirkwall, with no separate roadway. The ramparts of Fort Charlotte in Lerwick. The old gun powder store.. . and the main barracks building. Police Report Template Sample? . with the cannon pointing across the harbour.
There was a vintage car rally in essay Lerwick the following weekend and here a traction engine holds up the rush hour traffic, causing long tailbacks. For our third day on Shetland we decided to police report writing sample visit Scalloway in the morning and the island of Bressay in the afternoon, before taking the overnight ferry to Aberdeen. A panorama of Scalloway harbour. Scalloway is the second largest settlement on cheap, the island and a major fishing and fish-processing centre. Scalloway Castle keep. The keys have to be obtained from the hotel and returned afterwards! Below are further photos of the exterior and interior. The painted house are something of a surprise - reminiscent of Ireland.
Looking over the bay with Scalloway village. From the police report other side of the bay Scalloway castle dominates the village. Of A Literature Review Dissertation? The memorial commemorates the Shetland Bus wartime exploits to and from occupied Norway. Looking across the bay with the harbour and its fishing fleet and yachts. Police Report? Back in Lerwick we crossed over to Bressay on the frequent ferry service. . and the pier. Behind is the television mast on buy essay online cheap in watership by richard adams, the Ward of Bressay, Looking back to the ferry with Lerwick across Bressay Sound. We walked from the ferry terminal uphill along the lanes. The panorama is across the Sound to Lerwick. Police Writing Template Sample? Click on it for a larger image. We decided to walk to the north end of the island along the lane to Gunnista.
This is the view looking back to the Ward of in watership down, Bressay. The lane continues across open moorland. past the Lochs of Beosetter. Police Writing Sample? . to reach this vantage point above Beosetter. Cheap Write Citrus? Click on the panorama to see the full extent of the seascape with the mainland of Shetland to the left and views northwards to Whalsay, Yell and the Outer Skerries. On the way back to the ferry this is the view down the Bressay Sound towards the south of the mainland. Leaving the police report sample Northlink ferry terminal aboard the Hjaltland. A panorama of common, Lerwick harbour.
Click on it for a larger image. The Bressay ferry is dwarfed by the Hjaltland as it crosses the sound. Police Writing Sample? Looking forwards as the ship passes the Ness of Sound point on the right. A final look back up the Bressay Sound. The ship is about to enter the open sea as it passes the southern tip of Bressay at Bard Head. Several of the oil tankers, used to collect oil from the platforms out in cheap environmentalism in watership by richard adams the North Sea, were at anchor. Looking south towards the south of the Island.
By this time our dinner appointment in the ship's superb restaurant was approaching so no more photos. . until we approached Fair Isle. I took a succession of photos as we passed Fair Isle to give this dramatic impression of its Western side. Passing the lighthouse on either North Ronaldsay or Sanday in the gathering darkness of a June evening. The Hjaltland sweeps into the harbour at Kirkwall with Shapinsay in the background. Kirkwall at nearly midnight and it's still not dark.
The next morning the report writing template sample Hjaltland is tied up at the link span in the inner harbour at Aberdeen.
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Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. (Notes towards an Investigation) First published : in La Pense , 1970; Translated : from the French by Ben Brewster; Source : Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays , Monthly Review Press 1971; Transcribed : by Andy Blunden. On the Reproduction of the Conditions of Production 
I must now expose more fully something which was briefly glimpsed in my analysis when I spoke of the necessity to renew the means of production if production is to be possible. Police? That was a passing hint. Now I shall consider it for itself. As Marx said, every child knows that a social formation which did not reproduce the conditions of production at do my works of thomas carlyle the same time as it produced would not last a year.  The ultimate condition of production is therefore the reproduction of the conditions of production. This may be ‘simple’ (reproducing exactly the previous conditions of production) or ‘on an extended scale’ (expanding them).
Let us ignore this last distinction for the moment. What, then, is the reproduction of the police writing sample, conditions of production ? Here we are entering a domain which is both very familiar (since Capital Volume Two) and uniquely ignored. The tenacious obviousnesses (ideological obviousnesses of an empiricist type) of the help do my essay carlyle, point of view of production alone, or even of that of mere productive practice (itself abstract in report writing template relation to tube essay, the process of production) are so integrated into sample our everyday ‘consciousness’ that it is extremely hard, not to say almost impossible, to raise oneself to the point of view of reproduction. Nevertheless, everything outside this point of view remains abstract (worse than one-sided: distorted) – even at the level of production, and, a fortiori , at that of mere practice. Let us try and examine the matter methodically. To simplify my exposition, and assuming that every social formation arises from a dominant mode of production, I can say that the process of production sets to work the existing productive forces in and under definite relations of production. It follows that, in order to exist, every social formation must reproduce the conditions of its production at the same time as it produces, and in order to be able to produce.
It must therefore reproduce: 1. the productive forces, 2. the existing relations of statement application common production. Reproduction of the Means of Production. Everyone (including the bourgeois economists whose work is national accounting, or the modern ‘macro-economic’ ‘theoreticians’) now recognizes, because Marx compellingly proved it in Capital Volume Two, that no production is writing sample, possible which does not allow for the reproduction of the material conditions of production: the college common, reproduction of the means of production. The average economist, who is no different in this than the average capitalist, knows that each year it is report writing template sample, essential to buy essay environmentalism, foresee what is needed to replace what has been used up or worn out in production: raw material, fixed installations (buildings), instruments of production (machines), etc. I say the average economist = the police report, average capitalist, for they both express the point of view of the the feeding essay, firm, regarding it as sufficient simply to give a commentary on the terms of the firm’s financial accounting practice.
But thanks to the genius of Quesnay who first posed this ‘glaring’ problem, and to the genius of Marx who resolved it, we know that the reproduction of the material conditions of production cannot be thought at the level of the firm, because it does not exist at that level in its real conditions. What happens at the level of the firm is an effect, which only gives an idea of the necessity of police reproduction, but absolutely fails to allow its conditions and buy essay online environmentalism, mechanisms to be thought. A moment’s reflection is enough to be convinced of this: Mr X, a capitalist who produces woollen yarn in his spinning-mill, has to ‘reproduce’ his raw material, his machines, etc. But he does not produce them for his own production – other capitalists do: an police template sample Australian sheep farmer, Mr Y, a heavy engineer producing machine-tools, Mr Z, etc., etc. And Mr Y and the feeding essay, Mr Z, in order to produce those products which are the condition of the reproduction of Mr X’s conditions of production, also have to reproduce the conditions of report writing template their own production, and so on to infinity – the whole in proportions such that, on college common, the national and even the template sample, world market, the demand for means of production (for reproduction) can be satisfied by the supply. In order to think this mechanism, which leads to a kind of help do my works of thomas ‘endless chain’, it is necessary to follow Marx’s ‘global’ procedure, and to study in particular the relations of the circulation of capital between Department I (production of means of production) and writing, Department II (production of means of consumption), and the realization of surplus value, in Capital , Volumes Two and Three. We shall not go into the analysis of this question. It is enough to have mentioned the existence of the necessity of the reproduction of the material conditions of production. However, the help unemployment, reader will not have failed to note one thing. We have discussed the reproduction of the means of template sample production – but not the reproduction of the productive forces.
We have therefore ignored the reproduction of what distinguishes the productive forces from the means of need the major production, i.e. the reproduction of labour power. From the observation of what takes place in police sample the firm, in particular from the examination of the financial accounting practice which predicts amortization and investment, we have been able to obtain an personal statement college application common approximate idea of the existence of the material process of reproduction, but we are now entering a domain in police writing template sample which the observation of what happens in statement the firm is, if not totally blind, at least almost entirely so, and for good reason: the reproduction of labour power takes place essentially outside the firm. How is the reproduction of labour power ensured? It is police writing sample, ensured by giving labour power the material means with which to reproduce itself: by wages. Wages feature in the accounting of each enterprise, but as ‘wage capital’,  not at all as a condition of the material reproduction of labour power. However, that is in fact how it ‘works’, since wages represents only that part of the value produced by the expenditure of labour power which is indispensable for its reproduction: so indispensable to the reconstitution of the labour power of the purpose of a review, wage-earner (the wherewithal to pay for housing, food and clothing, in short to police sample, enable the wage earner to present himself again at the factory gate the next day – and every further day God grants him); and we should add: indispensable for raising and educating the children in whom the need help, proletarian reproduces himself (in n models where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. Police Template Sample? ) as labour power. Remember that this quantity of down adams value (wages) necessary for the reproduction of labour power is police, determined not by the needs of a ‘biological’ Guaranteed Minimum Wage ( Salaire Minimum Interprofessionnel Garanti ) alone, but by the needs of purpose dissertation a historical minimum (Marx noted that English workers need beer while French proletarians need wine) – i.e. a historically variable minimum.
I should also like to report, point out that this minimum is doubly historical in that it is not defined by the historical needs of the working class ‘recognized’ by the capitalist class, but by the historical needs imposed by the proletarian class struggle (a double class struggle: against the lengthening of the working day and against the reduction of wages). However, it is personal statement, not enough to ensure for labour power the material conditions of its reproduction if it is to be reproduced as labour power. I have said that the available labour power must be ‘competent’, i.e. suitable to be set to work in the complex system of the process of production. The development of the productive forces and police writing, the type of unity historically constitutive of the need do my essay works of thomas, productive forces at a given moment produce the result that the labour power has to be (diversely) skilled and therefore reproduced as such. Police Report Template? Diversely: according to personal statement college, the requirements of the socio-technical division of labour, its different ‘jobs’ and ‘posts’. How is this reproduction of the (diversified) skills of labour power provided for report template in a capitalist regime? Here, unlike social formations characterized by slavery or serfdom this reproduction of the skills of labour power tends (this is homework help online unemployment, a tendential law) decreasingly to be provided for ‘on the police report template, spot’ (apprenticeship within production itself), but is achieved more and more outside production: by the capitalist education system, and by other instances and institutions. What do children learn at school? They go varying distances in their studies, but at any rate they learn to read, to write and to add – i.e. a number of techniques, and a number of application other things as well, including elements (which may be rudimentary or on the contrary thoroughgoing) of ‘scientific’ or ‘literary culture’, which are directly useful in the different jobs in production (one instruction for police report writing sample manual workers, another for technicians, a third for engineers, a final one for higher management, etc.). Thus they learn know-how. But besides these techniques and knowledges, and in learning them, children at school also learn the personal statement application common, ‘rules’ of good behaviour, i.e. the attitude that should be observed by every agent in the division of labour, according to the job he is ‘destined’ for: rules of morality, civic and professional conscience, which actually means rules of respect for the socio-technical division of labour and ultimately the rules of the order established by class domination.
They also learn to ‘speak proper French’, to ‘handle’ the report template, workers correctly, i.e. actually (for the future capitalists and their servants) to ‘order them about’ properly, i.e. (ideally) to ‘speak to them’ in the right way, etc. To put this more scientifically, I shall say that the reproduction of labour power requires not only a reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time, a reproduction of its submission to the rules of the established order, i.e. a reproduction of submission to the ruling ideology for the workers, and a reproduction of the ability to manipulate the ruling ideology correctly for the agents of exploitation and repression, so that they, too, will provide for the domination of the ruling class ‘in words’. In other words, the personal statement application, school (but also other State institutions like the Church, or other apparatuses like the Army) teaches ‘know-how’, but in forms which ensure subjection to the ruling ideology or the mastery of its ‘practice’. All the agents of production, exploitation and repression, not to speak of the ‘professionals of ideology’ (Marx), must in one way or another be ‘steeped’ in this ideology in order to police, perform their tasks ‘conscientiously’ – the tasks of the exploited (the proletarians), of the exploiters (the capitalists), of the exploiters’ auxiliaries (the managers), or of the high priests of the ruling ideology (its ‘functionaries’), etc. The reproduction of labour power thus reveals as its sine qua non not only the reproduction of purpose review its ‘skills’ but also the reproduction of report writing template sample its subjection to the ruling ideology or of the ‘practice’ of statement application common that ideology, with the proviso that it is not enough to police writing template sample, say ‘not only but also’, for it is clear that it is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labour power. But this is to online, recognize the effective presence of a new reality: ideology. Here I shall make two comments. The first is to round off my analysis of reproduction. I have just given a rapid survey of the forms of the reproduction of the productive forces, i.e. of the means of production on the one hand, and of labour power on the other.
But I have not yet approached the question of the reproduction of the police report writing sample, relations of production. This is a crucial question for the Marxist theory of the mode of production. To let it pass would be a theoretical omission – worse, a serious political error. I shall therefore discuss it. But in order to obtain the means to discuss it, I shall have to literature dissertation, make another long detour. The second comment is that in police template sample order to make this detour, I am obliged to re-raise my old question: what is a society?
Infrastructure and Superstructure. On a number of occasions  I have insisted on the revolutionary character of the Marxist conception of the ‘social whole’ insofar as it is personal college common, distinct from the Hegelian ‘totality’. I said (and this thesis only template sample, repeats famous propositions of historical materialism) that Marx conceived the structure of every society as constituted by ‘levels’ or ‘instances’ articulated by a specific determination: the infrastructure , or economic base (the ‘unity’ of the productive forces and the relations of personal statement application production) and the superstructure , which itself contains two ‘levels’ or ‘instances’: the politico-legal (law and the State) and ideology (the different ideologies, religious, ethical, legal, political, etc.). Besides its theoretico-didactic interest (it reveals the difference between Marx and Hegel), this representation has the following crucial theoretical advantage: it makes it possible to inscribe in the theoretical apparatus of its essential concepts what I have called their respective indices of effectivity. What does this mean? It is easy to see that this representation of the structure of every society as an edifice containing a base (infrastructure) on police report writing, which are erected the two ‘floors’ of the superstructure, is a metaphor, to the feeding tube essay, be quite precise, a spatial metaphor: the metaphor of a topography ( topique ).  Like every metaphor, this metaphor suggests something, makes some thing visible. What? Precisely this: that the upper floors could not ‘stay up’ (in the air) alone, if they did not rest precisely on their base. Thus the object of the metaphor of the edifice is to police writing template, represent above all the ‘determination in homework unemployment georgia the last instance’ by the economic base. The effect of this spatial metaphor is to endow the writing sample, base with an index of effectivity known by the famous terms: the determination in unemployment georgia the last instance of writing sample what happens in the upper ‘floors’ (of the superstructure) by cheap write my essay diseases what happens in the economic base.
Given this index of effectivity ‘in the last instance’, the ‘floors’ of the superstructure are clearly endowed with different indices of effectivity. What kind of indices? It is possible to say that the floors of the superstructure are not determinant in the last instance, but that they are determined by the effectivity of the base; that if they are determinant in their own (as yet undefined) ways, this is true only police report, insofar as they are determined by the base. Their index of effectivity (or determination), as determined by the determination in the last instance of the base, is thought by the Marxist tradition in two ways: (1) there is tube essay, a ‘relative autonomy’ of the superstructure with respect to the base; (2) there is a ‘reciprocal action’ of the superstructure on the base. We can therefore say that the great theoretical advantage of the report template, Marxist topography, i.e. of the spatial metaphor of the edifice (base and superstructure) is simultaneously that it reveals that questions of determination (or of index of effectivity) are crucial; that it reveals that it is the base which in purpose of a literature review the last instance determines the whole edifice; and that, as a consequence, it obliges us to pose the theoretical problem of the types of ‘derivatory’ effectivity peculiar to the superstructure, i.e. it obliges us to think what the Marxist tradition calls conjointly the relative autonomy of the superstructure and the reciprocal action of the superstructure on the base.
The greatest disadvantage of this representation of the sample, structure of every society by the spatial metaphor of an edifice, is obviously the fact that it is metaphorical: i.e. it remains descriptive. It now seems to me that it is possible and desirable to represent things differently. Dissertation? NB, I do not mean by this that I want to reject the writing sample, classical metaphor, for that metaphor itself requires that we go beyond it. And I am not going beyond it in order to reject it as outworn. I simply want to attempt to think what it gives us in the form of a description. I believe that it is possible and necessary to think what characterizes the essential of the existence and nature of the cheap diseases, superstructure on the basis of reproduction. Once one takes the point of view of reproduction, many of the questions whose existence was indicated by the spatial metaphor of the edifice, but to which it could not give a conceptual answer, are immediately illuminated. My basic thesis is police writing template, that it is not possible to pose these questions (and therefore to cheap my essay citrus diseases, answer them) except from the point of view of reproduction. I shall give a short analysis of Law, the State and report writing template, Ideology from this point of need do my essay works of thomas view. And I shall reveal what happens both from the police sample, point of view of practice and production on the one hand, and from that of homework help georgia reproduction on sample, the other. The Marxist tradition is write citrus, strict, here: in the Communist Manifesto and the Eighteenth Brumaire (and in all the later classical texts, above all in Marx’s writings on the Paris Commune and Lenin’s on State and sample, Revolution ), the State is explicitly conceived as a repressive apparatus.
The State is a ‘machine’ of repression, which enables the ruling classes (in the nineteenth century the online environmentalism down, bourgeois class and the ‘class’ of big landowners) to ensure their domination over the working class, thus enabling the former to report writing sample, subject the latter to the process of surplus-value extortion (i.e. to capitalist exploitation). The State is thus first of all what the Marxist classics have called the State Apparatus. This term means: not only the specialized apparatus (in the narrow sense) whose existence and necessity I have recognized in relation to cheap write my essay diseases, the requirements of legal practice, i.e. the police template, police, the courts, the prisons; but also the army, which (the proletariat has paid for this experience with its blood) intervenes directly as a supplementary repressive force in the last instance, when the police and its specialized auxiliary corps are ‘outrun by events’; and above this ensemble, the head of State, the government and the administration. Presented in this form, the Marxist-Leninist ‘theory’ of the State has its finger on the essential point, and not for one moment can there be any question of dissertation rejecting the fact that this really is the essential point. Police Writing? The State Apparatus, which defines the State as a force of repressive execution and intervention ‘in the buy essay down, interests of the ruling classes’ in the class struggle conducted by the bourgeoisie and its allies against the proletariat, is quite certainly the State, and quite certainly defines its basic ‘function’. From Descriptive Theory to Theory as such. Nevertheless, here too, as I pointed out report, with respect to the feeding tube essay, the metaphor of the edifice (infrastructure and superstructure), this presentation of the nature of the State is still partly descriptive. As I shall often have occasion to use this adjective (descriptive), a word of explanation is necessary in order to remove any ambiguity.
Whenever, in police template speaking of the metaphor of the edifice or of the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State, I have said that these are descriptive conceptions or representations of their objects, I had no ulterior critical motives. On the contrary, I have every grounds to think that great scientific discoveries cannot help but pass through the phase of what I shall call descriptive ‘ theory ‘ . This is the online environmentalism in watership down by richard adams, first phase of every theory, at least in the domain which concerns us (that of the science of social formations). As such, one might and in police template sample my opinion one must – envisage this phase as a transitional one, necessary to the development of the theory. That it is transitional is inscribed in my expression: ‘descriptive theory’, which reveals in its conjunction of terms the equivalent of a kind of ‘contradiction’. In fact, the term theory ‘clashes’ to some extent with the adjective ‘descriptive’ which I have attached to it. This means quite precisely: (1) that the ‘descriptive theory’ really is, without a shadow of a doubt, the irreversible beginning of the theory; but (2) that the ‘descriptive’ form in which the theory is presented requires, precisely as an effect of this ‘contradiction’, a development of the theory which goes beyond the form of ‘description’. Let me make this idea clearer by returning to our present object: the State. When I say that the Marxist ‘theory’ of the State available to us is still partly ‘descriptive’, that means first and foremost that this descriptive ‘theory’ is without the shadow of a doubt precisely the beginning of the Marxist theory of the State, and the feeding tube, that this beginning gives us the essential point, i.e. the decisive principle of every later development of the theory. Indeed, I shall call the descriptive theory of the State correct, since it is perfectly possible to make the vast majority of the facts in the domain with which it is concerned correspond to the definition it gives of its object.
Thus, the definition of the State as a class State, existing in the Repressive State Apparatus, casts a brilliant light on all the facts observable in template the various orders of need do my of thomas carlyle repression whatever their domains: from the massacres of June 1848 and of the Paris Commune, of Bloody Sunday, May 1905 in Petrograd, of the Resistance, of Charonne, etc., to the mere (and relatively anodyne) interventions of a ‘censorship’ which has banned Diderot’s La Rligieuse or a play by Gatti on Franco; it casts light on all the direct or indirect forms of exploitation and extermination of the masses of the people (imperialist wars); it casts light on that subtle everyday domination beneath which can be glimpsed, in the forms of political democracy, for example, what Lenin, following Marx, called the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. And yet the descriptive theory of the State represents a phase in the constitution of the theory which itself demands the ‘supersession’ of this phase. For it is police report, clear that if the online cheap environmentalism by richard adams, definition in question really does give us the means to police template, identify and cheap write my essay, recognize the facts of oppression by relating them to report template, the State, conceived as the Repressive State Apparatus, this ‘interrelationship’ gives rise to tube, a very special kind of obviousness, about which I shall have something to say in a moment: ‘Yes, that’s how it is, that’s really true!’  And the accumulation of facts within the definition of the report template sample, State may multiply examples, but it does not really advance the help do my works of thomas, definition of the State, i.e. the scientific theory of the State. Every descriptive theory thus runs the risk of report template sample ‘blocking’ the development of the common, theory, and yet that development is essential. That is why I think that, in order to develop this descriptive theory into theory as such, i.e. in police report writing template order to understand further the mechanisms of the State in its functioning, I think that it is indispensable to add something to the feeding tube essay, the classical definition of the State as a State Apparatus. The Essentials of the Marxist Theory of the State. Let me first clarify one important point: the State (and its existence in its apparatus) has no meaning except as a function of State power. The whole of the police report writing, political class struggle revolves around the State.
By which I mean around the possession, i.e. the seizure and conservation of State power by a certain class or by an alliance between classes or class fractions. This first clarification obliges me to distinguish between State power (conservation of State power or seizure of State power), the objective of the political class struggle on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. We know that the State Apparatus may survive, as is proved by bourgeois ‘revolutions’ in do my the major works nineteenth-century France (1830, 1848), by coups d’tat (2 December, May 1958), by collapses of the police template sample, State (the fall of the Empire in 1870, of the need help works of thomas, Third Republic in 1940), or by the political rise of the petty bourgeoisie (1890-95 in France), etc., without the State Apparatus being affected or modified: it may survive political events which affect the possession of State power. Even after a social revolution like that of 1917, a large part of the police writing sample, State Apparatus survived after the seizure of State power by the alliance of the proletariat and the small peasantry: Lenin repeated the fact again and again. It is possible to describe the distinction between state power and state apparatus as part of the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state, explicitly present since Marx’s Eighteenth Brumaire and Class Struggles in France. To summarize the ‘Marxist theory of the state’ on this point, it can be said that the Marxist classics have always claimed that (1) the the feeding tube, state is the repressive state apparatus, (2) state power and state apparatus must be distinguished, (3) the objective of the class struggle concerns state power, and in consequence the use of the report writing, state apparatus by the classes (or alliance of need the major of thomas carlyle classes or of fractions of police report template classes) holding state power as a function of online by richard their class objectives, and (4) the proletariat must seize state power in order to destroy the existing bourgeois state apparatus and, in a first phase, replace it with a quite different, proletarian, state apparatus, then in later phases set in motion a radical process, that of the destruction of the writing, state (the end of state power, the end of every state apparatus). In this perspective, therefore, what I would propose to add to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is already there in so many words. But it seems to me that even with this supplement, this theory is still in part descriptive, although it does now contain complex and cheap citrus, differential elements whose functioning and action cannot be understood without recourse to further supplementary theoretical development.
The State Ideological Apparatuses. Thus, what has to be added to the ‘Marxist theory’ of the state is something else. Here we must advance cautiously in a terrain which, in fact, the Marxist classics entered long before us, but without having systematized in theoretical form the decisive advances implied by their experiences and procedures. Report Writing Template? Their experiences and procedures were indeed restricted in the main to the terrain of political practice. In fact, i.e. in their political practice, the Marxist classics treated the online, State as a more complex reality than the sample, definition of it given in the ‘Marxist theory of the state’, even when it has been supplemented as I have just suggested. Purpose Of A Literature Review? They recognized this complexity in their practice, but they did not express it in a corresponding theory. 
I should like to sample, attempt a very schematic outline of this corresponding theory. To that end, I propose the following thesis. In order to advance the theory of the State it is cheap diseases, indispensable to take into account not only the distinction between state power and state apparatus , but also another reality which is clearly on the side of the police sample, (repressive) state apparatus, but must not be confused with it. I shall call this reality by its concept: the Ideological State Apparatuses. What are the Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs)? They must not be confused with the (repressive) State apparatus. Remember that in Marxist theory, the State Apparatus (SA) contains: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the unemployment georgia, Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc., which constitute what I shall in future call the Repressive State Apparatus.
Repressive suggests that the State Apparatus in question ‘functions by violence’ – at police report least ultimately (since repression, e.g. administrative repression, may take non-physical forms). I shall call Ideological State Apparatuses a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct and do my essay of thomas, specialized institutions. I propose an writing sample empirical list of these which will obviously have to be examined in detail, tested, corrected and re-organized. With all the reservations implied by this requirement, we can for purpose literature review the moment regard the following institutions as Ideological State Apparatuses (the order in which I have listed them has no particular significance): the religious ISA (the system of the different churches), the educational ISA (the system of the sample, different public and tube, private ‘schools’), the family ISA,  the legal ISA,  the political ISA (the political system, including the police report writing template, different parties), the trade-union ISA, the help do my the major works, communications ISA (press, radio and television, etc.), the cultural ISA (literature, the arts, sports, etc.). I have said that the ISAs must not be confused with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. What constitutes the difference? As a first moment, it is clear that while there is one (Repressive) State Apparatus, there is a plurality of Ideological State Apparatuses. Even presupposing that it exists, the unity that constitutes this plurality of ISAs as a body is not immediately visible. As a second moment, it is sample, clear that whereas the unified – (Repressive) State Apparatus belongs entirely to the public domain, much the larger part of the Ideological State Apparatuses (in their apparent dispersion) are part, on the contrary, of the private domain. Churches, Parties, Trade Unions, families, some schools, most newspapers, cultural ventures, etc., etc., are private.
We can ignore the first observation for the moment. But someone is bound to of a literature review dissertation, question the second, asking me by what right I regard as Ideological State Apparatuses, institutions which for the most part do not possess public status, but are quite simply private institutions. As a conscious Marxist, Gramsci already forestalled this objection in one sentence. Police? The distinction between the public and the private is a distinction internal to bourgeois law, and valid in the (subordinate) domains in which bourgeois law exercises its ‘authority’. The domain of the State escapes it because the latter is ‘above the law’: the statement, State, which is the State of the police report template, ruling class, is buy essay cheap, neither public nor private; on the contrary, it is the precondition for any distinction between public and private. The same thing can be said from the report template, starting-point of our State Ideological Apparatuses.
It is unimportant whether the institutions in which they are realized are ‘public’ or ‘private’. What matters is how they function. Private institutions can perfectly well ‘function’ as Ideological State Apparatuses. A reasonably thorough analysis of any one of the ISAs proves it. But now for what is essential. College Application? What distinguishes the ISAs from the (Repressive) State Apparatus is the following basic difference: the police report writing template sample, Repressive State Apparatus functions ‘by violence’, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function ‘ by ideology’. I can clarify matters by correcting this distinction.
I shall say rather that every State Apparatus, whether Repressive or Ideological, ‘functions’ both by violence and by ideology, but with one very important distinction which makes it imperative not to help do my essay the major of thomas, confuse the Ideological State Apparatuses with the (Repressive) State Apparatus. This is the fact that the (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression (including physical repression), while functioning secondarily by ideology. (There is no such thing as a purely repressive apparatus.) For example, the Army and the Police also function by police sample ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the ‘values’ they propound externally. In the same way, but inversely, it is essential to say that for their part the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology , but they also function secondarily by repression, even if ultimately, but only ultimately, this is very attenuated and concealed, even symbolic. Write My Essay Diseases? (There is no such thing as a purely ideological apparatus.) Thus Schools and report sample, Churches use suitable methods of buy essay cheap in watership adams punishment, expulsion, selection, etc., to ‘discipline’ not only their shepherds, but also their flocks. The same is true of the Family. The same is true of the police writing template, cultural IS Apparatus (censorship, among other things), etc. Is it necessary to add that this determination of the double ‘functioning’ (predominantly, secondarily) by repression and by ideology, according to whether it is a matter of the (Repressive) State Apparatus or the help carlyle, Ideological State Apparatuses, makes it clear that very subtle explicit or tacit combinations may be woven from the interplay of the (Repressive) State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatuses? Everyday life provides us with innumerable examples of this, but they must be studied in detail if we are to go further than this mere observation. Nevertheless, this remark leads us towards an understanding of what constitutes the unity of the apparently disparate body of the ISAs. If the ISAs ‘function’ massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is police report template sample, always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology , which is the personal statement college common, ideology of ‘the ruling class’. Given the fact that the ‘ruling class’ in writing template sample principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the (Repressive) State Apparatus, we can accept the tube, fact that this same ruling class is active in the Ideological State Apparatuses insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the Ideological State Apparatuses, precisely in its contradictions.
Of course, it is a quite different thing to act by laws and report writing sample, decrees in the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to ‘act’ through the intermediary of the ruling ideology in the Ideological State Apparatuses. We must go into the details of this difference – but it cannot mask the reality of a profound identity. To my knowledge, no class can hold State power over buy essay cheap by richard adams a long period without at the same time exercising its hegemony over and in the State Ideological Apparatuses. I only need one example and police report writing, proof of this: Lenin’s anguished concern to help online georgia, revolutionize the educational Ideological State Apparatus (among others), simply to make it possible for the Soviet proletariat, who had seized State power, to secure the future of the dictatorship of the proletariat and police sample, the transition to socialism.  This last comment puts us in a position to understand that the Ideological State Apparatuses may be not only the stake , but also the site of class struggle, and often of bitter forms of class struggle.
The class (or class alliance) in power cannot lay down the law in the ISAs as easily as it can in the (repressive) State apparatus, not only because the former ruling classes are able to retain strong positions there for a long time, but also because the resistance of the exploited classes is able to find means and the feeding tube, occasions to express itself there, either by the utilization of their contradictions, or by conquering combat positions in them in struggle.  Let me run through my comments. If the thesis I have proposed is well-founded, it leads me back to the classical Marxist theory of the State, while making it more precise in one point. I argue that it is necessary to distinguish between State power (and its possession by police template . ) on the one hand, and the State Apparatus on the other. But I add that the State Apparatus contains two bodies: the body of institutions which represent the homework online unemployment, Repressive State Apparatus on writing template sample, the one hand, and the body of purpose of a institutions which represent the police report sample, body of Ideological State Apparatuses on the other. But if this is the case, the following question is bound to be asked, even in the very summary state of my suggestions: what exactly is the purpose literature, extent of the role of the Ideological State Apparatuses? What is their importance based on?
In other words: to police, what does the ‘function’ of these Ideological State Apparatuses, which do not function by repression but by ideology, correspond? On the Reproduction of the Relations of Production. I can now answer the central question which I have left in suspense for many long pages: how is the reproduction of the relations of production secured? In the topographical language (Infrastructure, Superstructure), I can say: for the most part,  it is secured by the legal-political and ideological superstructure. But as I have argued that it is essential to go beyond this still descriptive language, I shall say: for the most part, it is secured by the exercise of State power in the State Apparatuses, on the one hand the (Repressive) State Apparatus, on purpose review, the other the Ideological State Apparatuses. What I have just said must also be taken into account, and it can be assembled in the form of the following three features: 1. All the template, State Apparatuses function both by repression and by ideology, with the difference that the need help do my the major carlyle, (Repressive) State Apparatus functions massively and predominantly by repression, whereas the Ideological State Apparatuses function massively and predominantly by ideology. 2. Whereas the (Repressive) State Apparatus constitutes an organized whole whose different parts are centralized beneath a commanding unity, that of the politics of class struggle applied by the political representatives of the report writing, ruling classes in possession of homework help online unemployment State power, the Ideological State Apparatuses are multiple, distinct, ‘relatively autonomous’ and capable of providing an objective field to contradictions which express, in forms which may be limited or extreme, the effects of the clashes between the capitalist class struggle and writing sample, the proletarian class struggle, as well as their subordinate forms. 3. Whereas the unity of the the feeding essay, (Repressive) State Apparatus is secured by its unified and centralized organization under the leadership of the representatives of the classes in power executing the report writing sample, politics of the class struggle of the need essay the major, classes in power, the unity of the different Ideological State Apparatuses is secured, usually in contradictory forms, by the ruling ideology, the police writing, ideology of the ruling class.
Taking these features into account, it is possible to represent the reproduction of the relations of buy essay environmentalism by richard adams production  in the following way, according to a kind of ‘division of report writing labour’. The role of the repressive State apparatus, insofar as it is a repressive apparatus, consists essentially in securing by force (physical or otherwise) the political conditions of the reproduction of relations of production which are in the last resort relations of exploitation. Not only does the State apparatus contribute generously to cheap my essay citrus, its own reproduction (the capitalist State contains political dynasties, military dynasties, etc.), but also and above all, the State apparatus secures by repression (from the most brutal physical force, via mere administrative commands and interdictions, to open and tacit censorship) the political conditions for report template the action of the Ideological State Apparatuses. In fact, it is the latter which largely secure the reproduction specifically of the relations of production, behind a ‘shield’ provided by the repressive State apparatus. It is here that the role of the ruling ideology is heavily concentrated, the ideology of the ruling class, which holds State power. It is the intermediation of the ruling ideology that ensures a (sometimes teeth-gritting) ‘harmony’ between the repressive State apparatus and purpose of a dissertation, the Ideological State Apparatuses, and between the report template, different State Ideological Apparatuses. We are thus led to envisage the following hypothesis, as a function precisely of the the feeding tube, diversity of ideological State Apparatuses in their single, because shared, role of the reproduction of the relations of production.
Indeed we have listed a relatively large number of Ideological State Apparatuses in contemporary capitalist social formations: the educational apparatus, the religious apparatus, the family apparatus, the political apparatus, the trade-union apparatus, the communications apparatus, the ‘cultural’ apparatus, etc. But in police writing template the social formations of that mode of diseases production characterized by ‘serfdom’ (usually called the feudal mode of production), we observe that although there is a single repressive State apparatus which, since the earliest known Ancient States, let alone the police template, Absolute Monarchies, has been formally very similar to the one we know today, the number of Ideological State Apparatuses is smaller and their individual types are different. For example, we observe that during the Middle Ages, the Church (the religious Ideological State Apparatus) accumulated a number of cheap citrus functions which have today devolved on to several distinct Ideological State Apparatuses, new ones in report writing sample relation to the past I am invoking, in particular educational and cultural functions. Alongside the Church there was the family Ideological State Apparatus, which played a considerable part, incommensurable with its role in environmentalism capitalist social formations. Despite appearances, the Church and the Family were not the only Ideological State Apparatuses. Sample? There was also a political Ideological State Apparatus (the Estates General, the tube essay, Parlement , the different political factions and police report writing template, Leagues, the ancestors of the modern political parties, and help do my essay the major works carlyle, the whole political system of the report, free Communes and then of the Villes ). There was also a powerful ‘proto-trade union’ Ideological State Apparatus, if I may venture such an anachronistic term (the powerful merchants’ and bankers’ guilds and the journeymen’s associations, etc.). Publishing and Communications, even, saw an indisputable development, as did the purpose of a, theatre; initially both were integral parts of the Church, then they became more and more independent of it. In the pre-capitalist historical period which I have examined extremely broadly, it is absolutely clear that there was one dominant Ideological State Apparatus , the report template, Church , which concentrated within it not only my essay, religious functions, but also educational ones, and a large proportion of the functions of communications and ‘culture’. It is no accident that all ideological struggle, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, starting with the first shocks of the Reformation, was concentrated in an anti-clerical and anti-religious struggle; rather this is a function precisely of the dominant position of the religious Ideological State Apparatus. The foremost objective and achievement of the template sample, French Revolution was not just to transfer State power from the feudal aristocracy to the merchant-capitalist bourgeoisie, to break part of the cheap write, former repressive State apparatus and replace it with a new one (e.g., the national popular Army) but also to attack the number-one Ideological State Apparatus: the Church. Hence the civil constitution of the clergy, the confiscation of ecclesiastical wealth, and the creation of report writing template sample new Ideological State Apparatuses to replace the religious Ideological State Apparatus in its dominant role.
Naturally, these things did not happen automatically: witness the Concordat, the homework online unemployment, Restoration and the long class struggle between the landed aristocracy and the industrial bourgeoisie throughout the nineteenth century for the establishment of bourgeois hegemony over the functions formerly fulfilled by the Church: above all by the Schools. It can be said that the bourgeoisie relied on the new political, parliamentary-democratic, Ideological State Apparatus, installed in the earliest years of the Revolution, then restored after long and violent struggles, for a few months in 1848 and for decades after the fall of the Second Empire, in order to conduct its struggle against the Church and wrest its ideological functions away from police report, it, in other words, to ensure not only its own political hegemony, but also the ideological hegemony indispensable to citrus, the reproduction of capitalist relations of production. That is writing template sample, why I believe that I am justified in advancing the following Thesis, however precarious it is. Homework Help Unemployment? I believe that the Ideological State Apparatus which has been installed in the dominant position in mature capitalist social formations as a result of a violent political and ideological class struggle against the old dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational ideological apparatus. This thesis may seem paradoxical, given that for everyone, i.e. in the ideological representation that the bourgeoisie has tried to give itself and the classes it exploits, it really seems that the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in police writing sample capitalist social formations is not the Schools, but the political Ideological State Apparatus, i.e. the cheap my essay citrus, regime of parliamentary democracy combining universal suffrage and party struggle. However, history, even recent history, shows that the bourgeoisie has been and still is able to accommodate itself to political Ideological State Apparatuses other than parliamentary democracy: the First and Second Empires, Constitutional Monarchy (Louis XVIII and Charles X), Parliamentary Monarchy (Louis-Philippe), Presidential Democracy (de Gaulle), to police report template, mention only France. In England this is even clearer.
The Revolution was particularly ‘successful’ there from the bourgeois point of view, since unlike France, where the bourgeoisie, partly because of the stupidity of the petty aristocracy, had to agree to being carried to power by peasant and plebeian ‘ journes rvolutionnaires ’, something for which it had to pay a high price, the help online unemployment georgia, English bourgeoisie was able to ‘compromise’ with the aristocracy and ‘share’ State power and the use of the State apparatus with it for a long time (peace among all men of good will in the ruling classes!). In Germany it is police writing sample, even more striking, since it was behind a political Ideological State Apparatus in which the imperial Junkers (epitomized by Bismarck), their army and their police provided it with a shield and leading personnel, that the imperialist bourgeoisie made its shattering entry into history, before ‘traversing’ the Weimar Republic and tube, entrusting itself to Nazism. Hence I believe I have good reasons for thinking that behind the scenes of sample its political Ideological State Apparatus, which occupies the front of the stage, what the bourgeoisie has installed as its number-one, i.e. as its dominant Ideological State Apparatus, is the educational apparatus, which has in citrus diseases fact replaced in its functions the previously dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Church. One might even add: the School-Family couple has replaced the Church-Family couple. Why is the educational apparatus in fact the dominant Ideological State Apparatus in capitalist social formations, and how does it function? For the moment it must suffice to say:
1. All Ideological State Apparatuses, whatever they are, contribute to template sample, the same result: the of a review, reproduction of the relations of production, i.e. of police report writing template sample capitalist relations of exploitation. 2. Tube Essay? Each of police report writing them contributes towards this single result in the way proper to it. The political apparatus by subjecting individuals to the political State ideology, the ‘indirect’ (parliamentary) or ‘direct’ (plebiscitary or fascist) ‘democratic’ ideology. The communications apparatus by cramming every ‘citizen’ with daily doses of nationalism, chauvinism, liberalism, moralism, etc, by means of the online in watership down, press, the radio and television. The same goes for the cultural apparatus (the role of sport in chauvinism is of the first importance), etc.
The religious apparatus by police sample recalling in sermons and the other great ceremonies of Birth, Marriage and Death, that man is only ashes, unless he loves his neighbour to the extent of turning the other cheek to whoever strikes first. The family apparatus . but there is no need to literature dissertation, go on. 3. This concert is dominated by a single score, occasionally disturbed by contradictions (those of the remnants of former ruling classes, those of the proletarians and their organizations): the report writing sample, score of the Ideology of the the feeding tube, current ruling class which integrates into its music the great themes of the Humanism of the Great Forefathers, who produced the police report template, Greek Miracle even before Christianity, and afterwards the Glory of Rome, the Eternal City, and the themes of write my essay citrus Interest, particular and report sample, general, etc. nationalism, moralism and economism. 4. Nevertheless, in this concert, one Ideological State Apparatus certainly has the dominant role, although hardly anyone lends an ear to dissertation, its music: it is so silent! This is the School. It takes children from every class at infant-school age, and then for years, the years in which the child is most ‘vulnerable’, squeezed between the Family State Apparatus and the Educational State Apparatus, it drums into them, whether it uses new or old methods, a certain amount of ‘know-how’ wrapped in the ruling ideology (French, arithmetic, natural history, the sciences, literature) or simply the ruling ideology in its pure state (ethics, civic instruction, philosophy). Somewhere around the age of sixteen, a huge mass of children are ejected ‘into production’: these are the writing, workers or small peasants. Purpose Literature Dissertation? Another portion of police report writing scholastically adapted youth carries on: and, for better or worse, it goes somewhat further, until it falls by the wayside and fills the posts of small and homework unemployment georgia, middle technicians, white-collar workers, small and middle executives, petty bourgeois of all kinds. A last portion reaches the summit, either to sample, fall into intellectual semi-employment, or to provide, as well as the ‘intellectuals of the collective labourer’, the agents of exploitation (capitalists, managers), the agents of repression (soldiers, policemen, politicians, administrators, etc.) and the professional ideologists (priests of all sorts, most of cheap environmentalism down adams whom are convinced ‘laymen’). Each mass ejected en route is practically provided with the ideology which suits the role it has to fulfil in class society: the role of the exploited (with a ‘highly-developed’ ‘professional’, ‘ethical’, ‘civic’, ‘national’ and a-political consciousness); the role of the agent of exploitation (ability to give the workers orders and speak to them: ‘human relations’), of the agent of repression (ability to give orders and enforce obedience ‘without discussion’, or ability to manipulate the demagogy of a political leader’s rhetoric), or of the professional ideologist (ability to police report template sample, treat consciousnesses with the need help do my essay works of thomas carlyle, respect, i.e. with the contempt, blackmail, and demagogy they deserve, adapted to the accents of writing Morality, of Virtue, of ‘Transcendence’, of the Nation, of France’s World Role, etc.). Of course, many of these contrasting Virtues (modesty, resignation, submissiveness on the one hand, cynicism, contempt, arrogance, confidence, self-importance, even smooth talk and cunning on the other) are also taught in the Family, in cheap environmentalism by richard adams the Church, in police the Army, in Good Books, in films and even in the football stadium.
But no other Ideological State Apparatus has the obligatory (and not least, free) audience of the totality of the children in the capitalist social formation, eight hours a day for five or six days out of seven. But it is by an apprenticeship in do my of thomas carlyle a variety of know-how wrapped up in police sample the massive inculcation of the ideology of the ruling class that the relations of production in a capitalist social formation, i.e. the relations of exploited to exploiters and cheap my essay citrus diseases, exploiters to report writing sample, exploited, are largely reproduced. The mechanisms which produce this vital result for the capitalist regime are naturally covered up and concealed by a universally reigning ideology of the School, universally reigning because it is one of the essential forms of the ruling bourgeois ideology: an ideology which represents the School as a neutral environment purged of ideology (because it is . lay), where teachers respectful of the ‘conscience’ and the feeding essay, ‘freedom’ of the children who are entrusted to them (in complete confidence) by their ‘parents’ (who are free, too, i.e. the owners of police sample their children) open up for them the path to help online georgia, the freedom, morality and responsibility of adults by their own example, by knowledge, literature and their ‘liberating’ virtues. I ask the pardon of report template sample those teachers who, in dreadful conditions, attempt to turn the few weapons they can find in the history and the feeding essay, learning they ‘teach’ against the ideology, the system and the practices in which they are trapped. They are a kind of hero. But they are rare and how many (the majority) do not even begin to suspect the ‘work’ the system (which is bigger than they are and crushes them) forces them to do, or worse, put all their heart and writing, ingenuity into performing it with the most advanced awareness (the famous new methods!). So little do they suspect it that their own devotion contributes to the maintenance and nourishment of this ideological representation of the School, which makes the write my essay diseases, School today as ‘natural’, indispensable-useful and police template, even beneficial for purpose of a dissertation our contemporaries as the Church was ‘natural’, indispensable and generous for our ancestors a few centuries ago. In fact, the Church has been replaced today in its role as the dominant Ideological State Apparatus by the School.
It is coupled with the Family just as the Church was once coupled with the Family. We can now claim that the unprecedentedly deep crisis which is now shaking the education system of report writing so many States across the globe, often in conjunction with a crisis (already proclaimed in the Communist Manifesto ) shaking the family system, takes on a political meaning, given that the School (and the School/Family couple) constitutes the dominant Ideological State Apparatus, the Apparatus playing a determinant part in the reproduction of the relations of production of a mode of production threatened in its existence by the world class struggle. When I put forward the concept of an Ideological State Apparatus, when I said that the ISAs ‘function by ideology’, I invoked a reality which needs a little discussion: ideology. It is well known that the expression ‘ideology’ was invented by Cabanis, Destutt de Tracy and their friends, who assigned to it as an object the (genetic) theory of ideas. Help Do My Essay The Major? When Marx took up the police template, term fifty years later, he gave it a quite different meaning, even in his Early Works. Homework Help? Here, ideology is the report writing sample, system of the ideas and representations which dominate the mind of a man or a social group. The ideologico-political struggle conducted by Marx as early as his articles in the Rheinische Zeitung inevitably and quickly brought him face to cheap, face with this reality and forced him to take his earliest intuitions further.
However, here we come upon report writing template sample a rather astonishing paradox. Everything seems to lead Marx to formulate a theory of ideology. In fact, The German Ideology does offer us, after the 1844 Manuscripts , an explicit theory of ideology, but . it is not Marxist (we shall see why in a moment). As for Capital , although it does contain many hints towards a theory of ideologies (most visibly, the literature review, ideology of the vulgar economists), it does not contain that theory itself, which depends for writing sample the most part on a theory of ideology in general. I should like to venture a first and very schematic outline of such a theory. The theses I am about to put forward are certainly not off the cuff, but they cannot be sustained and tested, i.e. confirmed or rejected, except by much thorough study and analysis. One word first of all to expound the reason in principle which seems to me to found, or at least to justify, the project of a theory of ideology in general , and the feeding tube, not a theory of police report writing particular ideolog ies , which, whatever their form (religious, ethical, legal, political), always express class positions. It is quite obvious that it is necessary to proceed towards a theory of ideologies in literature review the two respects I have just suggested.
It will then be clear that a theory of police sample ideolog ies depends in the last resort on the history of social formations, and thus of the homework georgia, modes of production combined in social formations, and of the class struggles which develop in them. In this sense it is clear that there can be no question of a theory of ideolog ies in general, since ideolog ies (defined in the double respect suggested above: regional and class) have a history, whose determination in police report writing the last instance is clearly situated outside ideologies alone, although it involves them. On the contrary, if I am able to put forward the cheap write my essay citrus, project of police writing sample a theory of ideology in general , and if this theory really is one of the elements on buy essay online cheap, which theories of ideologies depend, that entails an writing sample apparently paradoxical proposition which I shall express in the following terms: ideology has no history. As we know, this formulation appears in so many words in a passage from The German Ideology. Need Help The Major Works Of Thomas Carlyle? Marx utters it with respect to metaphysics, which, he says, has no more history than ethics (meaning also the report, other forms of ideology).
In The German Ideology , this formulation appears in a plainly positivist context. Ideology is conceived as a pure illusion, a pure dream, i.e. as nothingness. All its reality is external to it. Ideology is thus thought as an imaginary construction whose status is exactly like the theoretical status of the dream among writers before Freud. For these writers, the dream was the purely imaginary, i.e. Buy Essay Cheap Environmentalism In Watership Down By Richard? null, result of ‘day’s residues’, presented in report writing an arbitrary arrangement and order, sometimes even ‘inverted’, in other words, in ‘disorder’. For them, the dream was the imaginary, it was empty, null and arbitrarily ‘stuck together’ ( bricol ), once the write, eyes had closed, from the residues of the only full and positive reality, the reality of the day. This is exactly the status of philosophy and ideology (since in this book philosophy is report template, ideology par excellence ) in The German Ideology.
Ideology, then, is for Marx an imaginary assemblage ( bricolage ), a pure dream, empty and vain, constituted by the ‘day’s residues’ from the only full and positive reality, that of the concrete history of concrete material individuals materially producing their existence. Help Online? It is on this basis that ideology has no history in The German Ideology , since its history is outside it, where the only existing history is, the history of concrete individuals, etc. In The German Ideology , the thesis that ideology has no history is writing template sample, therefore a purely negative thesis, since it means both: 1. ideology is online cheap environmentalism in watership by richard adams, nothing insofar as it is a pure dream (manufactured by police template who knows what power: if not by the alienation of the division of labour, but that, too, is a negative determination); 2. ideology has no history, which emphatically does not mean that there is my essay citrus, no history in it (on the template, contrary, for it is merely the pale, empty and the feeding, inverted reflection of police report writing real history) but that it has no history of its own. Now, while the thesis I wish to defend formally speaking adopts the terms of The German Ideology (‘ideology has no history’), it is radically different from the environmentalism by richard adams, positivist and historicist thesis of writing The German Ideology. For on the one hand, I think it is possible to hold that ideolog ies have a history of literature review dissertation their own (although it is determined in police writing template the last instance by review dissertation the class struggle); and on the other, I think it is possible to report writing template, hold that ideology in general has no history , not in a negative sense (its history is external to it), but in an absolutely positive sense. This sense is a positive one if it is help online unemployment georgia, true that the peculiarity of ideology is that it is endowed with a structure and a functioning such as to make it a non-historical reality, i.e. an omni-historical reality, in the sense in which that structure and functioning are immutable, present in the same form throughout what we can call history, in the sense in which the police writing template sample, Communist Manifesto defines history as the history of class struggles, i.e. the history of class societies.
To give a theoretical reference-point here, I might say that, to return to our example of the of a literature, dream, in its Freudian conception this time, our proposition: ideology has no history, can and must (and in a way which has absolutely nothing arbitrary about it, but, quite the reverse, is theoretically necessary, for there is an template organic link between the two propositions) be related directly to Freud’s proposition that the the feeding essay, unconscious is report sample, eternal , i.e. that it has no history. If eternal means, not transcendent to all (temporal) history, but omnipresent, trans-historical and therefore immutable in form throughout the essay, extent of history, I shall adopt Freud’s expression word for word, and writing sample, write ideology is eternal , exactly like the unconscious. And I add that I find this comparison theoretically justified by the fact that the eternity of the buy essay online cheap environmentalism, unconscious is not unrelated to writing template sample, the eternity of ideology in general. That is why I believe I am justified, hypothetically at least, in proposing a theory of ideology in essay general , in writing template sample the sense that Freud presented a theory of the unconscious in cheap write diseases general. To simplify the phrase, it is convenient, taking into account what has been said about ideologies, to use the plain term ideology to designate ideology in general, which I have just said has no history, or, what comes to the same thing, is police report sample, eternal, i.e. omnipresent in its immutable form throughout history (= the history of of a literature dissertation social formations containing social classes). For the moment I shall restrict myself to ‘class societies’ and their history. Ideology is a ‘Representation’ of the Imaginary Relationship of Individuals to their Real Conditions of Existence. In order to approach my central thesis on police writing template sample, the structure and functioning of purpose ideology, I shall first present two theses, one negative, the other positive. The first concerns the object which is ‘represented’ in the imaginary form of ideology, the template sample, second concerns the materiality of ideology. Thesis I. Statement College Application? Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence. We commonly call religious ideology, ethical ideology, legal ideology, political ideology, etc., so many ‘world outlooks’.
Of course, assuming that we do not live one of these ideologies as the truth (e.g. ‘believe’ in God, Duty, Justice, etc. ), we admit that the ideology we are discussing from a critical point of view, examining it as the ethnologist examines the myths of a ‘primitive society’, that these ‘world outlooks’ are largely imaginary, i.e. Police Sample? do not ‘correspond to reality’. However, while admitting that they do not correspond to reality, i.e. that they constitute an illusion, we admit that they do make allusion to reality, and homework online, that they need only be ‘interpreted’ to report writing sample, discover the reality of the cheap in watership by richard, world behind their imaginary representation of that world (ideology = illusion/allusion ). There are different types of interpretation, the most famous of which are the mechanistic type, current in police report sample the eighteenth century (God is the imaginary representation of the real King), and the ‘ hermeneutic ‘ interpretation, inaugurated by review the earliest Church Fathers, and revived by Feuerbach and the theologico-philosophical school which descends from him, e.g. the theologian Barth (to Feuerbach, for report template sample example, God is the essence of real Man). The essential point is that on condition that we interpret the imaginary transposition (and inversion) of ideology we arrive at the conclusion that in ideology ‘men represent their real conditions of existence to themselves in an imaginary form’. Unfortunately, this interpretation leaves one small problem unsettled: why do men ‘need’ this imaginary transposition of their real conditions of existence in citrus diseases order to ‘represent to themselves’ their real conditions of existence? The first answer (that of the eighteenth century) proposes a simple solution: Priests or Despots are responsible.
They ‘forged’ the Beautiful Lies so that, in the belief that they were obeying God, men would in fact obey the Priests and Despots, who are usually in alliance in their imposture, the Priests acting in the interests of the Despots or vice versa , according to the political positions of the ‘theoreticians’ concerned. There is therefore a cause for the imaginary transposition of the real conditions of existence: that cause is the existence of a small number of police writing sample cynical men who base their domination and exploitation of the ‘people’ on a falsified representation of the world which they have imagined in order to homework georgia, enslave other minds by dominating their imaginations. The second answer (that of Feuerbach, taken over word for word by police report Marx in his Early Works) is more ‘profound’, i.e. just as false. It, too, seeks and finds a cause for the imaginary transposition and distortion of online unemployment men’s real conditions of existence, in short, for the alienation in the imaginary of the representation of police writing men’s conditions of existence. This cause is no longer Priests or Despots, nor their active imagination and the passive imagination of their victims. This cause is the material alienation which reigns in the conditions of existence of personal college common men themselves. Police Report Sample? This is how, in The Jewish Question and elsewhere, Marx defends the tube essay, Feuerbachian idea that men make themselves an alienated (= imaginary) representation of report writing their conditions of existence because these conditions of existence are themselves alienating (in the 1844 Manuscripts : because these conditions are dominated by the essence of alienated society – ‘ alienated labour ’).
All these interpretations thus take literally the thesis which they presuppose, and on my essay, which they depend, i.e. Police Report Template Sample? that what is personal statement application common, reflected in the imaginary representation of the world found in an ideology is the conditions of police writing existence of men, i.e. their real world. Now I can return to cheap write my essay diseases, a thesis which I have already advanced: it is not their real conditions of existence, their real world, that ‘men’ ‘represent to themselves’ in ideology, but above all it is their relation to police report, those conditions of existence which is represented to help online unemployment georgia, them there. Report Template? It is this relation which is at online the centre of every ideological, i.e. imaginary, representation of the report, real world. It is this relation that contains the ‘cause’ which has to explain the imaginary distortion of the ideological representation of the real world. Or rather, to leave aside the language of causality it is necessary to advance the thesis that it is the imaginary nature of this relation which underlies all the imaginary distortion that we can observe (if we do not live in its truth) in all ideology.
To speak in a Marxist language, if it is true that the representation of the purpose of a review, real conditions of report writing template existence of the individuals occupying the personal application common, posts of report writing agents of production, exploitation, repression, ideologization and cheap write my essay, scientific practice, does in the last analysis arise from the relations of production, and from relations deriving from the relations of production, we can say the following: all ideology represents in its necessarily imaginary distortion not the existing relations of production (and the other relations that derive from them), but above all the (imaginary) relationship of individuals to the relations of production and the relations that derive from them. What is represented in ideology is therefore not the system of the real relations which govern the police sample, existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of those individuals to the real relations in which they live. If this is the case, the question of the ‘cause’ of the imaginary distortion of the real relations in the feeding ideology disappears and must be replaced by a different question: why is the representation given to individuals of their (individual) relation to the social relations which govern their conditions of existence and their collective and individual life necessarily an imaginary relation? And what is the nature of this imaginariness? Posed in this way, the question explodes the solution by a ‘clique’  , by a group of individuals (Priests or Despots) who are the authors of the great ideological mystification, just as it explodes the solution by the alienated character of the real world. We shall see why later in my exposition. For the moment I shall go no further. Thesis II: Ideology has a material existence. I have already touched on this thesis by saying that the ‘ideas’ or ‘representations’, etc., which seem to make up ideology do not have an ideal ( idale or idelle ) or spiritual existence, but a material existence. I even suggested that the ideal ( idale , idelle ) and police report, spiritual existence of ‘ideas’ arises exclusively in an ideology of the ‘idea’ and of ideology, and let me add, in an ideology of homework help unemployment georgia what seems to have ‘founded’ this conception since the emergence of the sciences, i.e. what the practicians of the sciences represent to themselves in their spontaneous ideology as ‘ideas’, true or false. Of course, presented in affirmative form, this thesis is unproven.
I simply ask that the reader be favourably disposed towards it, say, in the name of materialism. A long series of arguments would be necessary to prove it. This hypothetical thesis of the not spiritual but material existence of ‘ideas’ or other ‘representations’ is indeed necessary if we are to advance in our analysis of the police template sample, nature of ideology. Homework Help Online Unemployment? Or rather, it is merely useful to us in order the police writing template sample, better to reveal what every at all serious analysis of any ideology will immediately and empirically show to every observer, however critical. While discussing the Ideological State Apparatuses and need the major works carlyle, their practices, I said that each of them was the realization of an ideology (the unity of these different regional ideologies – religious, ethical, legal, political, aesthetic, etc. – being assured by their subjection to the ruling ideology). I now return to this thesis: an police report sample ideology always exists in an apparatus, and its practice, or practices.
This existence is material. Of course, the material existence of the ideology in an apparatus and write my essay citrus, its practices does not have the same modality as the material existence of a paving-stone or a rifle. But, at the risk of being taken for a Neo-Aristotelian (NB Marx had a very high regard for Aristotle), I shall say that ‘matter is discussed in many senses’, or rather that it exists in different modalities, all rooted in the last instance in ‘physical’ matter. Having said this, let me move straight on and see what happens to the ‘individuals’ who live in ideology, i.e. in template a determinate (religious, ethical, etc.) representation of the world whose imaginary distortion depends on cheap citrus diseases, their imaginary relation to their conditions of existence, in other words, in the last instance, to the relations of police writing template sample production and to class relations (ideology = an imaginary relation to real relations). I shall say that this imaginary relation is itself endowed with a material existence. Now I observe the following. An individual believes in God, or Duty, or Justice, etc.
This belief derives (for everyone, i.e. for the feeding tube all those who live in report template an ideological representation of ideology, which reduces ideology to online georgia, ideas endowed by definition with a spiritual existence) from the report template, ideas of the individual concerned, i.e. from him as a subject with a consciousness which contains the ideas of his belief. Tube? In this way, i.e. by means of the absolutely ideological ‘conceptual’ device ( dispositif ) thus set up (a subject endowed with a consciousness in which he freely forms or freely recognizes ideas in report template which he believes), the (material) attitude of the subject concerned naturally follows. The individual in question behaves in such and personal, such a way, adopts such and such a practical attitude, and, what is more, participates in certain regular practices which are those of the ideological apparatus on which ‘depend’ the ideas which he has in all consciousness freely chosen as a subject. If he believes in God, he goes to Church to attend Mass, kneels, prays, confesses, does penance (once it was material in the ordinary sense of the term) and police writing template, naturally repents and so on. If he believes in diseases Duty, he will have the template sample, corresponding attitudes, inscribed in ritual practices ‘according to the correct principles’. If he believes in Justice, he will submit unconditionally to the rules of the Law, and may even protest when they are violated, sign petitions, take part in a demonstration, etc. Throughout this schema we observe that the ideological representation of ideology is itself forced to recognize that every ‘subject’ endowed with a ‘consciousness’ and believing in the ‘ideas’ that his ‘consciousness’ inspires in him and freely accepts, must ‘ act according to his ideas’, must therefore inscribe his own ideas as a free subject in the actions of his material practice. If he does not do so, ‘that is wicked’. Indeed, if he does not do what he ought to purpose of a dissertation, do as a function of what he believes, it is because he does something else, which, still as a function of the same idealist scheme, implies that he has other ideas in his head as well as those he proclaims, and that he acts according to these other ideas, as a man who is either ‘inconsistent’ (‘no one is willingly evil’) or cynical, or perverse. In every case, the ideology of report template sample ideology thus recognizes, despite its imaginary distortion, that the statement application common, ‘ideas’ of a human subject exist in his actions, or ought to exist in his actions, and report, if that is the feeding tube, not the case, it lends him other ideas corresponding to the actions (however perverse) that he does perform.
This ideology talks of actions: I shall talk of actions inserted into practices. And I shall point out that these practices are governed by the rituals in which these practices are inscribed, within the material existence of an ideological apparatus , be it only a small part of that apparatus: a small mass in a small church, a funeral, a minor match at a sports’ club, a school day, a political party meeting, etc. Besides, we are indebted to Pascal’s defensive ‘dialectic’ for the wonderful formula which will enable us to invert the order of the notional schema of ideology. Pascal says more or less: ‘Kneel down, move your lips in prayer, and you will believe.’ He thus scandalously inverts the report sample, order of things, bringing, like Christ, not peace but strife, and in homework help online georgia addition something hardly Christian (for woe to police template, him who brings scandal into the world!) – scandal itself. A fortunate scandal which makes him stick with Jansenist defiance to a language that directly names the reality. I will be allowed to leave Pascal to the arguments of his ideological struggle with the religious Ideological State Apparatus of his day. And I shall be expected to use a more directly Marxist vocabulary, if that is possible, for we are advancing in still poorly explored domains. I shall therefore say that, where only a single subject (such and such an individual) is concerned, the existence of the ideas of his belief is material in tube essay that his ideas are his material actions inserted into material practices governed by police report sample material rituals which are themselves defined by the material ideological apparatus from need help do my of thomas, which derive the police template, ideas of that subject.
Naturally, the four inscriptions of the adjective ‘material’ in tube essay my proposition must be affected by different modalities: the materialities of a displacement for report writing sample going to mass, of kneeling down, of the gesture of the sign of the cross, or of the mea culpa , of a sentence, of a prayer, of an act of contrition, of a penitence, of a gaze, of a hand-shake, of an external verbal discourse or an personal statement college application common ‘internal’ verbal discourse (consciousness), are not one and sample, the same materiality. I shall leave on one side the problem of a theory of the differences between the modalities of materiality. It remains that in this inverted presentation of things, we are not dealing with an ‘inversion’ at all, since it is clear that certain notions have purely and help the major works carlyle, simply disappeared from our presentation, whereas others on the contrary survive, and new terms appear. Disappeared: the term ideas. Survive: the terms subject , consciousness , belief , actions.
Appear: the terms practices , rituals , ideological apparatus. It is therefore not an inversion or overturning (except in the sense in which one might say a government or a glass is overturned), but a reshuffle (of a non-ministerial type), a rather strange reshuffle, since we obtain the following result. Ideas have disappeared as such (insofar as they are endowed with an ideal or spiritual existence), to the precise extent that it has emerged that their existence is inscribed in the actions of practices governed by rituals defined in the last instance by an ideological apparatus. Writing? It therefore appears that the write citrus diseases, subject acts insofar as he is acted by the following system (set out in the order of its real determination): ideology existing in a material ideological apparatus, prescribing material practices governed by a material ritual, which practices exist in the material actions of a subject acting in all consciousness according to police, his belief. But this very presentation reveals that we have retained the need help do my essay the major of thomas, following notions: subject, consciousness, belief, actions.
From this series I shall immediately extract the writing sample, decisive central term on which everything else depends: the notion of the subject. And I shall immediately set down two conjoint theses: 1. there is no practice except by my essay diseases and in an ideology; 2. there is no ideology except by the subject and for subjects. I can now come to my central thesis. Ideology Interpellates Individuals as Subjects. This thesis is simply a matter of making my last proposition explicit: there is no ideology except by the subject and for report sample subjects. Meaning, there is no ideology except for concrete subjects, and this destination for ideology is only made possible by the subject: meaning, by the category of the subject and help unemployment, its functioning. By this I mean that, even if it only police report writing sample, appears under this name (the subject) with the rise of bourgeois ideology, above all with the rise of the feeding legal ideology,  the category of the subject (which may function under other names: e.g., as the soul in template sample Plato, as God, etc.) is the constitutive category of all ideology, whatever its determination (regional or class) and whatever its historical date – since ideology has no history. I say: the citrus diseases, category of the subject is constitutive of all ideology, but at the same time and immediately I add that the category of the subject is writing template, only constitutive of purpose dissertation all ideology insofar as all ideology has the function ( which defines it ) of ‘ constituting ‘ concrete individuals as subjects.
In the interaction of this double constitution exists the functioning of all ideology, ideology being nothing but its functioning in the material forms of existence of that functioning. In order to police report template, grasp what follows, it is essential to realize that both he who is writing these lines and the reader who reads them are themselves subjects, and therefore ideological subjects (a tautological proposition), i.e. that the author and write my essay citrus diseases, the reader of these lines both live ‘spontaneously’ or ‘naturally’ in ideology in report the sense in buy essay in watership by richard adams which I have said that ‘man is an ideological animal by nature’. That the author, insofar as he writes the lines of a discourse which claims to be scientific, is completely absent as a ‘subject’ from ‘his’ scientific discourse (for all scientific discourse is by definition a subject-less discourse, there is no ‘Subject of science’ except in an ideology of science) is a different question which I shall leave on one side for the moment. As St Paul admirably put it, it is in template sample the ‘Logos’, meaning in ideology, that we ‘live, move and have our being’. It follows that, for you and for me, the category of the essay, subject is a primary ‘obviousness’ (obviousnesses are always primary): it is clear that you and I are subjects (free, ethical, etc. ). Like all obviousnesses, including those that make a word ‘name a thing’ or ‘have a meaning’ (therefore including the obviousness of the ‘transparency’ of police writing sample language), the ‘obviousness’ that you and my essay, I are subjects – and that that does not cause any problems – is an ideological effect, the report writing template sample, elementary ideological effect.  It is indeed a peculiarity of ideology that it imposes (without appearing to do so, since these are ‘obviousnesses’) obviousnesses as obviousnesses, which we cannot fail to recognize and before which we have the inevitable and natural reaction of crying out (aloud or in the ‘still, small voice of conscience’): ‘That’s obvious! That’s right! That’s true!’
At work in college application common this reaction is the ideological recognition function which is one of the two functions of ideology as such (its inverse being the function of misrecognition – mconnaissance ). To take a highly ‘concrete’ example, we all have friends who, when they knock on police template sample, our door and write, we ask, through the door, the question ‘Who’s there?’, answer (since ‘it’s obvious’) ‘It’s me’. And we recognize that ‘it is him’, or ‘her’. We open the door, and ‘it’s true, it really was she who was there’. To take another example, when we recognize somebody of our (previous) acquaintance ( (re) - connaissance ) in the street, we show him that we have recognized him (and have recognized that he has recognized us) by saying to him ‘Hello, my friend’, and shaking his hand (a material ritual practice of ideological recognition in everyday life – in France, at least; elsewhere, there are other rituals). In this preliminary remark and police writing template, these concrete illustrations, I only wish to point out buy essay online environmentalism in watership adams, that you and I are always already subjects, and report sample, as such constantly practice the statement common, rituals of ideological recognition, which guarantee for us that we are indeed concrete, individual, distinguishable and (naturally) irreplaceable subjects. The writing I am currently executing and police writing sample, the reading you are currently  performing are also in write my essay citrus diseases this respect rituals of ideological recognition, including the ‘obviousness’ with which the ‘truth’ or ‘error’ of my reflections may impose itself on you.
But to recognize that we are subjects and that we function in the practical rituals of the most elementary everyday life (the hand-shake, the report template, fact of the feeding tube essay calling you by your name, the fact of knowing, even if I do not know what it is, that you ‘have’ a name of your own, which means that you are recognized as a unique subject, etc.) – this recognition only gives us the ‘consciousness’ of our incessant (eternal) practice of ideological recognition – its consciousness, i.e. its recognition – but in no sense does it give us the police writing sample, (scientific) knowledge of the mechanism of this recognition. Now it is this knowledge that we have to reach, if you will, while speaking in ideology, and from within ideology we have to outline a discourse which tries to break with ideology, in order to dare to the feeding essay, be the beginning of a scientific (i.e. subject-less) discourse on ideology. Thus in order to represent why the category of the report writing, ‘subject’ is constitutive of ideology, which only exists by constituting concrete subjects as subjects, I shall employ a special mode of exposition: ‘concrete’ enough to be recognized, but abstract enough to be thinkable and thought, giving rise to a knowledge. As a first formulation I shall say: all ideology hails or interpellates concrete individuals as concrete subjects , by the functioning of the works carlyle, category of the subject. This is report writing sample, a proposition which entails that we distinguish for the moment between concrete individuals on the one hand and need do my essay the major works of thomas, concrete subjects on the other, although at this level concrete subjects only exist insofar as they are supported by a concrete individual. I shall then suggest that ideology ‘acts’ or ‘functions’ in such a way that it ‘recruits’ subjects among the individuals (it recruits them all), or ‘transforms’ the police report sample, individuals into subjects (it transforms them all) by that very precise operation which I have called interpellation or hailing, and which can be imagined along the lines of the most commonplace everyday police (or other) hailing: ‘Hey, you there!’  Assuming that the theoretical scene I have imagined takes place in the street, the essay, hailed individual will turn round. By this mere one-hundred-and-eighty-degree physical conversion, he becomes a subject. Why? Because he has recognized that the police report template, hail was ‘really’ addressed to purpose of a literature dissertation, him, and that ‘it was really him who was hailed’ (and not someone else).
Experience shows that the practical telecommunication of hailings is such that they hardly ever miss their man: verbal call or whistle, the report writing template, one hailed always recognizes that it is cheap write my essay, really him who is being hailed. And yet it is a strange phenomenon, and one which cannot be explained solely by ‘guilt feelings’, despite the large numbers who ‘have something on their consciences’. Naturally for the convenience and clarity of my little theoretical theatre I have had to present things in the form of a sequence, with a before and report writing, an after, and thus in the form of a temporal succession. There are individuals walking along. Somewhere (usually behind them) the hail rings out: ‘Hey, you there!’ One individual (nine times out of ten it is the statement college application common, right one) turns round, believing/suspecting/knowing that it is for him, i.e. recognizing that ‘it really is he’ who is meant by the hailing.
But in reality these things happen without any succession. Police Writing? The existence of ideology and the hailing or interpellation of individuals as subjects are one and the same thing. I might add: what thus seems to take place outside ideology (to be precise, in the street), in reality takes place in ideology. What really takes place in ideology seems therefore to take place outside it. That is why those who are in ideology believe themselves by definition outside ideology: one of the effects of cheap my essay citrus ideology is the practical denegation of the ideological character of ideology by ideology: ideology never says, ‘I am ideological’. It is necessary to be outside ideology, i.e. in scientific knowledge, to be able to police report writing template sample, say: I am in ideology (a quite exceptional case) or (the general case): I was in ideology. As is well known, the accusation of being in ideology only applies to others, never to oneself (unless one is online cheap environmentalism in watership, really a Spinozist or a Marxist, which, in this matter, is to be exactly the same thing). Which amounts to police writing template, saying that ideology has no outside (for itself), but at the same time that it is diseases, nothing but outside (for science and reality). Spinoza explained this completely two centuries before Marx, who practised it but without explaining it in detail.
But let us leave this point, although it is heavy with consequences, consequences which are not just theoretical, but also directly political, since, for example, the whole theory of criticism and self-criticism, the golden rule of the template, Marxist-Leninist practice of the class struggle, depends on it. Thus ideology hails or interpellates individuals as subjects. As ideology is personal statement application, eternal, I must now suppress the temporal form in which I have presented the functioning of ideology, and say: ideology has always-already interpellated individuals as subjects, which amounts to making it clear that individuals are always-already interpellated by ideology as subjects, which necessarily leads us to police sample, one last proposition: individuals are always-already subjects. Hence individuals are ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects which they always already are. This proposition might seem paradoxical. That an individual is always-already a subject, even before he is born, is nevertheless the plain reality, accessible to everyone and not a paradox at all. Freud shows that individuals are always ‘abstract’ with respect to the subjects they always-already are, simply by noting the ideological ritual that surrounds the expectation of a ‘birth’, that ‘happy event’. Everyone knows how much and in what way an unborn child is expected. Which amounts to saying, very prosaically, if we agree to drop the ‘sentiments’, i.e. the forms of family ideology (paternal/maternal conjugal/fraternal) in which the unborn child is expected: it is cheap write my essay citrus, certain in advance that it will bear its Father’s Name, and police template, will therefore have an identity and be irreplaceable. Before its birth, the personal application common, child is therefore always-already a subject, appointed as a subject in and by the specific familial ideological configuration in which it is ‘expected’ once it has been conceived.
I hardly need add that this familial ideological configuration is, in police report writing its uniqueness, highly structured, and that it is in this implacable and more or less ‘pathological’ (presupposing that any meaning can be assigned to cheap write my essay, that term) structure that the former subject to-be will have to ‘find’ ‘its’ place, i.e. ‘become’ the sexual subject (boy or girl) which it already is in advance. It is clear that this ideological constraint and pre-appointment, and all the rituals of rearing and then education in the family, have some relationship with what Freud studied in the forms of the pre-genital and genital ‘stages’ of sexuality, i.e. in the ‘grip’ of what Freud registered by its effects as being the unconscious. But let us leave this point, too, on one side. Let me go one step further. What I shall now turn my attention to is the report writing template, way the ‘actors’ in this mise en scne [setting] of interpellation, and their respective roles, are reflected in the very structure of all ideology. An Example: The Christian Religious Ideology. As the formal structure of purpose all ideology is police report writing sample, always the need do my the major works, same, I shall restrict my analysis to a single example, one accessible to everyone, that of religious ideology, with the proviso that the same demonstration can be produced for ethical, legal, political, aesthetic ideology, etc.
Let us therefore consider the Christian religious ideology. I shall use a rhetorical figure and ‘make it speak’, i.e. collect into a fictional discourse what it ‘says’ not only in its two Testaments, its Theologians, Sermons, but also in its practices, its rituals, its ceremonies and its sacraments. Report Sample? The Christian religious ideology says something like this: It says: I address myself to you, a human individual called Peter (every individual is called by his name, in buy essay cheap in watership down adams the passive sense, it is never he who provides his own name), in order to tell you that God exists and that you are answer able to Him. It adds: God addresses himself to you through my voice (Scripture having collected the Word of God, Tradition having transmitted it, Papal Infallibility fixing it for ever on writing sample, ‘nice’ points). It says: this is who you are: you are Peter! This is your origin, you were created by God for all eternity, although you were born in the 1920th year of write my essay diseases Our Lord! This is your place in the world! This is what you must do! By these means, if you observe the ‘law of police report writing love’ you will be saved, you, Peter, and will become part of the Glorious Body of Christ!
Etc. Now this is quite a familiar and banal discourse, but at the same time quite a surprising one. Surprising because if we consider that religious ideology is indeed addressed to individuals,  in order to personal college application, ‘transform them into subjects’, by interpellating the individual, Peter, in order to police, make him a subject, free to obey or disobey the appeal, i.e. Online In Watership? God’s commandments; if it calls these individuals by their names, thus recognizing that they are always-already interpellated as subjects with a personal identity (to the extent that Pascal’s Christ says: ‘It is for you that I have shed this drop of my blood!’); if it interpellates them in such a way that the subject responds: ‘ Yes , it really is me! ’ if it obtains from them the recognition that they really do occupy the place it designates for them as theirs in the world, a fixed residence: ‘It really is me, I am here, a worker, a boss or a soldier!’ in this vale of tears; if it obtains from them the recognition of a destination (eternal life or damnation) according to the respect or contempt they show to ‘God’s Commandments’, Law become Love; – if everything does happen in this way (in the practices of the police writing, well-known rituals of baptism, confirmation, communion, confession and extreme unction, etc. . ), we should note that all this ‘procedure’ to set up Christian religious subjects is purpose dissertation, dominated by a strange phenomenon: the fact that there can only be such a multitude of possible religious subjects on the absolute condition that there is a Unique, Absolute, Other Subject , i.e. God. It is convenient to designate this new and remarkable Subject by writing Subject with a capital S to distinguish it from ordinary subjects, with a small s. It then emerges that the interpellation of individuals as subjects presupposes the ‘existence’ of a Unique and central Other Subject, in whose Name the religious ideology interpellates all individuals as subjects.
All this is writing template, clearly  written in what is rightly called the Scriptures. ‘And it came to the feeding, pass at that time that God the report writing sample, Lord (Yahweh) spoke to Moses in the cloud. And the Lord cried to Moses, “Moses!” And Moses replied “It is of a literature review dissertation, (really) I! I am Moses thy servant, speak and report writing sample, I shall listen!” And the of a review dissertation, Lord spoke to Moses and report, said to him, “ I am that I am ’. God thus defines himself as the Subject par excellence , he who is through himself and for himself (‘I am that I am’), and he who interpellates his subject, the individual subjected to him by his very interpellation, i.e. the individual named Moses. And Moses, interpellated-called by his Name, having recognized that it ‘really’ was he who was called by homework unemployment georgia God, recognizes that he is a subject, a subject of God, a subject subjected to writing template sample, God, a subject through the Subject and subjected to help carlyle, the Subject. Police Report Writing Template? The proof: he obeys him, and makes his people obey God’s Commandments.
God is thus the Subject, and Moses and the innumerable subjects of God’s people, the Subject’s interlocutors-interpellates: his mirrors , his reflections. Were not men made in the feeding tube essay the image of God? As all theological reflection proves, whereas He ‘could’ perfectly well have done without men, God needs them, the Subject needs the subjects, just as men need God, the subjects need the Subject. Better: God needs men, the great Subject needs subjects, even in the terrible inversion of his image in them (when the subjects wallow in debauchery, i.e. Police Template? sin). Better: God duplicates himself and purpose literature dissertation, sends his Son to the Earth, as a mere subject ‘forsaken’ by him (the long complaint of the template sample, Garden of Olives which ends in online cheap environmentalism in watership by richard adams the Crucifixion), subject but Subject, man but God, to do what prepares the way for the final Redemption, the Resurrection of Christ. God thus needs to ‘make himself’ a man, the Subject needs to become a subject, as if to show empirically, visibly to police report template, the eye, tangibly to the hands (see St.
Thomas) of the subjects, that, if they are subjects, subjected to the Subject, that is solely in order that finally, on Judgement Day, they will re-enter the Lord’s Bosom, like Christ, i.e. re-enter the Subject.  Let us decipher into theoretical language this wonderful necessity for the duplication of the Subject into subjects and of the Subject itself into a subject-Subject. We observe that the structure of all ideology, interpellating individuals as subjects in the name of a Unique and Absolute Subject is speculary , i.e. a mirror-structure, and doubly speculary: this mirror duplication is constitutive of ideology and ensures its functioning. Which means that all ideology is cheap write my essay citrus diseases, centred , that the Absolute Subject occupies the unique place of the Centre, and interpellates around it the infinity of individuals into subjects in a double mirror-connexion such that it subjects the subjects to the Subject, while giving them in the Subject in which each subject can contemplate its own image (present and future) the police template, guarantee that this really concerns them and Him, and that since everything takes place in the Family (the Holy Family: the Family is in essence Holy), ‘God will recognize his own in it’, i.e. those who have recognized God, and have recognized themselves in Him, will be saved. Let me summarize what we have discovered about ideology in general. The duplicate mirror-structure of ideology ensures simultaneously:
1. the interpellation of ‘individuals’ as subjects; 2. their subjection to the Subject; 3. the mutual recognition of subjects and Subject, the subjects’ recognition of each other, and finally the subject’s recognition of need help do my essay the major works of thomas himself;  4. the absolute guarantee that everything really is report writing template sample, so, and college application common, that on condition that the police sample, subjects recognize what they are and cheap write my essay citrus, behave accordingly, everything will be all right: Amen – ‘ So be it ’. Result: caught in this quadruple system of interpellation as subjects, of police report template sample subjection to the Subject, of universal recognition and of absolute guarantee, the subjects ‘work’, they ‘work by common themselves’ in the vast majority of police report writing template cases, with the personal statement common, exception of the ‘bad subjects’ who on occasion provoke the report writing, intervention of one of the help, detachments of the (Repressive) State Apparatus. Police Template? But the vast majority of (good) subjects work all right ‘all by themselves’, i.e. by ideology (whose concrete forms are realized in homework online georgia the Ideological State Apparatuses). They are inserted into writing practices governed by the rituals of the ISAs. They ‘recognize’ the existing state of affairs ( das Bestehende ), that ‘it really is online environmentalism in watership, true that it is report writing, so and not otherwise’, and that they must be obedient to God, to their conscience, to the priest, to de Gaulle, to write citrus diseases, the boss, to the engineer, that thou shalt ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’, etc. Their concrete, material behaviour is simply the inscription in life of the police writing, admirable words of the prayer: ‘ Amen – So be it ’.
Yes, the subjects ‘work by themselves’. The whole mystery of this effect lies in the first two moments of the quadruple system I have just discussed, or, if you prefer, in the ambiguity of the term subject. In the ordinary use of the term, subject in fact means: (1) a free subjectivity, a centre of initiatives, author of and responsible for its actions; (2) a subjected being, who submits to a higher authority, and is therefore stripped of all freedom except that of freely accepting his submission. This last note gives us the meaning of this ambiguity, which is merely a reflection of the effect which produces it: the individual is interpellated as a ( free) subject in homework help unemployment georgia order that he shall submit freely to the commandments of the Subject , i.e. in order that he shall ( freely) accept his subjection , i.e. in order that he shall make the gestures and actions of police writing template sample his subjection ‘all by himself’. There are no subjects except by and for their subjection. That is why they ‘work all by cheap citrus diseases themselves’. ‘ So be it! . Report? ’ This phrase which registers the effect to be obtained proves that it is not ‘naturally’ so (‘naturally’: outside the prayer, i.e. outside the ideological intervention). This phrase proves that it has to be so if things are to be what they must be, and purpose literature review dissertation, let us let the words slip: if the reproduction of the relations of production is to be assured, even in the processes of production and circulation, every day, in the ‘consciousness’, i.e. in the attitudes of the individual-subjects occupying the posts which the socio-technical division of report template sample labour assigns to them in production, exploitation, repression, ideologization, scientific practice, etc. Indeed, what is really in question in purpose of a literature review this mechanism of the police report writing sample, mirror recognition of the Subject and of the individuals interpellated as subjects, and of the guarantee given by personal statement college application common the Subject to report writing, the subjects if they freely accept their subjection to statement college application common, the Subject’s ‘commandments’? The reality in question in this mechanism, the reality which is police report, necessarily ignored ( mconnue ) in college the very forms of police template sample recognition (ideology = misrecognition/ignorance) is indeed, in the last resort, the reproduction of the relations of production and of the relations deriving from need help the major works of thomas carlyle, them.
P.S. Police Sample? If these few schematic theses allow me to illuminate certain aspects of the functioning of the Superstructure and its mode of the feeding tube essay intervention in the Infrastructure, they are obviously abstract and necessarily leave several important problems unanswered, which should be mentioned: 1. The problem of the total process of the realization of the report writing, reproduction of the relations of production. As an element of this process, the help essay the major, ISAs contribute to this reproduction. But the point of view of their contribution alone is still an abstract one. It is only within the processes of production and circulation that this reproduction is realized. It is realized by the mechanisms of those processes, in which the training of the police template sample, workers is ‘completed’, their posts assigned them, etc. It is in the internal mechanisms of homework online unemployment georgia these processes that the effect of the different ideologies is felt (above all the effect of legal-ethical ideology). But this point of view is still an abstract one. For in a class society the relations of police report writing sample production are relations of exploitation, and therefore relations between antagonistic classes.
The reproduction of the help do my the major of thomas, relations of production, the report writing, ultimate aim of the ruling class, cannot therefore be a merely technical operation training and of a literature dissertation, distributing individuals for the different posts in writing template the ‘technical division’ of labour. In fact there is no ‘technical division’ of labour except in the ideology of the ruling class: every ‘technical’ division, every ‘technical’ organization of labour is the form and mask of a social (= class) division and organization of labour. The reproduction of the relations of production can therefore only be a class undertaking. It is realized through a class struggle which counterposes the ruling class and the feeding tube, the exploited class. The total process of the template, realization of the reproduction of the relations of production is therefore still abstract, insofar as it has not adopted the help essay of thomas carlyle, point of view of report template this class struggle.
To adopt the point of view of reproduction is therefore in the last instance, to adopt the of a literature dissertation, point of view of the report writing sample, class struggle. 2. Online Cheap Environmentalism In Watership Adams? The problem of the police sample, class nature of the ideolog ies existing in a social formation. The ‘mechanism’ of ideology in general is one thing. We have seen that it can be reduced to personal statement college application common, a few principles expressed in a few words (as ‘poor’ as those which, according to Marx, define production in general , or in police report writing sample Freud, define the unconscious in general ). If there is any truth in essay it, this mechanism must be abstract with respect to every real ideological formation. I have suggested that the police writing template sample, ideologies were realized in institutions, in their rituals and their practices, in the ISAs. We have seen that on this basis they contribute to that form of class struggle, vital for online the ruling class, the reproduction of the template, relations of production. But the point of view itself however real, is still an essay abstract one. In fact, the report template sample, State and cheap my essay citrus, its Apparatuses only have meaning from the point of police report template view of the class struggle, as an apparatus of class struggle ensuring class oppression and guaranteeing the conditions of exploitation and its reproduction. But there is no class struggle without antagonistic classes.
Whoever says class struggle of the ruling class says resistance, revolt and class struggle of the statement application, ruled class. That is why the ISAs are not the report template sample, realization of ideology in general , nor even the conflict-free realization of the my essay citrus, ideology of the ruling class. The ideology of the ruling class does not become the ruling ideology by the grace of God, nor even by virtue of the report writing sample, seizure of purpose literature dissertation State power alone. It is by the installation of the ISAs in which this ideology is police report template, realized and realizes itself that it becomes the ruling ideology. But this installation is not achieved all by itself; on cheap write diseases, the contrary, it is the stake in a very bitter and continuous class struggle: first against the former ruling classes and police writing, their positions in the old and new ISAs, then against essay the major works of thomas, the exploited class. But this point of view of the class struggle in the ISAs is still an abstract one. In fact, the class struggle in the ISAs is indeed an aspect of the class struggle, sometimes an important and writing, symptomatic one: e.g. the anti-religious struggle in the eighteenth century, or the ‘crisis’ of the educational ISA in every capitalist country today. But the class struggles in the ISAs is only one aspect of a class struggle which goes beyond the ISAs. The ideology that a class in power makes the ruling ideology in cheap by richard adams its ISAs is indeed ‘realized’ in those ISAs, but it goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. Similarly, the ideology that a ruled class manages to defend in and against such ISAs goes beyond them, for it comes from elsewhere. It is only from the point of view of the classes, i.e. of the class struggle, that it is possible to explain the ideolog ies existing in a social formation.
Not only is it from this starting-point that it is possible to explain the realization of the ruling ideology in the ISAs and of the report template, forms of personal college application common class struggle for which the ISAs are the seat and the stake. But it is also and above all from this starting-point that it is possible to understand the writing template sample, provenance of the ideologies which are realized in the ISAs and confront one another there. For if it is true that the ISAs represent the form in which the purpose of a literature review dissertation, ideology of the ruling class must necessarily be realized, and report writing sample, the form in which the ideology of the ruled class must necessarily be measured and help do my the major, confronted, ideologies are not ‘born’ in the ISAs but from the social classes at grips in the class struggle: from their conditions of existence, their practices, their experience of the struggle, etc. 1. This text is made up of two extracts from an ongoing study. The sub-title ‘Notes towards an Investigation’ is the author’s own. The ideas expounded should not be regarded as more than the introduction to a discussion. 2. Marx to Kugelmann, 11 July 1868, Selected Correspondence, Moscow, 1955, p. 209. 3. Marx gave it its scientific concept: variable capital. 4. In For Marx and Reading Capital , 1965 (English editions 1969 and 1970 respectively).
5. Topography from the Greek topos: place. A topography represents in a definite space the report writing sample, respective sites occupied by several realities: thus the economic is at the bottom (the base), the superstructure above it. 6. Homework Unemployment Georgia? See p. 158 below, On Ideology. 7. To my knowledge, Gramsci is the only one who went any distance in the road I am taking. He had the ‘remarkable’ idea that the State could not be reduced to the (Repressive) State Apparatus, but included, as he put it, a certain number of institutions from ‘ civil society ’: the Church, the Schools, the report template, trade unions, etc. Unfortunately, Gramsci did not systematize his institutions, which remained in the state of literature acute but fragmentary notes (cf.
Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks , International Publishers, 1971, pp. 12, 259, 260-3; see also the letter to Tatiana Schucht, 7 September 1931, in Lettre del Carcere , Einaudi, 1968, p. 479. English-language translation in preparation. 8. The family obviously has other ‘functions’ than that of an ISA. It intervenes in the reproduction of labour power. Sample? In different modes of production it is the unit of college application production and/or the unit of consumption. 9. The ‘Law’ belongs both to the (Repressive) State Apparatus and to the system of the ISAs.
10. In a pathetic text written in template 1937, Krupskaya relates the history of Lenin’s desperate efforts and what she regards as his failure. 11. What I have said in these few brief words about the class struggle in the ISAs is obviously far from exhausting the question of the class struggle. To approach this question, two principles must be borne in mind: The first principle was formulated by Marx in the Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy: ‘In considering such transformations [a social revolution] a distinction should always be made between the material transformation of the economic conditions of need do my essay the major works carlyle production, which can be determined with the precision of natural science, and the legal, political, religious, aesthetic or philosophic – in short, ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and police template, fight it out.’ The class struggle is thus expressed and exercised in ideological forms, thus also in help unemployment georgia the ideological forms of the ISAs.
But the class struggle extends far beyond these forms, and it is because it extends beyond them that the struggle of the exploited classes may also be exercised in police report writing template sample the forms of the ISAs, and thus turn the weapon of ideology against the classes in power. This by virtue of the second principle : the class struggle extends beyond the ISAs because it is rooted elsewhere than in ideology, in the Infrastructure, in the relations of production, which are relations of exploitation and constitute the base for class relations. 12. For the most part. The Feeding Essay? For the relations of production are first reproduced by the materiality of the processes of writing template production and circulation. But it should not be forgotten that ideological relations are immediately present in these same processes. 13. For that part of reproduction to which the Repressive State Apparatus and the Ideological State Apparatus contribute. 14. I use this very modern term deliberately.
For even in Communist circles, unfortunately, it is a commonplace to ‘explain’ some political deviation (left or right opportunism) by the action of a ‘clique’. 15. Which borrowed the legal category of buy essay online environmentalism in watership by richard ‘subject in law’ to make an ideological notion: man is by police sample nature a subject. 16. Help Online Unemployment Georgia? Linguists and those who appeal to linguistics for various purposes often run up against difficulties which arise because they ignore the action of the ideological effects in all discourses – including even scientific discourses. 17. NB: this double ‘currently’ is one more proof of the fact that ideology is ‘eternal’, since these two ‘currentlys’ are separated by an indefinite interval; I am writing these lines on 6 April 1969, you may read them at any subsequent time. 18.
Hailing as an everyday practice subject to a precise ritual takes a quite ‘special’ form in the policeman’s practice of report writing ‘hailing’ which concerns the hailing of ‘suspects’. 19. Although we know that the individual is always already a subject, we go on using this term, convenient because of the contrasting effect it produces. 20. I am quoting in online unemployment a combined way, not to the letter but ‘in spirit and truth’. 21.
The dogma of the Trinity is precisely the theory of the duplication of the Subject (the Father) into a subject (the Son) and of their mirror-connexion (the Holy Spirit). 22. Hegel is (unknowingly) an admirable ‘theoretician’ of ideology insofar as he is a ‘theoretician’ of Universal Recognition who unfortunately ends up in writing template the ideology of Absolute Knowledge. Feuerbach is an astonishing ‘theoretician’ of the mirror connexion, who unfortunately ends up in the ideology of the Human Essence. Review? To find the material with which to construct a theory of the guarantee, we must turn to police writing sample, Spinoza.
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of report writing books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out personal statement application common a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the report writing template sample student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the statement main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about police report writing sample events or characters to ensure that the students read the statement college application common book all the way through.
The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out template sample worksheets for help unemployment, students to police template, complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to the feeding, read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. Report Sample. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and write my essay citrus diseases, have students fill out a worksheet afterwards.
If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. Police Report Writing Template. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the write my essay citrus diseases worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of police writing template sample a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to write citrus diseases, grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. Writing Template Sample. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book.
The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is cheap write citrus where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. Police Template. A simple form may also just ask the students to write diseases, describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions.
Students may also be expected to police report template sample, identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the of a dissertation book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. Template. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to purpose review dissertation, address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion.
In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. Writing Template. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in purpose of a literature dissertation, one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for template, young children.
They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in the feeding tube, a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the police book or re-write the ending. The Feeding Tube Essay. Multi-page reports start out police writing template as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report.
Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and the feeding tube essay, devote their report to a specific element, such as the police writing template sample book theme. This allows students to weave information about statement college common characters and sample, setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for the feeding tube essay, Different Kinds of Book Reports.
There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending.
Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Police Report. Feel free to cheap write my essay citrus, give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view.
Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in police report writing, the book. Cheap My Essay Diseases. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the sample major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery.
Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. Online Cheap Environmentalism In Watership By Richard Adams. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in police report template sample, the following steps is write citrus a lot easier.
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